Found 944 Learning Lab Collections
The eclectic and time-honored art form of quilting has been used as a material expression of ideologies, social stances, and culture. Though the basic process of quilting involves the sewing of two or more layers of fabric, quilters have increasingly integrated materials, symbols, words, and individual styles with communicative, celebratory, and decorative intentions.
This collection displays digitized images of quilts that reflect the diversity of the quilting tradition in America. Some quilts have been displayed at the National Museum of African American History and Culture and others at the National Museum of the American Indian. The Smithsonian’s National Quilt Collection is housed at the National Museum of American History.
This collection includes an article that explores the evolution and artistry of quilting and a list of discussion questions that can be used to analyze the collection.
Keywords: African American, NMAAHC, American History, Quilts
This collection was designed by the Education Department of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery as a basic introduction to Japanese painting for educators. It is a collection of artworks from the museum's permanent collection that draw from a wide variety of formats, styles, media, and subjects that represent many of the major trends in Japanese painting. Each image includes key information about the artwork, as well as ideas for class discussion, lesson components, and/or links to resources such as videos and articles which provide additional information about the artwork. Feel free to copy the collection and adapt it to your own use.
Keywords: Buddha, Hokusai, Mount Fuji, watercolor, bodhisattva, Fugen, Sōtatsu, cherry blossoms, seasons, Genji, crane, emaki, byobu, kakemono, ukiyo-e, map, teacher, student, autumn, Japan, Japanese art, landscape, Edo period, Buddhism, Heian period, water, ocean, wave, boat, flower, insect, Muromachi period, river, surimono
Chinese American designer and artist Maya Lin (b. 1959) achieved national recognition as a Yale University undergraduate student when her design for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial won a national competition.
In this activity, students will analyze a unique artwork-filled room designed by Maya Lin, first using only a still visual with little context, then a hyperlapse video of the artwork's installation, then the artist herself discussing her process, materials used, and vision. Students will make predictions based on visuals, gradually learn about the context of the artwork, and reflect on how their perception of the artwork changed with the addition of new information.
This activity can be used as an entry point into studying Maya Lin's artwork and other artworks inspired by experiences with the natural environment. This activity opens with a Project Zero See-Think-Wonder routine and asks learners to look closely, prior to revealing additional contextual information. To learn more about other Asian Pacific American Artists, visit this collection: https://learninglab.si.edu/collections/asian-pacific-american-artists/bW68eE1p6kHVzsC7#r
This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.
Keywords: Chesapeake Bay, Maya Lin, Asian American, marbles, Renwick Gallery, waterways
Resources supporting the March 2017 Google Hangout facilitated by the National Museum of American History's curator of Photographic History, Shannon Perich, in coordination with the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access. Suggested questions for analyzing photographs, yearbooks, photo albums and portraits are included. The archived version of the online session is available at the end of the collection for viewing.
Tags: Migrant Mother, Napalm Girl, Tank Man, Times Square Kiss, 1943 Rohwer Center High School Yearbook, WWI Photo album, Robert Wiengarten, Hank Aaron
A collection of resources about Ancient China and artifact examples.
Artworks about Egypt in the Smithsonian American Art Museum's collection.
The focus of this collection is to accurately depict Ancient Greece culture and inform the reader on, the cultural significance of the artwork , architecture, gods, and individuals who lived in Ancient Greece. I have always had a fascination with Ancient Greece and the influence it left on the world. I think they are one of the most beautiful cultures to ever exist and the people from this time left a lasting impact on the world around us.
The first two pieces of my collection include two busts; one of Zeus and one of Aphrodite. They are both vital parts of Greek mythology and were highly respected by the Ancient Greeks at the time. Zeus was the the king of all the gods and was believed to live on top of mount olympus. Aphrodite was the Greek goddess of beauty. An interesting fact about Aphrodite is that in some Greek myths she was known as the mother of Eros (Cupid).
The next two pieces of my collection include sculptures of Alexander the Great and Achilles. Alexander the great was born in Pella where is father was king and controlled Macedonian Army. Due to the success of his father Alexander inherited one of the most powerful Armies of the time which allowed him to expand his empire even further. Achilles is the protagonist of the Iliad a story created by Homer. The significance of Achilles is he was grabbed by the heels and dipped in a river which turns him immortal. However, since his heels did not touch the water and later on he was hit by an arrow in that spot which led to his downfall.
