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Found 1,602 Collections

 

Traqueros, part 2: Chain Migration and Boxcar Communities

A profound result of the vast employment of traqueros in the transportation industry was the railroads' corporate strategy to establish means for "chain migration." Chain migration refers to the process of immigrants from a particular region or town following the path of prior immigrants (from their same region or town) to the same destination. 

As the agricultural, petroleum, and cattle ranching industries of the Southwest expanded to a vast scale in the early 20th century, the demand for traquero labor grew as well. To meet this demand, companies like the Santa Fe Railroad incentivized traqueros to bring along their families, including wives and children, to live on sites by the rail yards rent-free. 

A key tactic in this strategy was the practice of housing traqueros in converted boxcars. These converted boxcars would be grouped together into settlements, which tended to be of two types: one was a species of "mobile villages" that moved along the train tracks, whereas the other type was comprised by taking boxcar quarters off the rails and grouping them together on the outskirts of rail yards in areas usually saved for section gangs. Historian Al Camarillo, in his book Chicanos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Pueblos to American Barrios in Santa Barbara and Southern California, 1848-1930 (1979) has termed the process of establishing boxcar settlements as "barrioization," because these family-centered communities demonstrated the sustainability of Mexican American communities, as well as familiarized Mexican immigrants with different parts of the U.S. that would become significant Mexican immigrant destinations.

Mexican boxcar communities existed all over the country and in major cities including Chicago, Pittsburgh, Los Angeles, and San Diego. 

On April 18th, 2016, Dr. Antonio Delgado, a former Smithsonian Institution Visiting Scholar (1998), presented his research on Mexican boxcar communities in Chicago at the McHenry County Historical Society Museum. Illinois Humanities sponsored the event, publishing the Daily Herald's notice of the program on the Illinois Humanities' news blog. The online story includes a trailer for local station WTVP's documentary, Boxcar People, for which the now adult children of traqueros were interviewed. 

#EthnicStudies #MexicanAmericans #Traqueros #Railroads #BoxcarCommunities #ChainMigration #Latinos #Chicanos

Rubina Pantoja
6
 

Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center Virtual Tour

Take a virtual tour of the Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center on-site art installations.

Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center
53
 

Asian American Modernism

This collection is meant to build on two earlier collections, "Asian American Art: Emerging from the Shadows"  and "Asian American Artists and World War II" and to introduce the viewer to artists of Asian ancestry in America using Chang, Johnson & Karlstrom's text, Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970 (2008), the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco's exhibition catalog "Asian/American/Modern Art: Shifting Currents, 1900-1970" (2008),the vast resources of the Smithsonian Learning Lab, Project Zero's Global Thinking Routines and other resources.  This collection is part two of four that I have organized, chronologically, on Asian American Art.  The other three collections are "Asian American Art: Emerging from the Shadows",  "Asian American Artists and World War II" and "Asian American Contemporary Art".  It is my hope that these collections will serve as entry points to understanding the many contributions of Asian American artists in the U.S. from 1850 until the present time.

Visual art is a language that is socially and culturally constructed.  Socially constructed learning values diverse perspectives, engages with local and global experts, and employs inquiry, discovery and exploration to move students toward global citizenship.  Because the visual arts leverage the power of dialogue and debate to sharpen critical thinking, starting with the arts is a logical place to help students develop cultural intelligence.

Other purposes of these collections are to explore tangible and intangible cultural heritage; as well as jumpstart brave conversations about race, identity and immigration in the U.S. with teachers, tutors of English Language Learners and others who are interested in becoming cultural leaders in our public schools.

As Gordon H. Chang and Mark Dean Johnson state in the introduction of the exhibition catalog, "Asian/American/Modern Art: Shifting Currents, 1900-1970" (2008):

"Forty years ago there were no Asian Americans.  There were Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos, and others of Asian ancestry in the United States, but no 'Asian Americans,' as that term was coined only in 1968.  This population was commonly seen as foreign, alien, not of America.  Their lives and experiences were not generally accepted as part of the fabric of the country, even though Asians had begun settling here steadily in the mid-nineteenth century.

Then, in the late 1960s, as part of the upsurge in the self-assertion of marginalized communities,  'Asian America' emerged to challenge the stigma of perpetual foreignness.  'Asian American' was a claim of belonging, of rootedness, of pride and identity, and of history and community; it was also a recognition of distinctive cultural achievement"  (Chang, Johnson, 2008).

#APA2018

Rubina Pantoja
18
 

My ethnic studies musings

This collection was started as a way to share resources related to Mexican American Studies.  It has now morphed into a larger collection for anyone interested in ethnic studies.  It is still very much a work in progress.

Rubina Pantoja
30
 

Cindy Whitehead’s GN4LW Skateboard - Conversation Kit Resources

A skateboarding pioneer, Cindy Whitehead turned pro at seventeen, skating both pool and half-pipe and becoming one of the top-ranked vert skaters while competing against the boys—something girls were not doing in the mid-1970s. But Whitehead had no choice but to wear boys’ shorts when competing; there were no skate products for girls in the 1970s.

She changed that in 2013 with her girl-empowered brand Girl is NOT a 4 Letter Word (GN4LW). Whitehead is especially supportive of young female skaters through the GN4LW skate team and products which are geared towards women and girls.  

Whitehead’s signature phrase printed in gold on many of the GN4LW products personifies her independent spirit, "Live life balls to the wall. Do epic s***. Take every dare that comes your way. You can sleep when you’re dead." 


