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Tehran (Iran): Kakh-i Gulistan (Gulistan Palace Complex): Salam Ceremony [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"During the reigns of the first four kings of Qajar dynasty, what is now known as the Salam ceremony had gradually gained a special ceremonial function and was conducted with considerable care and through strict observance of specific rituals. During the ceremony the courtiers, military officials, European officials accompanied, in some cases and in the earlier days of Fath Ali Shah's reign, by the general population would attend the ceremony and paid their respects - or in this case their Nowruz greetings- to the residing Qajar King. The placement of everything from the king's hookah and small seating place on the throne to the arrangement of the different official and military groups in the garden were predetermined and following the traditions set in the earlier days of Qajar dynasty. The photo is taken during one of the official Salam ceremonies on either the occasion of Nowruz or the return of Nasir Al-Din Shah from one of his longer trips. It is also notable that in all such occasions, the guards and military personnel stand to the right side of the Shah and the left side of the photo. Nasir Al-Din Shah can be seen in the back of the image seating on the Marble Throne (Takht-i Marmar), receiving courtiers in front of the balcony. The crowd on the left side of the image are more interested in the photographer than the arrival of one of the dignitaries for the ceremony." (Nasir Al-Din Shah the Sultan)." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1011."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 51.10: Tehran. Gulestan. Opposite side of reception marble throne." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Shahristanak (Iran): Imarat-i Shahristanak, the Royal Summer Compound: Nasir Al-Din Shah and Attendants [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The building was erected in 1877-1878 on the orders of Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar as a summer palace for the court. The architect of the complex was Haji Abulhassan Mi'mar Bashi. The palace was built on route from Tehran to Caspian Sea and the city of Chalus. It was primarily used as a getaway from the capital by the royal court. The exterior and the plan resemble those of Sahibqaraniyya Palace in northern Tehran. Nasir Al-Din shah listening to a report read to him by his attendants. The seated figures are Majd al-Molk and Adib al-Molk. The photograph is inscribed and dated in an album in Gulistan Palace Museum (Album number 219, Page 4)." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "477-483) Nasri Din Shah and members of court." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 51.12: Nasr Din Shah and members of court (477-483)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Group Portrait: Nasir Al-Din Shah and his Court at Abshar-I Shimiran (Shimiran's Waterfall) [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "334) Nasr Din Shah and court at Abshar." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 51.13: Nasr Din Shah and court at Abshar." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Studio Portrait: Muzaffar Al-Din Shah after Coronation [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "The background curtain, the king's medals and hat. The right side of the curtain is completely painted over but the touch up in this case is not on the negative. It might have been that this is a reprint of an image and the touch ups are on the print."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1075."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 51.14: Nasr Din Shah." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Studio Portrait: Muhammad Ali Shah Qajar [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "The image is a copy print. It has black paper both on the edge and another layer on the whole background. The background is also inked over on the emulsion side. The face and the throne's feathers are touched up."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1169."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 51.15: Nasr Din Shah." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Photograph of a Portrait Painting Depicting Abbas Mirza, Grandfather of Nasir Al-Din Shah [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "323) Abbas Mirza." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 51.16: Abbas Mirza. (#323)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Street in front of the Hotel Prevet [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "The sky is covered in red ink. The sky on the right side of the negative is co versed in black. There is dots of black ink all over the negative (tree branches on both sides, ground). There are pencil corrections on the body of the tree on the left side and the wall on the right side."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1221."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "410) Khiabani Cheragh barg." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 52.1: Tehran (?). Khiabani Cheragh barg (410)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Studio Portrait: Government Minister [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The portrait might be of Ali Khan Safi Ali shah, Zahir al-Dawla in his younger days." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "The four edges are chopped off to eliminate the margins. The faces has very light touch ups with something like a pencil: sharp and graphite."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "937."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "413) Government minister." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 52.2: Government minister (413)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

