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de Bijenkorf Department Store, Rotterdam, Holland

Archives of American Art
1 photographic print on album page : b&w ; 23 x 16 cm., on page 40 x 33 cm.

typed on verso: Please return to Marcel Breuer & Associates Architects 201 East 57th Street New York 22 deBinjenkorf Department Store Rotterdam, Holland - 1953 View of East and South facade and Gabo Sculpture Marcel Breuer and A. Elzas, Architects Daniel Schwartzman, Consultant Photographer: Spies Amsterdam, Holland 25573

Wormia alata Banks ex DC.

NMNH - Botany Dept.

Why the Dutch Government Wants You to Stop Referring to the Netherlands as 'Holland'

Smithsonian Magazine

Though it refers to a limited geographic region within the Netherlands, “Holland” has become an oft-used shorthand for the whole of the country. Now, officials hope to shed this nickname. As Cecilia Rodriguez reports for Forbes, the Dutch government plans to replace “Holland” with “the Netherlands” as part of an effort to redirect hordes of tourists to other parts of the country.

Beginning in the new year, the name “Holland” will be dropped from official promotional and marketing materials. Companies, universities, government ministries and embassies will be expected to use the Netherlands’ proper title, writes Eben Diskin for the Matador Network. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has also unveiled a new logo for the country: Instead of an orange tulip and the word “Holland,” the upgraded logo features the symbols “NL” and a “stylized” orange tulip.

“The new style is the result of a strategy developed to more clearly show what the Netherlands has to offer to the world,” a press release notes.

Of the Netherlands’ 12 provinces, just two are technically called Holland. There is North Holland, where Amsterdam is located, and South Holland, home to other tourist hubs like Rotterdam and the Hague. The region has been divided since 1840.

By the 17th century, the historical region of Holland had become the preeminent power of the Dutch Republic, with Amsterdam emerging as Europe’s dominant commercial center.

“Because of this predominance, both the Republic and the present Kingdom of the Netherlands are often called ‘Holland,’” according to Encyclopedia Britannica.

But the Dutch government wants visitors to know there is more to the country than its two most famous provincesparticularly as officials have been struggling to deal with an influx of tourists to certain hotspots. 19 million tourists visited Amsterdam, home to less than one million people, last year. And in South Holland’s “Bollenstreek,” or “Bulb Region,” tulip farmers have been battling throngs of visitors who trample the country’s iconic flowers in pursuit of the perfect photograph. Kinderdijk, a windmill-filled village also located in South Holland, is also being choked by tourists.

With the number of visitors projected to keep rising—Amsterdam Mayor Femke Halsema expects 29 million tourists by 2025, according to Deutsche Welle—the Netherlands tourist board has decided to shift its focus from promotion to crowd control.

“We say that ‘more’ is not always better, certainly not everywhere,” a tourist board policy document quoted by the Guardian’s Daniel Boffey states. “To be able to control visitor flows, we must take action now. Instead of destination promotion it’s time for destination management.”

Raising Amsterdam’s tourist tax and shutting down official tourism offices in Italy, Spain and Japan are two of the ways officials hope to curb the stream of tourists. Investing €200,00 (around $222,000 USD) in rebranding the country’s international image is another. Shifting attention from Holland to the Netherlands as a whole is an important part of the strategy, particularly as the country prepares to host high-profile events like the Eurovision Song Contest and the UEFA Euro 2020 soccer tournament.

It is, after all, “a little strange,” a spokesperson for the Foreign Ministry tells the news agency EFE, “to promote only a small part of the Netherlands abroad.”

The White House Was, in Fact, Built by Slaves

Smithsonian Magazine

When First Lady Michelle Obama took the stage during the first night of the Democratic National Convention, she talked about how it felt to be a black woman waking up in the White House every morning—a building constructed with slave labor. It was a powerful moment in her speech, hearkening back to the generations of African-Americans forced into bondage in this country. Up until a few decades ago, little attention was paid to looking into who actually laid the foundations and put up the walls of the White House. But what documentation exists today shows that many of Washington, D.C.’s most iconic government buildings, including the White House, were built by slaves.

