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Fuel

National Museum of the American Indian

Fuel

National Museum of the American Indian

Fuel

National Museum of the American Indian

Fuel

National Museum of the American Indian

Fuel

National Museum of the American Indian

fuel charcoal

National Museum of American History

can, fuel

National Museum of American History

fuel charcoal

National Museum of American History

fuel receptacle

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Fuel Wood Samples

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
"POPULAR EUPHRATICA" USED IN UPDRAFT OF KILN FOR GLAZED WARE.

tracing, fuel feed

National Museum of American History

Static Fuel

Smithsonian American Art Museum

Fuel Gauge

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

fireplace fuel sample

National Museum of American History

Diesel Engine Fuel Pump

National Museum of American History

fuel drip valve, patented

National Museum of American History

Allis-Chalmers Fuel Cell Tractor

National Museum of American History
In its search to develop electric power through chemical reactions, Allis-Chalmers in 1951 began research on fuel cells. In October 1959 near West Allis, Wisconsin, this fuel cell tractor plowed a field of alfalfa with a double-bottom plow. Fuel cells produce electrical power directly through a chemical reaction, without heat, smoke, or noise. Unlike standard batteries, fuel cells do not store energy but convert chemical energy to electric energy.

This tractor has 1,008 fuel cells joined in 112 units of 9 cells each arranged in four banks that produced power to run a standard Allis-Chalmers 20 horsepower dc motor. Using a fuel cell to produce power was not a new idea in the 1950s. Over a century earlier, Sir William Grove originated the idea of a fuel cell that would run on hydrogen and oxygen. Over the years inventors experimented with a number of fuels and configurations. The search for an efficient and economical fuel cell unit continues.

Fuel for Change

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
Teacher-created lesson in which students design a new fuel type, thinking critically about environmental and social impact.

CP-1 Fuel Cube

National Museum of American History

Fuel Cell, Gemini

National Air and Space Museum
This fuel cell is a simulator version of the electric-power generating device used on the two-astronaut Gemini spacecraft during seven missions in 1965-66. A fuel cell is like a battery, in that it uses a chemical reaction to create an electrical current. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell will continue to generate a current as long as the reactants are supplied. The Gemini fuel cell used liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen to generate electricity, with water as a byproduct. Oxygen and hydrogen molecules reacted and combined across a "proton exchange membrane," a thin permeable polymer sheet coated with a platinum catalyst.

The Gemini program pioneered the use of fuel cells in space, and this technology was subsequently used in the Apollo Service Module and the Space Shuttle Orbiter. General Electric, the manufacturer of Gemini fuel cells, gave this artifact to the Smithsonian in 1971.

Fuel Cell, Apollo

National Air and Space Museum
The Apollo Command Module's primary source of electric power was from a set of three "fuel cells" housed in the Service Module. Each fuel cell combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and water. The water was used for drinking by the astronaut crew. Each of the fuel cell power plants contain 31 separate cells connected in series. Each cell has hydrogen and an oxygen compartments and electrodes, which in combination produce 27 to 31 volts. Normal power output for each power plant is 563 to 1420 watts, with a maximum of 2300 watts.

This particular fuel cell was installed in Service Module (SM) 102 during ground testing and operations conducted at the module's North American Aviation manufacturing site in California. It was transferred to the Smithsonian in September 1972. SM-102 was not flown.

Indicator, Fuel Quantity

National Air and Space Museum
Fuel Quantity indicator with white porcelain face with black and yellow figures.

From tag: Fuel quantity gauge complete with float; string on float operates pointer in indicator; appropriately called clock type

Fuel Cell, Apollo

National Air and Space Museum
The Apollo Command Module primary source of electric power was from a set of three "fuel cells" housed in the Service Module. Each fuel cell combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and water. The water was used for drinking by the astronaut crew. Each of the fuel cell power plants generates 27 to 31 volts. Normal power output for each power plant is 563 to 1420 watts, with a maximum of 2300 watts.

This particular fuel cell was intended for use in the Apollo Service Module 115/115A, which was schedule for use during the Skylab Program. SM115 was never flown. The unused Fuel Cell was offered to the Smithsonian in 1977 and transferred on April 1978 and immediately loaned to the Oklahoma Center for Science and Arts in Oklahoma City for display.

Fuel Cell, Apollo

National Air and Space Museum
The Apollo Command Module primary source of electric power was from a set of three "fuel cells" housed in the Service Module. Each fuel cell combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and water. The water was used for drinking by the astronaut crew. Each of the fuel cell power plants contain 31 separate cells connected in series. Each cell has hydrogen and an oxygen compartments and electrodes and in combination produces 27 to 31 volts. Normal power output for each power plant is 563 to 1420 watts, with a maximum of 2300 watts.

This particular fuel cell, made by United Aircraft Corporation, was intended for use in the Apollo Service Module 115/115A, which was schedule for use during the Skylab Program. SM115 was never flown and these unused fuel cells were offered to the Smithsonian in 1977.
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