The the last two pieces of my collection contain Ancient Greek architecture. One of the pieces I specifically wanted to focus on the columns since they were such a pivotal part of Ancient Greek architecture. They created three types of columns corinthian, doric and Ionic. The second piece of architecture I include was the Parthenon. This piece of architecture was on the Athenian Acropolis, and was dedicated to Athena, who the people of Athens thought was their patron
In the second installment of my collection I added four pieces of art I found to be significant during this time. I also believe the pieces I chose are extremely interesting as well as informative. The two other following pieces I added were based on architecture. I believe the architecture I have added to my collection represent well the styles of columns and other specific aspects that are unique to ancient Greece. For the new pieces of my collection I focussed on adding most of the detail of my pieces in the description part of each image.
My final installment of my collection will be about the music history and what role it played in Ancient Greece.
Music was an important part of life in the ancient Greek world. A wide range of instruments were used to perform music which was played on all manner of occasions such as religious ceremonies, festivals, and during athletic and military activities. Music was also an important element of Greek education and dramatic performances held in theatres such as plays, recitals, and competitions.
This collection is a great place to start if you are looking for some interesting artwork, information or history from Ancient Greece. Ancient Greece has always been a fascination of mine since first starting to learn about in sixth grade. I hope you enjoy.
1. “Parthenon Facts.” Math, www.softschools.com/facts/ancient_civilizations/parthenon_facts/2231/.
2. “Aphrodite • Facts and Information on Greek Goddess Aphrodite.” Greek Gods & Goddesses, greekgodsandgoddesses.net/goddesses/aphrodite/.
3. Cartwright, Mark. “Column.” Ancient History Encyclopedia, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 11 Feb. 2019, www.ancient.eu/column/.
4. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Smithsonian Institution. “Smithsonian Learning Lab Resource: Psyche.” Smithsonian Learning Lab, Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, 2 Nov. 2015. learninglab.si.edu/q/r/118194. Accessed 12 Feb. 2019.
5.“Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon.” Khan Academy, Khan Academy, www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/ancient-mediterranean-ap/greece-etruria-rome/v/the-pergamon-altar-c-200-150-b-c-e.
6 .McDowall, Carolyn, and Carolyn McDowall FRSA. “Motya Charioteer – Ancient Greek Sculpture at Its Finest.” The Culture Concept Circle, 1 Sept. 2012, www.thecultureconcept.com/motya-charioteer-ancient-greek-sculpture-at-its-finest.
In this student activity, analyze the timelessness of myth through three works of art by modern African American artists. Each artist, inspired by Ancient Greek myth, retells stories and reinterprets symbols to explore personal and universal themes. Includes three works of art, summaries of the myths they reference, and discussion questions. Also includes a video about the artist Romare Bearden and his series 'Black Odyssey,' that details Bearden's artistic process, the significance of storytelling in his art, and the lasting importance of 'Black Odyssey.'
Inside this Ancient religious architectures VS. Modern religious architecture collection, I will be showing various religious architectures/buildings from the ancient times vs the modern religious building that we have right now. The purpose of creating this collection is because I want to distinguish the difference between the religious architecture around the world and compare it to what the architectures look like back in the old time, since both are religious building, it both are dedicated to a specific goddess, but their outside look looks totally different. The history of architecture is concerned with religious buildings other than any other type. People use the buildings such as temples, churches, mosques, etc. as a place to worship and sometimes shelter. Those religious architectures are also known as the Sacred architectures, many cultures and countries devoted their resources to their sacred buildings to show their respect for their goddess and to worship them. We don’t just see them in ancient history. Today, there is still building being built in the modern world purely for religious reasons, such as churches and temples. In this collection, I will be showing a mix of modern religious buildings and ancient buildings, I will be comparing the two different centuries architectures through pictures.
Inspiration for Storytelling
Students Create Original Stories that include DIY masks
This three part collection is a curation of examples of the relationship between animals and art. Animals were around before the human race appeared and they will probably still be around when we are long gone. Animals have been involved in every civilization whether they are pets or predators. Some see animals as sacred beings- whether it be for religious purposes, or because they are a beloved pet. In modern society, actual animal bodies could be considered art as well. Mounting deer heads, making bear skin rugs, or taxidermy, These forms can also be seen as a way of representing an animal is sacred to them.
I will be exploring animals in art from Egyptian to modern day in different forms including paintings and sculptures.
A complementary collection of extension activities is available here: https://learninglab.si.edu/collections/anna-may-wong-extension-activities/Eo4txiDzJnf8arqN#r
NPG Final Project July 2017
In recent years, antisemitism is thought to be a relatively new phenomenon. However, its roots are found much deeper in history: back to Roman times. The collection is based chronologically to follow Antisemitism from its source leading through the 21st century A.D. My expectation is that these collections will serve as a means to deepen the understanding of Antisemitism found within the Christian culture.
