In 1754-1763, the French and Indian war, also known as the 7 years war, The British, and Native Americans along with their French allies had a major war against each other for the Ohio Valley. The English colonies and the French ended up expanding towards each other, causing a problem when it came to trade and territories. During the war specific weapons were used like rifles, canons, knifes, swords, etc. Also, there were many forts and battlefields that contained certain artifacts (especially bones archaeologist dug up). This collection shows some interesting artifacts and pictures that were found to give a visualization during the war.
This collection shows a variety of maps from different states of the Colonial and Revolutionary Periods. During these periods, maps were used as a source of navigation and a way to learn/observe the land. All maps were handmade. Early maps usually depicted small areas and were descriptive in nature. Maps became more advanced and detailed during the 19th century There were no specific rules for early cartographers to follow. Maps were an essential use during the 19th century because they were used to understand the composure of the land, and to record places of interest/importance.
This collection represents the rapid succession of a mass popular culture in the eighteenth century, where consumer choices formed an Empire of similar ideas and preferences. The 1700s marked an era of unity in distinct colonies but further revealed the inequalities in class, race, and gender that ultimately led to the American Revolution.
Each piece of the collection is to showcase the cause and effect of consumer revolution on the individual colonist and the colonies as a whole. Specifically, how the growth of a materialistic society impacted production, trade with England, political involvement and social inequality. Moreover, new print technologies contributed to an increase in news, communication, and common knowledge that gives us an understanding of how these people fostered an economy we take advantage of today.
This collection shows the significance of printing and technology during the Communications Revolution. This decade serves a great amount of importance today because it gives new technology users the opportunity to discover how printing made a big difference in today's social and artistic panorama. During this time period newspapers, maps, novels, coffeehouses, etc were all essential parts of the Communications Revolution that shaped our technology world today.
This era not only sought to bring out new ways to communicate, but it also made ancient texts relevant to colonies who were living in more expansive areas which brought people to come up with more creative theories and ideas. According to a article titled, "Technologies of writing," Marshall McLuhan, a philosopher, "rightly notes that the shift from predominantly oral culture to print culture also affected the nature of human consciousness in that print represented an abstraction of though which gave precedence to linearity, sequential, and homo-geniality"("Technologies of Writing"). Throughout the collection, we will look at the different types of communications that have evolved and had a big impact on colonies during this era.
This is a collection of apothecaries in Colonial America. Apothecaries in Colonial America had far more abilities other than selling drugs, medicine, and medical advice. Doctors in apothecaries performed surgeries, trained apprentices to become surgeons, midwifing, and concocted medications. Death rates were high during the beginning of Colonial America; however, as the years progress, people begin to discover new ways to help with illnesses. So, this collection of artifacts are meant to represent the medical history and advancements in Colonial times.
Throughout this collection, you will see many various things such as: medical tools, the apothecaries themselves, medicine containers, medical techniques, and the medicine itself.
1st Picture: This glass bottle was used to store medicine in.
2nd Picture: Workers in apothecaries knew they had to store and preserve medicine and special medicinal liquids, so to prevent anything from getting stolen they kept it in a safe-keeping box.
3rd Picture: This was a special yet common medicinal herb called, Yarrow. It was used to help aid in the female menstrual cycle, wounds, and childbirth.
4th Picture: This picture is an example of a technique a doctor in an apothecary would use to diagnose illnesses.
5th Picture: This bottle was used to distill plant oils (i.e. such as yarrow) for their medicinal use.
6th Picture: This picture shows a common thing used by people that works in the apothecaries. Mortar and pestles were used to grinding up herbs.
7th Picture: This picture depicts how apprentices made medicine. Apprentices had to use recipe books to make all the medicines and herbal potions.
8th Picture: This jar represents a common practice in apothecaries. This leech jar contained leeches for doctors to use, because they believed if they drained the blood of an ill person, it could drain their illness with it.
9th Picture: This document shows how an apothecary could actually be established. This gave permission for the apothecary to make and sell medicines, and help people be cured against all types of human illnesses.
10th Picture: This is a picture of what the interior of what an apothecary looked like.
11th Picture: This is a special type of pottery used for apothecaries, because it has a glassy outer coating to prevent liquids from soaking through.
This collection displays the importance of the cotton gin during its time before 1865. The cotton gin was invented in 1794 by Eli Whitney. The machine was created to change the way cotton was cleaned in the United States. Basically the sole purpose of the machine was to speed up the time of removing seeds from cotton fiber.
Before the cotton gin was created, slaves had to individually take out cotton seeds by hand. This process was a very tedious and painful job. The cotton gin could remove 50 pounds more cotton in a single day than one slave could in a day. As you go through the collection you will find out more about the objects and people that were involved with the cotton gin. The cotton gin is an important part of American history because it changed the way American's manufactured cotton.
Print culture in and before the 17th century, before 1865 to be exact, took the world by storm. It shows the developlment of human communication, political expression, it provides a sense of self worth, and it holds a vital role in today's society. In this collection, each photograph will show the advancement in human intellectuality, advancement in technology, and advancement in creativity and self-expression. This collection will have not only literary pieces and documents, but will also have paintings and photographs.