In 2005, Congress put together a task force to shed light on the subject. After months of research, the commission announced that while it would never be able to tell the full story of the slaves who built these buildings, there was no doubt that they were intricately involved in the work, Alexander Lane reported for PolitiFact.

“Indifference by earlier historians, poor record keeping, and the silence of the voiceless classes have impeded our ability in the twenty-first century to understand fully the contributions and privations of those who toiled over the seven decades from the first cornerstone laying to the day of emancipation in the District of Columbia,” Senate Historian Richard Baker and Chief of the House of Representatives Office of History and Preservation Kenneth Kato wrote in a foreword to the report.

From a geographical standpoint alone, it should come as no surprise that slave laborers were used to build the nation’s capital. Washington, D.C., was built on landed ceded to the federal government by Virginia and Maryland, and at the time the Potomac region was home to almost half of the country’s 750,000 slaves, Lane reports.

While the White House Historical Association reports that the D.C. commissioners originally tried to bring cheap workers over from Europe to build the new capital, their recruitment efforts fell short. As a result, they forced local slaves to provide the labor, often renting workers from their masters for year-long periods of time.

“Slaves were likely involved in all aspects of construction, including carpentry, masonry, carting, rafting, plastering, glazing and painting, the task force reported,” Lane writes. “And slaves appear to have shouldered alone the grueling work of sawing logs and stones.”

The payroll to slaveowners shows that the government did not own slaves, but that it did hire them from their masters. Slave carpenters Ben, Daniel, and Peter were noted as owned by James Hoban. (National Archives and Records Administration)

In addition to constructing the buildings, slaves also worked the quarries where the stones for the government buildings came from. Ironically, the Statue of Freedom that sits atop the Capitol dome was made with the help of Philip Reid, a man enslaved by sculptor Thomas Crawford, who was commissioned to build the statue. According to the Architect of the Capitol, Reid was paid $1.25 a day by the federal government for his contributions.

“There is no telling how many stories that have been lost because, as a country, we didn’t value these stories,” historian and reporter Jesse J. Holland tells Smithsonian.com. “We’re always learning more about the presidents as we go forward and we’ll also learn more about the people who cooked their meals and dressed them.”

The Great Balloon

National Air and Space Museum
Three passengers in the basket of the Vauxhall (Great Nasau) balloon. Piloted by Charles Green with Robert Holland and T. Monck Mason aboard. Robert Holland, an M.P. drew the sketch on which the print is based.

The Birth of Flight: NASM Collections

The invention of the balloon struck the men and women of the late 18th century like a thunderbolt. Enormous crowds gathered in Paris to watch one balloon after another rise above the city rooftops, carrying the first human beings into the air in the closing months of 1783.The excitement quickly spread to other European cities where the first generation of aeronauts demonstrated the wonder of flight. Everywhere the reaction was the same. In an age when men and women could fly, what other wonders might they achieve.

"Among all our circle of friends," one observer noted, "at all our meals, in the antechambers of our lovely women, as in the academic schools, all one hears is talk of experiments, atmospheric air, inflammable gas, flying cars, journeys in the sky." Single sheet prints illustrating the great events and personalities in the early history of ballooning were produced and sold across Europe. The balloon sparked new fashion trends and inspired new fads and products. Hair and clothing styles, jewelry, snuffboxes, wallpaper, chandeliers, bird cages, fans, clocks, chairs, armoires, hats, and other items, were designed with balloon motifs.

Thanks to the generosity of several generations of donors, the National Air and Space Museum maintains one of the world's great collections of objects and images documenting and celebrating the invention and early history of the balloon. Visitors to the NASM's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center at Dulles International Airport can see several display cases filled with the riches of this collection. We are pleased to provide visitors to our web site with access to an even broader range of images and objects from this period. We invite you to share at least a small taste of the excitement experienced by those who witness the birth of the air age.