In the first century B.C.E. Cicero (Lawyer, writer and orator) wrote his Pro L. Flacco in defense of his client L. Valerius Flaccus. In defending his client (the governor of Asia), who was accused of embezzlement as well as corruption, Cicero accuses the Jews as the foundations for the conspiracies against his client. Cicero claims that Jews are the "variance" and go directly against the pietas (family, gods and state) Roman culture embraced. Cicero further back up his claim by stating that Roman gods don't even care for them or else the Jews city of Jerusalem would not have been conquered by the Romans and made tribute. In his work Pro L. Flacco he coined the phrase "barbara superstitio." The insult was meant to directly oppose the meaning of pietas; to oppose Rome itself. It wasn't until a century later, when Rome laid siege to Judea, that his anti-Jewish beliefs would take root.
Nearly a hundred years after Cicero first wrote his poisonous anti-Jewish work did Judea rebel against Rome. Emperor Vespasian's son Titus, constructed an army that brutally attacked the city of Jerusalem. There are several explicit records that denote Titus' relentless starvation of Jews, burning of synagogues (while Jews remained inside), outright slaughter of Jews (approximately 600,000 to 1.1 million Jews), and the remainder were sold into slavery. The sacking of Judea was extremely important to the Romans, because it signified their dominance. In celebration of this monumental event, the Arch of Titus was created to depict the sacking of Judea. In the relief, the menorah that Titus took from the Second Temple is displayed as the focus of the sculpture.
During the time of the rebellion, Tacitus constructed his Historiae (70 C.E.) where he demonized Jews for their sacrilegious views of Roman gods. Tacitus created the four pillars that formed the anti-Semitic beliefs. He stated that Jews were affluent, perverted, "out-breeding," and sacrilegious. The way in which Tacitus illuminated the Jews caused the creation of a "mythology". This anti-Jewish mythology deemed Jews as tempting people from their families, religions, and patriotism (all pietas of Roman culture) as a way of destroying all who were not Jewish.
In addition to the Arch of Titus, commemorative coins were also issued as part of the celebration. The coins depict a Roman soldier hovering over a Jewish woman. The anti-Jewish propaganda (the Arch and the coins, among others) allowed this perpetual violence to become palatable among Romans.
In light of the growing anti-Semitic violence, Titus Flavius Josephus, a Jewish scholar during the 1st century A.D., wrote his work Contra Apionem , where he attempted to combat the anti-Jewish propaganda being spewed by the Romans. Much of Josephus argument was founded on past rebellions by Jews (like that in Egypt) and combating agitated Greek philosophers (regarding the spread of Judaism).
In the following century after the conquest of Rome, Jews revolted to take back Judea. Just as the Romans created commemorative coins, so did the Jews. The rebellion was led by Simon Bar Kokhba. However, the Jews took Roman coins and filled them down before being over-struck with their own rebellious images.
Our journey of Antisemitism during the Medieval period starts with the First Crusade in 1095 through 1099. During the First Crusade Christians attacked the Jew's sacred city, Jerusalem, taking the city as theirs. The First Crusade began to recall (if it ever went away) the Roman pillars against Jews. Until the year 1100 Jews were indistinguishable from Christians in artwork. In the early 1100's Jews were given pointed hats to differentiate them in paintings.
The hatred of Jews began to rise in England with the mutilated dead body of William of Norwich in 1144. The crazy rumors surrounding his mutilation formed the myth known as Blood Libel. The myth of the blood libel was seen as the slaughter of young Christian children, where Jews used their blood for religious rites. Not long after, starting in 1150, Jews were demonized in art as well.
The fear of Jews ran rampant throughout Europe. Christians even began to publicly display their hatred on the churches themselves. In 1240, the construction of Notre Dame included statues of Synogoga and Ecclesia, latin for Synagogue and Church. The two women represented more than just the names, they also represented the Christians view on the Jewish religion. Synogoga is depicted as wearing a helmet that covers her eyes (for her inability to "see" the truth), slouching, holding a broken spear (represent the death of Christ; blaming Jews for Christ's death), and the Torah (which she is barely hanging on to). In contrast, Ecclesia is standing straight with a crown (assuming the Christians are now the ones with the royal blood line), a cross staff, as well as a grail or chalice. The grail or chalice is perhaps in representation of the Holy Grail, the vessel believed to catch the blood of Christ during his Crucifixion.
In 1267 two church councils order Jews to wear the pointed hats (as they did in paintings). Around the same time Jews were beginning to be depicted with abnormally large noses as well as with beards. This change of style is easily noted in the illuminated manuscript produced in 1275, called "Jesus before Caiaphas," Jesus (although a Jew) is not pictured with the Jewish nose as the four other men in the illumination are. Also note the two men in the front with the pointed hats.