This collection represents the life of a colonial child leading up to and during the revolutionary war era. In this time, kids had a different life than the kids do now. They had different responsibilities, day-to-day activities, education, and upbringing! However, there are aspects of their lifestyle that have transcended time that we see to this day and there are aspects of their lives that children now couldn’t imagine being exposed to. Things like games, hairstyles, sickness, family dynamic/practices, war and much more.
The collection below was designed to show just some of the lives of kids from the era that we can use to draw similarities or differences from kids that we see in modern day. Something that is important to note is that the collection isn’t catered to a particular social class. The point of the collection is to emphasize that children acted and lived in light of their parents status and livelihood. Like today, kids are simply born into their situation.
- 1.The first picture is of a wealthy Caucasian child. This picture depicts the wealth that most colonists needed if they wanted a portrait, let alone one of just their child.
- 2.The second picture shows an African American child. African American children were typically born into slavery like their parents.
- 3.The third picture is of a native American with his uncle. The boy is seen holding an eagle while covered in a pelt. Native American children were held to a different standard than African americans or white colonials.
- 4.The fourth picture shows a scene of colonial school. Most of the children are Caucasian.
- 5.The fifth picture is a document of the description of a hornbook and its purpose in colonial education.
- 6.The 6th picture is of a dollhouse from the colonial period. Dolls were typically what most children boys and girls alike played with.
- 7.The next picture is of a handmade ball. Boys mostly played with this toy!
- 8.The next picture looks like something that a girl would wear but it actually is a picture of a skeleton suit. It was worn by boys during their pre teen years.
- 9.The next picture is of two colonial girls in a portrait. They were wearing dresses and corsets. This was typical for most girls to wear. The difference in economic status was the quality of the dresses.
- 10.The last picture was a picture drawn of a beggar boy asking for money from a rich women. A lot of children back then used to beg in order to help feed their families.
All of these pictures are here to represent a general idea of children in this era.
This is a Smithsonian Learning Lab topical collection, which contains images, text, and other multimedia resources that may complement the Tween Tribune feature 3D print your own breakfast, Use these resources to introduce or augment your study of this topic. If you want to personalize this collection by changing or adding content, click the Sign Up link above to create a free account. If you are already logged in, click the copy button to initiate your own version. Learn more here.
This collection represents objects that were used in a pre-American Revolution colonist's life with an emphasis on household technology, from the spin-wheel to the printer. This collection also features common goods that could be found in a colonist's household, from their trunks to their dog's collar.
From most of the textbooks and lectures I have received prior to this semester, it was never a priority to actually talk about a colonist's life. In this collection I give an insight into the minor things that colonists could have in their home.
During the colonial period, the powdered wig became a symbol. It was a symbol of wealth, status, authority, even occupation. Just from glancing at the style, color, or texture of a person's wig, it could be identified the field of work they were in and their level of wealth. Hair used in the wigs was an immediate giveaway - goat and yak were the lowest price, then horse, and finally human hair was the most expensive wig you could buy. Another way for people to assert their status was not only to wear wigs themselves, but to buy wigs for their slaves - showing that they had wealth to spend on themselves and then some.
The first two videos I included give a brief history on wigs, mostly powdered wigs, and its tie to colonial society and status. Following that, there are a few examples of wig styles and how one of higher wealth would have displayed their wig(s) so that they would remain pristine. Many wealthy people would have multiple wigs, some for formal attire, and daytime attire, and other such events. Then, I showed a few different political cartoon-esque drawings, exaggerating how wigs stood for loyalty to England in some cases (royalty in England were also known to wear wigs) or how next-level some would take the powder, and finally, how those with similar style wigs are often within the same class or occupation.
The concluding three pictures are portraits of well-known leaders - such as James Oglethorpe, George Whitefield, and George Washington. I wanted to conclude this collection with the portrait of George Washington because of the interesting fact that he actually didn't wear a wig. Now, while that may seem reason enough to not include him in this collection, I beg to differ because his hair is still styled like a powdered wig. Those who did not have the money to wear a wig simply powdered down their own hair and added pomade to make it appear as if they were wearing a stylized, expensive wig. George Washington is a perfect example because he is a well-known leader who still follows the styles of the upper-class colonists without completely giving into the trend by buying one.
By 1620, Puritans began to settle in Plymouth with hopes to start their new colony and run their church how they believed was correct. The Puritans believed in living by rules and serving no one but God, if one was to break these rules, harsh punishments would follow, which evidently was the beginning of laws and regulations. Puritans set basic standards that the world would come to modify, but still use.
This collection shows some of the items that the puritans left us with, you can see a resemblance with these items and how we have come to modify them today.
These items include:
A puritan male and female
hymns for kids
mortar and pestle
This collection gives a small insight into the culture and history of the prideful tribe that is the Cherokee. Included in the collection are representations of the Cherokee culture through certain tools used for hunting game, a staple of their traditional meals, their unique weddings, and a couple forms of art displayed through their jewelry, a woven basket and detailed doll. As for the history, there is the document of a letter from Washington to the Cherokee people, and two portrayals of Cherokee Chiefs during the late 1800s and early 1900s.