Tom D. Crouch

Senior Curator, Aeronautics

National Air and Space Museum

Present at Creation:

The NASM Collection of Objects Related to Early Ballooning

The invention of the balloon struck the men and women of the late 18th century like a thunderbolt. The Montgolfier brothers, Joseph-Michel (August 26, 1740-June 26, 1810) and Jacques Etienne (January 6, 1745 - August 2, 1799), launched the air age when they flew a hot air balloon from the town square of Annonay, France, on June 4, 1783. Members of a family that had been manufacturing paper in the Ardèche region of France for generations, the Montgolfiers were inspired by recent discoveries relating to the composition of the atmosphere. Joseph led the way, building and flying his first small hot air balloons late in 1782, before enlisting his brother in the enterprise.

Impatient for the Montgolfiers to demonstrate their balloon in Paris, Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond, a pioneering geologist and member of the Académie Royale, sold tickets to a promised ascension and turned the money over to Jacques Alexandre-César Charles (1746-1823), a chemical experimenter whom he had selected to handle the design, construction and launch of a balloon. Charles flew the first small hydrogen balloon from the Champs de Mars, near the present site of the Eiffel Tower, on August 27, 1783. Not to be outdone, the Montgolfiers sent the first living creatures (a sheep, a duck and a rooster) aloft from Versailles on September 19.

Pilatre de Rozier, a scientific experimenter, and François Laurent, the marquis D'Arlandes, became the first human beings to make a free flight on November 21. Less than two weeks later, on December 1, 1783, J.A. C. Charles and M.N. Robert made the first free flight aboard a hydrogen balloon from the Jardin des Tuileries.

A wave of excitement swept across Paris as the gaily decorated balloons rose, one after another, over the skyline of the city. Throughout the summer and fall of 1783 the crowds gathering to witness the ascents grew ever larger. As many as 400,000 people - literally half of the population of Paris -- gathered in the narrow streets around the Château des Tuileries to watch Charles and Robert disappear into the heavens.

The wealthy and fashionable set purchased tickets of admission to the circular enclosure surrounding the launch site. Guards had a difficult time restraining the crush of citizens swarming the nearby streets, and crowding the Place de Louis XV (now the Place de la Concorde) and the garden walkways leading toward the balloon. People climbed walls and clambered out of windows onto roofs in search of good vantage points.

"It is impossible to describe that moment:" wrote one observer of a balloon launch, "the women in tears, the common people raising their hands to the sky in deep silence; the passengers leaning out of the gallery, waving and crying out in joy… the feeling of fright gives way to wonder." One group of spectators greeted a party of returning aeronauts with the question: "Are you men or Gods?" In an age when human beings could fly, what other wonders might the future hold?

The balloons had an enormous social impact. The huge, seething crowds were something new under the sun. The spectators who gathered in such huge numbers were just becoming accustomed to the idea of change. The old certainties of their grandparent's world were giving way to an expectation that the twin enterprises of science and technology would provide the foundation for "progress."

The balloons sparked new fashion trends and inspired new fads and products. Hair and clothing styles, jewelry, snuffboxes, wallpaper, chandeliers, bird cages, fans, clocks, chairs, armoires, hats, and other items, were designed with balloon motifs. Party guests sipped Créme de l' Aérostatique liqueur and danced the Contredanse de Gonesse in honor of the Charles globe.

The Americans who were living in Paris to negotiate a successful conclusion to the American revolution were especially fascinated by the balloons. It seemed only fitting that, at a time when their countrymen were launching a new nation, human beings were throwing off the tyranny of gravity. The oldest and youngest members of the diplomatic community were the most seriously infected with "balloonamania."

"All conversation here at present turns upon the Balloons…and the means of managing them so as to give Men the Advantage of Flying," Benjamin Franklin informed an English friend, Richard Price. Baron Grimm, another Franklin acquaintance, concurred. "Among all our circle of friends," he wrote, "at all our meals, in the antechambers of our lovely women, as in the academic schools, all one hears is talk of experiments, atmospheric air, inflammable gas, flying cars, journeys in the sky."