North of Tehran (Iran): Shimiran, Imamzadeh Qasim Shrine [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"Based on the earliest inscriptions found in the building of Imamzada Qasim, the building is dated to mid 16th century. However, like many other religious structures of Tehran and its surrounding area, it has gone through various stages of restoration, expansion and reconstruction through the years, in particular through the reigns of Faht Ali Shah Qajar and Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar, amongst which are the addition of the three iwans of the southern sides." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "Traces of black paper on the margins of the image. The sky has two layers of ink, red on top of black ."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "411) Imamzadeh Qasim." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 52.3: Imamzadah Gazim (714)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Studio Portrait: Two Women and a Girl [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "The faces are carefully touched up. There is a consistent halo around all the three faces. The dress of the woman is very carefully touched up with ink around the top and the line around her dress."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "955."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "409) Moslem women." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 52.4: Moslem women (413)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Studio Portrait: Four Women and a Boy [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "Varnish on all the faces along with very light touch ups on the faces."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "407) Zoroastrian family." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 52.5: Zoroastrian family (407)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Khiaban-i Ala al-Dawla (Firdawsi Avenue) [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The street front and the shops' windows looks similar to a photo of Sevruguin's own studio, which substantiates the claim that this is Ala al-Dawla street. Note that in 1313/1923, the name of the street was changed to Firdawsi to commemorate both the poet and the ceremonies of his Millennia." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "506) Khiabani Ala' i Dowleh." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 52.6: Teheran. Khiabani Ala-i Dowleh (506)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Street Scene [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "The four sides are chopped off."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 56.1: Avenue." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Group Portrait: Mullahs Seating "Bast" [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "417) Persian crowd in tent." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 52.8: Persian crowd in tent (417) bāst." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Tehran (Iran): Darvaza-i Maydan-i Tupkhana or the old Darvaza Dawlat (Square of Canons' Gate) [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jointly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The new Canons' square and the two storey buildings surrounding it was built between 1867 and 1877 on the north side of the old Canons' square or Maydan-i Arg. The two storey building surrounding the square was initially planned as a reservoir of military equipment and a meeting and living place of military officials. A large and shallow pool, surrounded by trees and greenery and a railing around thethe pool area were constructed in the middle of the square. Adjacent to the railing, the canons of the military surrounded the central pool. The image shows the entrance gate to the square. This Dawlat gate connected the two main squares or Maydan of the city to each other: Maydan-i Tupkhana and Maydan-i Arg. It was built in 1871 along with the construction of the Almasiyya street by Mohammad Rahim Khan 'Ala al-Dawla (Amir Nizam). The size of the gate made it the earliest attempt at such large scale -inner-city-constructions of its time. The photograph was taken from inside the Tupkhana square." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "The sky is covered in two layers of ink orange on top of black."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) not readable.

- Scratched handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1482."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "414) Maidani Sepah." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 52.9: Tehran ? Maidan-i Sepah." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Taq-i Bustan (Iran): Sasanian Rock Reliefs, Right Side of the Interior of the Large Vault with Investiture Relief of Khusro II: Close View of Relief Panel Picturing the Stag Hunt [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Gelatin silver print numbered FSA A.4 2.12.Sm.34; available in Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.12: Antoin Sevruguin Photographs.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo condition reads, "Uncharacteristically thick piece of glass. This might be a small piece of a bigger image. The sides are chopped off."

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 52.10: Carving." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Dasht-i Lar Region, Mount Damavand in Background: Shah's Escort Regiment [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Gelatin silver print numbered FSA A2012.02 01.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "The top of the mountain is covered in ink imitating snow covering."

- Faded handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "909."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "167) Manoeuvers-Shimran." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 52: Tehran. Shimran. Manoeuvers." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Group Prayer in the Courtyard of a Mosque [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"Group prayer in the courtyard of a mosque. Another image that looks very similar in orientation and composition to this one is reproduced in Zayn al-`Abidin Maraghah'i's Zustände im heutigen Persien wie sie das reisebuch Ibrahim begs enthüllt. The image reproduced in the reference book is in reference to prayers in the city of Maratha. As such this image could be of the same city. It is however quite possible that the image in the book is just a representation of the Friday prayers and not particular to the city. In Ghasem Safi's book, another very similar image is identified as Friday prayers in Muayyir al-Dawla's mosque. A close comparison of the structure in the image and the plans of the mosque make this identification improbable. The mosque, however, in another very similar image in the same book is identified as Friday Mosque of Tehran." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "177) Prayers at Masjid i Shah (?)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 53.1: Isfahan - masjid-i Shah (?). Prayers (177)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Ashura Performing Qame-Zani Ritual [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"General view of the Qame-Zani ritual. The man in white attire are mourning the death of Hussayn, the 3rd Imam of Shi'i, by re-enacting and re-experiencing his pain. At the end of the ceremony the white dress would be covered in red blood stains." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "Traces of red ink on the dress."

- Handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1158."

- Scratched handwritten number (inked, probably by Antoin Sevruguin) reads, "1687."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "176) A head cutter." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 53.2: A headcutter (176)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Two Persian Women [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "A very small piece of tape on the right side of the back. Traces of wiped out varnish around the faces."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "180) Two Persian women." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 53.3: 2 Persian women (180)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Studio Portrait: Mirza Ibrahim Ghafari (b.1861-d.1918) [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"Muavin al-Dawla occupied several trade related positions during the last 20 years of Qajar dynasty in Iran. Amongst his official appointments was the head of trade court in 1892 and the head of Iran's council in Tbilisi from 1894-1896 in Nasir al-Din Shah's time. He later became the minister of trade in Muzaffar al-Din Shah's time. In 1903 he became Iran's diplomatic agent and later council in Balkans and lived in Bucharest, Romania till 1906. He then became the minister of Telegraph and post in 1911 and a year later became the minister of finance. three years later he was appointed minister of foreign affairs. The photo is a studio portrait of Muavin al-Dawla in his fifties and in full regalia." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "The face is carefully touched up. There is a halo of a the varnish around the face."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "240) Iranian minister." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 53.5: Iranian minister (240)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Studio Portrait: Women and Children [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "Only the little boy's face has touch ups."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "186) Zoroastrian family." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 53.7: Zoroastrian family (186)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

North of Tehran (Iran): View of Darband Village [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

- FSg curatorial research specialist remark on Antoin Sevruguin photo manipulation reads, "The sky has two layers of ink: red on top of black."

- Handwritten information on slip of paper (from a 1943-1944 cash book, produced by the Bathni Brothers, Tehran) reads, "183) Darband." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 53.8: Darband (183) suburb (?)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]

Isfahan (Iran): Madrasa-i Madar-i Shah: View of Courtyard, Looking South toward Sanctuary Iwan [graphic]

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
Title and summary note are provided by Shabnam Rahimi-Golkhandan, FSg curatorial research specialist.

Antoin Sevruguin is one of the early pioneers of commercial photography in Iran. He arrived in Iran from Tbilisi, Georgia in the mid 1870s to set up shop in Ala al-Dawla street in Tehran. From the early days, Sevruguin's studio was trusted both by the Qajar court and by foreign visitors to Iran. Highly regarded for their artistic ingenuity outside Iran, Sevruguin's photographs of 'ethnic types,' architecture and landscape, and depictions of daily life of Tehran found their way into foreign travelogues, magazines and books. As such, he stands alone in a relatively large group of early Iranian photographers for being recognized and celebrated outside the boundaries of the country. Antoin Sevruguin passed away in 1933, leaving behind only a fraction of his large collection of glass negatives, which is currently in the Archives of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Antoin Sevruguin photographs in the Myron Bement Smith collection are part of the "Islamic Archives," a collection assembled in part by the Committee for Islamic Culture under the direction of architectural historian Myron Bement Smith (1897-1970). The widow of Myron Bement Smith, Katharine Dennis Smith, donated her husband's papers to the Smithsonian Institution in 1972. The collection was housed in the National Museum of Natural History. Mrs. Smith granted partial rights of the materials to the Institution in 1973 and full rights, interests, and title in 1985. The collection was transferred to the Freer Gallery in 1977.

- 696 glass negatives were included into the "Islamic Archives," which was administered jontly by the committee for Islamic Culture and the committee for Arabic and Islamic Studies of the American Council of Learned Societies. According to the official minutes, the committee for Islamic Culture reported purchasing the 696 glass plates during their fiscal years 1951-1952 from the American Presbyterian Mission in Tehran. Antoin Sevruguin's daughter gave these plates to the mission with instruction that they be sold for the benefit of the mission.

"The image is a copy print." [Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Curatorial Research Assistant]

- Handwritten information on slip of paper reads, "Isfahan, Madrasa Madar-i Shah. Cupola with scaffolding for repairs started by the Russians during partition." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information]

- Myron Bement Smith handwritten caption in English reads, "47.P; Box 53.9: Isfahan, Madrasa, Madar-i Shah. Cupola with scaffolding for repairs (182)." [Myron Bement Smith Collection, Subseries 2.1: Islamic Archives History, Collection Information; Box 60; Folder 44: 47 P: Antoine Sevruguin, glass negatives, Iran]
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