The Cherokee's traditions and culture had been affected greatly by the British and American influence, and eventually they adapted to the new conditions through assimilation. Once allies to the British, the Cherokee had to once again adapt after the end of the Revolutionary War. They had been promised a peaceful resolution in which they would be able to keep a majority of their natural homeland. However, expansion by the Americans led to their relocation and the sorrowful Trail of Tears. They lost many of their personal keepsakes and even some forms of tradition, but through word of mouth and generations of information, their culture lives on.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763, opened the Western Frontier, when the French surrendered the land to Britain, after the French and Indiana War, also known as the Seven Years War. The Western Frontier line was all of the land West of the Appalachian Mountains. Britain did not want the colonists and the Indians fighting; therefore, Britain put out the Royal Proclamation of 1763, stating that the colonists could not occupy, or even go past the Western Frontier. The colonists that had already established homes past these boundaries were demanded to leave. The Proclamation gave relief to the Indians that feared that the colonists would run them off of their land again. The colonists did not like the idea of Britain putting limitations on them from thousands of miles away; consequently, the colonists rebelled (Proclamation of 1763 proc63.html ).
Inspired by the VTC request of Cheryl Williams
4th-5th Grade Students
The Stamp Act was an act passed by the British in 1765. The Act was enforced to require the colonist to pay a fee or tax on every piece of printed paper they used. Items like legal documents, license, newspapers, and even playing cards were taxed. They had to buy paper from the British that had official stamps to show they paid the tax. Colonist could only pay the taxes in gold and silver, not even paper money. The money gathered from the Stamp Act was used to help pay for the French and Indian War. It was used to pay for things the troops needed in exchange for their service.
The Salem Witch Trials was a mass-hysteria event that started in February 1692 to May 1693 in Salem, Massachusetts. However, many historians have argued that it first took place some time in the spring. It all started when a group of young girls were diagnosed with "strange behavior" by a doctor-- and the only doctor-- in Salem. These girls showed signs of hallucinations, jolting movements, and occasional screaming and tantrums, as the doctor proved that it was all due to "supernatural causes." After the diagnosis of those girls, they were taken to court soon after for a testimony of their behavior but was eventually proved not guilty. People began to see others acting in strange manners in a span of a few months, saying that these people have been controlled by the devil. As these people continued to be condemned for witchcraft, the population of Salem decreased due for a crime that was perceived punishable by death.
As you move into this collection, you will be able to note the artifacts, and the people involved in the Salem Witch Trials. For each item in the collection, it will explain how these items influenced how the Puritans saw witches as people who sided with the devil, and how much they want to keep their land as pure, or holy as possible.
The Seventeenth century began in 1607 and ended in 1776. This colonial period marked a very significant event in the US with the founding of the first English settlers at Jamestown. The seventeenth century ended with the establishment of the commonwealth of Virginia. It really made a significant impact of the base of early American culture. This time period saw the beginning of early colonization and the beginning of mainstream things that are modified and used later.
During this time period, Virigians were very well rooted in enjoying a nice and lively cultural life. In which, this lively cultural life paved the way for early development of the United States. The following items in this collection represent the lively culture of the Virginians during the 17th century. The collection touches on the the entertainment culture religion , and personal items that were used during this time period that symbolizes early Virginian culture.
These are Key events leading up to the revolutionary war. Also there are key events during the war and eventually gaining independience from the British.
In American history, art was an important aspect of everyday life for the colonists. Their expressions of art came in many forms such as sculptures, paintings, dishes, quilts and metalwork. As showcased on some the collections, they used this artwork to express their views on certain problems they were faced with such as the Stamp Act teapot. For other pieces of artwork it was a way to show off wealth. The dishes and portraits in the collection displayed a form of wealth to colonists in this period of time. Today, arts displayed in homes are still shown as a form of wealth. Although modern art is much different than those shown in this collection, these various forms of art have influenced the art we create today.
This collection presents the importance of the tax on tea and other items during the American Revolution. Britain is known for having tea, and is used in daily lifestyles of the people in Britain and America. After the war the British placed taxes on everything such as sugar, glass, paper, and tea. Riots, boycotts, and protest occurred one after another. American people did not appreciate the extra money they had to pay for the items they use for daily activities, so they decided to stand up for themselves and go against the British to become an independent nation. The taxes brought the people together as a community against the government.
This collection focuses on the role taxed tea plays in during the American revolution. It contains documents, pictures, and items about the cause and effect of the war and the Townshend act. There are also famous cartoons included that exaggerated the relationship between the British and Americans. War led to the American having debt which led to the British taxing the colonist. They taxed on stamps, sugar, glass, paper, and most importantly, tea. All these taxes angered the colonist, so The British removed some, but still continued to place taxes on the people. The taxing led to a war for independence because the American people were just tired of the British control. They wanted to become a new independent Country and the people wished for their freedom. They would do anything to remove the tax on their items even if it means rioting. The people of America started to come together as a nation and brutally start to fight for their freedom.