Churches continued the theme of degradation of Jews in their facades. However, in 1305 they reached an all time low, the Judensau was born. The Judensau is the depiction of Jews suckling a pig. According to Jewish law, pigs are considered to be unclean (not for consumption) and furthers the insult, comparing Jews to swine and claiming they are dirty and unclean peoples.
As the style of art transitioned into the High Renaissance style, the depictions of Jews became further demonized. A late Renaissance painting by Albrecht Durer called "Christ Among the Doctors" notes this demonetization. The Jews are easily noticeable by their horrid appearance.
The persecution of Jews continued across the continent. In Bildchronik of Diebold Schiling illuminated manuscript page, Jews are wearing the pointy hats as well as yellow identifying badges on their clothing while being burned alive at the stakes. One of the many reasons that this hatred was so easily accessible was the invention of the printing press. In a printing from 1596 we can see the reproduction of Martin Luther's 1543 Judensau article, which he pinned on his church door in Wittenberg, Germany.
Throughout this period Jews were forced to leave their homes due to expulsions from lands like that of the Spanish Inquisition led by King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella. In 1807 Napoleon Bonaparte emancipated the Jews in his Great Sanhedrin. In protecting the Jews, Napoleon received much backlash, including the Russian Orthodox Church claiming Napoleon to be the “Antichrist” as well as an outright “Enemy of God.”
In 1843 Karl Marx published his work “On the Jewish Question.” The book has received mixed criticisms on whether it is truly an antisemitic piece of literature, especially considering he was of Jewish linage. It appears however, that many critics believe that Marx’s perceptions of Jews economic role largely fulfill the antisemitic pillars.
Richard Wagner in his 1850 publication “Das Judenthum in der Musik,” which translates to “Jewishness in Music” in German, attacks both Jews and Jewish composers (particularly Giacomo Meyerbeer and Felix Mendelssohn). He wrote his work under a pseudonym in order to prevent personal Jewish inquiry.
In an issue of “Sound Money” published in 1896, a antisemitic political cartoon shows Uncle Sam being crucified akin to Jesus. There are two men on the outside stabbing Uncle Same, they are supposed to be members of Wall St. The cartoonist gives them the large Jewish noses as well as labeling them as pirates. Indicating that Jews have control of the US’s money and are stealing it. In addition, they are stabbing Uncle Sam with “Single Gold Standard” and wetting Uncle Sam’s lips with poisonous “Debt” on the sponge of “Interest on Bonds.” The two men on the inside flanking Uncle Same represent James G. Blaine as the “Republicanism” and Grover Cleveland as “Democracy” in which they are seen pick pocketing Uncle Sam.
Throughout Europe pogroms were taking place. Pogroms were violent acts against Jews that often ended in massacre or persecution. One such Pogrom was that in Kiev, Ukraine in 1919. During the pogrom many Jews were raped, murdered or affected by looting. The picture is of four Jewish victims at an Alexander Hospital. In total 1,326 pogroms took place in Ukraine; some 30,000-70,000 Jews were murdered.
Meanwhile accusations of the medieval belief of blood libels were still prominent throughout even the early 20th century.
In the 1920s Henry Ford published his article “The Ford International Weekly” were most weeks (91 issues) had some antisemitic statement. Eventually these antisemitic statements grew into its own publication of “The International Jew: The World’s Foremost Problem” published in 1920, comprised of 4 volumes.
As you can see, the world was riddled with antisemitism by the time of the 1920s, including the United States. Although Hitler is thought of as the reason behind the Holocaust, he clearly wasn’t lacking in supporters. It was merely a matter of how far these people were (who shared his antisemitic beliefs) willing to go. In 1925 Hitler wrote his “Mein Kampf” meaning “My Struggles” in German. In this work he outlined his antisemitic beliefs as well as his intentions.
Ten years after Hitler’s publication of “Mein Kampf,” Nazi Germany passed the antisemitic laws known as the “Nuremburg Laws” in 1935. The laws largely dealt with protecting both German blood as well as honour. People were classified by their blood status, depending on your Jewish percentage of blood was the way in which you were approved to obtain Reich citizenship or not. If you were considered to be racially defiled (certain percentage of Jewish blood) you were first sent to prison and later sent to concentration camps.
Directly proceeding Kristallnacht or the Night of Broken Glass on November 9-10, 1938, started the six-year long genocide known as the Holocaust, 1938-1945. I have included several pictures that evoke strong emotions of Jews inside the concentration camps. I have tried however to abstain from using the more graphic and dead riddled photos. I felt that one picture was not merely enough to demonstrate the torture and the injustice Jews received during this time. I wish I could say that after 6 million Jews died that History could finally end its antisemitic beliefs and achieve peace. However, that is not the case.