Franklin noted that small balloons, made of scraped animal membranes, were sold "everyday in every quarter." He was invited to visit a friend's home for "tea and balloons," and attended a fête at which the duc de Chartres distributed "little phaloid balloonlets" to his guests. At another memorable entertainment staged by the duc de Crillon, Franklin witnessed the launch of a hydrogen balloon some five feet in diameter that kept a lantern aloft for over eleven hours.

The senior American diplomat in Paris purchased one of the small balloons as a present for his grandson and secretary, William Temple Franklin. Released in a bed chamber, "it went up to the ceiling and remained rolling around there for some time." Franklin emptied the membrane of hydrogen and forwarded it to Richard Price so that he and Sir Joseph Banks might repeat the experiment. The delightful little toy was thus not only the first balloon to be owned by an American but also the first to reach England. Both Franklins were soon supplying little balloons to friends across Europe.

Sixteen year old John Quincy Adams also took note of the small balloons offered for sale by street vendors. "The flying globes are still very much in vogue," he wrote on September 22. "They have advertised a small one of eight inches in diameter at 6 livres apiece without air [hydrogen] and 8 livres with it. .. Several accidents have happened to persons who have attempted to make inflammable air, which is a dangerous operation, so that the government has prohibited them."

There was a general sense that the colorful globes marked the beginning of a new age in which science and technology would effect startling change. The results and the implications of the revolution in physics and chemistry underway for over a century were largely unknown outside an elite circle of privileged cognoscenti. The balloon was unmistakable proof that a deeper understanding of nature could produce what looked very much like a miracle. What else was one to think of a contrivance that would carry people into the sky?

If human beings could break the age-old chains of gravity, what other restraints might they cast off? The invention of the balloon seemed perfectly calculated to celebrate the birth of a new nation dedicated, on paper at any rate, to the very idea of freedom for the individual. In the decade to come the balloons and the men and women who flew them came to symbolize the new political winds that were blowing through France. While some might question the utility of the "air globes," flight was already reshaping the way in which men and women regarded themselves and their world.

Of course most citizens of Europe and America were unable to travel to see a balloon. They had their first glimpse of the aerial craft through the medium of single sheet prints. In the late 18th century it was difficult and expensive to publish anything more than the roughest of woodcuts in newspapers or magazines. In an effort to share the excitement with those who could not attend an ascent, to let people know what a balloon looked like, and to introduce the brave men and women who were taking to the sky, artists, engravers and publishers flooded the market with scores of single sheet printed images. Ranging from the meticulously accurate to the wildly fanciful, these printed pictures were sold by the thousands in print shops across Europe.

The business of producing and marketing such images was nothing new. In Europe, block prints from woodcuts had been used to produce book illustrations and single sheet devotional or instructional religious images since the mid-15th century. In the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, the technique was used to produce multi-sheet maps, bird's eye images of cities, and other products. In the early modern era, etching and engraving techniques enabled artists from Albrecht Dürer to Rembrandt van Rijn the opportunity to market copies of their paintings. .

In the 1730's. William Hogarth inaugurated a new era in the history of English printed pictures when he published his, "Harlot's Progress," a series of single sheet images charting the downfall of a young woman newly arrived in London. Other sets, including "Marriage à la Mode," appeared in the decade that followed. Other artists used the medium of the etching or engraving to reproduce portraits and offer examples of their work for sale.

By the late 18th century, Thomas Rowlandson, James Gillray and other English artists made considerable fortunes producing sporting prints and satirical images offering biting commentary on the shortcomings of the political and social leaders of the day. Rowlandson was said to have "etched as much copper as would sheathe the British navy." In order to publish his prints and caricatures while they were still newsworthy, Rowlandson worked rapidly. He would water color the first impression, then send it to refugee French artists employed by Rudolph Ackermann, one of his favored publishers, who would color each of the prints before they were hung up in the shop window. In the 1780's a typical print seems to have sold for a shilling, the price being sometimes included on the print itself.

The appearance of the balloon in 1783 provided artists, engravers and publishers in England, France, Germany and Italy a new subject for their efforts. As the wave of balloon enthusiasm swept across the continent, the production and sale of images depicting the great flights and daring aeronauts flourished. In addition to illustrating the birth of the air age, print makers made use of balloon motifs in comic images satirizing political events or social trends.

In the 19th century new lithographic techniques and the advent of improved presses and smooth paper, led to a revolution in the ability to mass produce images. Balloons remained a common subject of interest to readers, and ready material for satire in the talented hands of artists like Honorè-Victorine Daumier.

Today, the balloon prints produced by 18th and 19th century artists remain as a priceless window into the past. They enable us to share some sense of the excitement that gripped those watching their fellow beings rise into the sky for the first time. Engraved portraits tell us something of the appearance, and even the personality, of the first men and women to fly. Satirical prints utilizing balloon motifs help us to understand the impact that flight on the first generations to experience it.

The National Air and Space Museum owes its collection of balloon prints to the generosity of several leading 20th century collectors. The bulk of the prints in our collection come from Harry Frank Guggenheim (August 23, 1890 - January 22, 1971).. The son of industrialist and philanthropist Daniel Guggenheim and his wife Florence, Harry Guggenheim enjoyed multiple careers as a business leader, diplomat, publisher, philanthropist, and sportsman.

Aviation was the thread that tied his diverse activities together. A graduate of Yale and Pembroke College, Cambridge University, he learned to fly before the U.S. entered WW I and served as a Naval aviator during that conflict and as a Naval officer during WW II. In the mid- 1920's, he convinced his father to establish the Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics, which had an enormous impact on aeronautical engineering and aviation in the U.S.

A collector of everything from fine art to thoroughbred horses, Guggenheim began to acquire aeronautica during the 1920's, gradually focusing his attention of aeronautical prints. His collection had grown to be one of the most complete in the world by the 1940's, when he loaned his prints to the New York museum maintained by the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences. When the IAS dissolved its museum in the 1950's, Guggenheim donated his own collection to the National Air and Space Museum.

The NASM collection of aeronautical prints also includes items donated by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and by a number of other private collectors, notably Constance Fiske in memory of her husband Gardiner Fiske, who served with the U.S. Army Air Service during WW I and with the USAAF in WWII; Thomas Knowles, a long-time executive with Goodyear Aircraft and Goodyear Aerospace; and Bella Clara Landauer, one of the great American collectors of aeronautica.

There can be little doubt that William Armistead Moale Burden was one of the most significant contributors to the NASM collection of furnishings, ceramics and other objects related to ballooning and the early history of flight. . Burden began collecting aeronautical literature and memorabilia during the 1920's, while still a Harvard undergraduate. Following graduation he rode the post-Lindbergh boom to prosperity as a financial analyst specializing in aviation securities. His business success was inextricably bound to his enthusiasm for the past, present and future of flight.

By 1939, Burden was reputed to have built a personal aeronautical library second only to that of the Library of Congress. He loaned that collection to the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, an organization that he served as president in 1949. In addition to his library of aeronautica, Burden built a world-class collection of historic objects dating to the late 18th century - desks, chairs, bureaus, sofas, mirrors, clocks, ceramics and other examples of material culture -- inspired by the first balloons and featuring balloon motifs. After a period on display in the IAS museum, William A.M. Burden's balloon-decorated furnishings and aeronautica went into insured off-site storage in 1959. A member of the Smithsonian Board of Regents, Mr. Burden ultimately donated his treasures to the NASM, as well.

Thanks to the efforts of these and other donors, the NASM can share one of the world's finest collections of works of art and examples of material culture inspired b y the birth of flight with our visitors. We are pleased to extend the reach of our collections to those who visit our web site. Welcome, and enjoy.

Tom D. Crouch

Senior Curator, Aeronautics

National Air and Space Museum

Smithsonian Institution

Secret of the Garden

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum
Daniel Marot, architect, decorative designer and engraver fled, like many other Huguenot workers, from France to Holland due to the revocation of the Edict of the Nantes in 1685.  The Edict had offered measures to ensure religious liberty and its revocation sent shock waves through Protestant communities who were no longer protected.  Bringing his talent...