Hatred still ruins in the veins of many people during the later half of the 20th and 21st centuries. Just over 10 years after the Holocaust officially ended, in 1958 an Atlanta, Georgia temple, Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Temple, was bombed. Luckily no one was injured, however the building received extensive damage.
Rumors surrounding the Holocaust’s legitimacy surfaced. In 1969 professor of History David Hoggan published “The Myth of the Six Million.” In his book, he denied that the Holocaust ever happened!
In Miami, Florida in 1988 yet another synagogue (Bet Shira Congregation) was attacked, this time however it was defiled with misdrawn swastikas. The defamation was completed by a group of local teenagers.
One year ago, in March 2018 in Paris, France, an elderly lady Mireille Knoll was murdered “…because she was Jewish.” She was not only stabbed but also burned. It is believed that as a child (9 years old) she was able to escape capture and deportation to Auschwitz.
Later last year in October, a temple, Tree of Life, in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania was attacked by an antisemitic gunman killing 11 people and injuring 7 more, 4 of which were police officers.
By no means have I been able to provide a thorough account of all the hatred Jews receive and continue to receive daily. This project serves as a cultural understanding and in hopes that one day, the world will be able to eradicate its hatred.
#AHMC2019 #antisemitism #medieval #EcclesiaSynogoga #Judensau #JesusBeforeCaiaphas #ChristAmongDoctors #BildchronikofDieboldSchiling #PrintingpressJudensau #AntisemitismRomans #Cicero #ArchofTitus #BustofJosephus #RomanCommerorativeCoins #Tacitus #Barkokhbacoins #Holocaust #MeinKampf #HenryFord #KeivPogrom #Napoleon #Nuremburglaws
This educational resource is designed especially for teachers and students in Advanced Placement (AP) Art History courses. It focuses on an artwork from the Freer|Sackler collection, Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings; one of the 250 works that are featured in the AP Art History curriculum. In particular, this artwork is in Content Area 8 - South, East, and Southeast Asia.
The AP Art History curriculum stresses the investigation of four key areas for each artwork: Form, Function, Content, and Context. This resource will touch on all four areas and can be adapted for use.
Tags: Album, AP, Art History, emperor, India, Jahangir, manuscript, Mughal dynasty, Muslim, portrait, Project Zero, See/Think/Wonder
Background Note to Teachers
India's Mughal emperors, who reigned over a vast and wealthy empire that extended over most of the South Asian subcontinent between the 16th and 19th centuries, were passionate about lavish manuscripts and paintings. Between 1556 and 1657, the greatest Mughal patrons—the emperors Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan—formed grand workshops that brought together and nurtured India's leading painters, calligraphers and illuminators. This resource focuses on just one of the paintings created for Jahangir, but the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery form one of the world's most important repositories of Mughal and Persian painting. To search our collection, refer to http://www.asia.si.edu/collections/edan/default.cf....
- C3 D2.His.1.6-8 - Analyze connections among events and developments in broader historical contexts.
- C3 D2.His.2.6-8 - Classify series of historical events and developments as examples of change and/or continuity.
- C3 D2.His.14.6-8 - Explain multiple causes and effects of events and developments in the past.
- C3 D2.His.15.6-8 - Evaluate the relative influence of various causes of events and developments in the past.
- CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.7 - Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
- NAEA | Anchor Standard 7 - Perceive and analyze artistic work.
- NAEA | Anchor Standard 8 - Interpret intent and meaning in artistic work.
- NAEA | Anchor Standard 11 - Relate artistic ideas and works with societal, cultural and historical context to deepen understanding.
- NCHS WH Era 6 | Standard 1B - The student understands the encounters between Europeans and peoples of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.
- NCHS WH Era 6 | Standard 3C - The student understands the rise of the Safavid and Mughal empires.
- NCHS WH Era 6 | Standard 6A - The student understands major global trends from 1450 to 1770.
- NCSS 1 : Culture - Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of culture and cultural diversity.
- NCSS 2 : Time, Continuity, and Change - Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of the past and its legacy.
- NCSS 3 : People, Places, and Environments - Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of people, places, and environments.
This collection has been compiled from materials available on the Freer|Sackler website. In addition, these resources have been especially useful:
Milo Cleveland Beach, The Imperial Image: Paintings for the Mughal Court. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2012.
Print and online materials related to "Worlds within Worlds: Imperial Paintings from India and Iran," an exhibition held at the Freer|Sackler from July 28 through Sept. 16, 2012.