Painted Icon, Diptych

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
Wooden icon with two painted rectangular panels, painted by Daniel Berhanemeskel. The carved wooden case was purchased by the artist in Addis Ababa. It is made with two panels, attached on one side with black twine. The outer side of each panel is unpainted and carved with intricate designs. The inner side is flat and painted in vivid colors. It includes 4 figures: Left panel, figure on left: St. Yared, a 6th century deacon said to be the first composer of hymns for the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. He received his musical gift from the Holy Trinity, represented by the three birds, each giving him one form of music. Translation of Ge'ez text above the figure: "The Holy Trinity appeared to Saint Yared as three birds and gave him three different song types: Ge'ez, Ezil and Ararai". Left panel, figure on right: St. Yared chants a hymn keeping rhythmic accompaniment with a sistrum (s'enas'el) in his left hand and a prayer stick (maqwamiya) in his right.Translation of Ge'ez text above the figure: "St. Yared while he is signing" Translation of Ge'ez text below him: "Books written by St. Yared, Tsomedgua, Degua, zemmare (hymns sung at the end of the mass) and Mewasit (hymns sung at funerals)" Right Panel, figure on left: St. Gabra Manfas Qeddus, who is thought to be a historic figure who lived in the 13th or 14th century. Living in the wilderness around Mount Zeqwala in the central highlands, his piety was recognized even by wild animals. Clothed in a cloak of bird feathers he prays standing upright like a pillar stretching forth his hands to God. Translation of Ge'ez above the figure: "St. Gabra Manfas Qeddus praying". Right panel, figure on right: St. Takla Haymanat, who was a late 13th century saint who founded the Debra Libanos monastery in the central highlands. As a result of praying for seven years standing on one foot, the other foot withered and fell off. His wings signify his attainment of the monastic ideal, where heaven and earth are united. Translation of Ge'ez text above the figure:"St. Takla Haymanat praying". Icons are commissioned for gifts to churches, sought after by individual priests and monks, and purchased by visitors to Ethiopia who want an example of this living religious painting tradition.

Montage of American Theatrical Figures

National Portrait Gallery

Melaleuca angustifolia Gaertn.

NMNH - Botany Dept.

Mallotus polyadenos F. Muell.

NMNH - Botany Dept.

Ischaemum fragile Aiton

NMNH - Botany Dept.
Fragementary material of type specimen ex herb Brit. Mus.

Ipomoea urceolata Aiton

NMNH - Botany Dept.
Currently accepted name as cited by F.W. Staples, Kew Bull. 62: 229 (2007), citing type as "New Holland [Australia], without precise locality, 1770, Banks & Solander s.n."

Haemodorum corymbosum Vahl

NMNH - Botany Dept.

Endiandra glauca Aiton

NMNH - Botany Dept.

Dimeria acinaciformis Aiton

NMNH - Botany Dept.
Fragmentary material of type specimen ex herb. Brit. Mus.

Design for a State Coach or a Sedan Chair

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Side panel decoration of coach or chair showing the allegorical figure of Peace seated in an elaborate enframement. Below, the arms of Holland.

Design for a Chimney Wall with Lacquered Panels and Porcelain from "Nouvelles Chiminees Faittes en Plusieur en Droits de la Hollande et Autres Provinces du Dessin de D. Marot"

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
A design for a mantlepiece and wall panel by Marot. The mantlepiece is highly ornate. The wall panel pictures figures in nature scenes.

Dansproductie Feuilleton I

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Poster with tan-colored text on light tan surface, above: dansproduktie / [in tall letters taking up most of the poster’s surface]: feuiLLeTon [superimposed in gray by:] (1) / EEN PROGRAMMA VAN . BEPPIE BLANKERT . PAULIEN DANIELS . HARRY DE WIT / [in gray:] Theater ‘t Hoogt - Utrecht / 14, 15, 16 oktober 1982 20.30 uur 030 – 328388.
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