This Learning Lab collection contains artifacts and resources that support the Conversation Kit on Cindy Whitehead's GN4LW Skateboard as part of the Smithsonian's American Women's History Initiative. 

NMAH Education
17
 

American Animal Conservation

DRAFT: What stories do the animals on the American Trail at the Smithsonian's National Zoo? Students will use the Project Zero Global Thinking Routine Unveiling Stories to uncover and consider the complexity around conservation. I asked students to consider more than just what is the initial stories. I wanted to know what they thought the human and world stories might be. With the success of these animals I wanted students to also consider what the new and untold stories that might remain. This thinking routine is a great way to explore the complicated stories of the gray wolf, bald eagle, beaver, brown pelican, California sea lion, common raven, North American river otter, and wood duck. #goglobal

Ellen Rogers
40
 

Beauty/Truth/Revealing/and Concealing: Adding complexity to a literary analysis (Wrap up lesson with "A Doll's House," by Henrik Ibsen) #SAAMTeach

While this lesson revolves around Henrik Ibsen's "A Doll's House," it can be used in conjunction with any work of literature featuring strong characters - the type who generate potentially negative reactions among students, such as: "I hate him... There's nothing good about ______....he's the villain... she's the hero, etc." The lesson is designed to push students out of their comfort zone, give themselves permission to speculate and entertain a variety of viewpoints, and as a means to step away from the literature they just read, then step back in with perhaps a more open-minded approach.

This is a discussion-heavy lesson, requiring some patience on the part of the teacher not to jump in and fill in the gaps. But after completing it the first, second, and then third time, I could definitely sense the students were now more apt to be "risk takers" and more "open minded" with their interpretations and insight.

Step by step instructions follow in the "Notes to Other Users" section. #SAAMTeach

Annette Spahr
8
 

Mexican Art & U.S. History: Carmen Lomas Garza

This collection will provide an opportunity for students to analyze artwork, read background information, and connect art with historical events. At the heart of this activity is artwork created by Latino artist Carmen Lomas Garza. These paintings reflect the experiences of Garza's family and Latino life in 1980s America. In addition to image analysis, teachers could extend an opportunity for students to identify and discuss connections between Garza's art and the Mexican American experience from the 1960s to the present. This collection includes:

  • A timeline of U.S.-Mexican American relations
  • Video/audio of Reagan signing the 1986 Immigration Reform Control Act
  • And an overview of immigration reform via ABC-CLIO (requires subscription). 

#ethnicstudies #LISDSS

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Connections #TEKS

  • 24A describe how the characteristics of and issues in U.S. history have been reflected in various genres of art, music, film, and literature;

Angela King
24
 

The California Gold Rush: A Journey to the Goldfields

James Marshall's famous discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in Colma forever changed the landscape, economy and culture of California due to the mass migrations of 300,000 people. Rumors of gold's discovery spread quickly, and was confirmed by President Polk in an address to Congress. The news spread to countries around the world.

The journey to California was long and dangerous. The three major routes were: around Cape Horn by ship (six to eight months), the Isthmus of Panama (two to three months), and the Overland trail (three to five months). By ship, dangers included: ship wrecks, lack of food and water, seasickness and disease. Ships that survived the long journeys arrived to the ports of San Francisco, where migrants had to continue their journey to the Sierra Nevada foothills.  

Traveling 2,000 miles on the Overland Trail by foot and wagon exposed travelers to other dangers such as misinformed trails, and a lack of food and water. Travelers were exposed to inclimate weather while crossing deadly rivers, deserts, and high mountain passes. Only the very basic necessities including food, water, wagons, stock, hunting tools, blacksmithing tools, clothing, blankets, sewing kits, medical supplies would be taken for the journey.   

On the Overland Trail, many miners joined companies. These companies were made up of people with various skills; such as, carpentry, medicine, navigation, hunting, blacksmithing and wheelwrights. The likelihood of surviving these long and dangerous journeys increased significantly for those individuals who joined companies. If a company survived the journey to California on the Overland Trail, the company also had a higher likelihood of success in gold mining. Individuals within the company could stake multiple gold mining claims and the gold would then be divided among the people of the company. During the gold rush, individuals were only allowed to own one claim.  


columbiastatehistoricpark
16
 

Hawaiian Monarchs

This topical collection includes resources related to the eight monarchs of the Kingdom of Hawaii.  In order of succession, the monarchs are: Kamehameha I (r. 1810 - 1819); Kamehameha II (r. 1819 - 1824); Kamehameha III (r. 1825 -  1854); Kamehameha IV (r. 1855 - 1863); Kamehameha V (r. 1863 - 1872); Lunalilo (r. 1873 - 1874); Kalākaua (r. 1874 - 1891); and Liliʻuokalani (r. 1891 - 1893).  

The Kingdom of Hawaii was established as a constitutional monarchy in 1810 by King Kamehameha I.  In 1893, a coup led by American businessmen driven by sugar and pineapple business interests in the Hawaiian islands overthrew Queen Lili'uokalani.  Despite native protests and Lili'uokalani's efforts to reclaim the throne, the United States annexed Hawaii as a territory in 1898.  Hawaii became an American state in 1959.

This collection is not comprehensive but rather provides a launching point for further research and study.

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.

Keywords: Kamamalu, Emma, Kapi'olani, Kapiolani, Kalakaua, Liliuokalani, Hawaiian, royals, royalty

#APA2018

Tess Porter
37
 

California Gold Rush Era Mining Technique Photos

Mining techniques evolved over time with development of larger mining companies. These photos also show cultural diversity during the California Gold Rush. 

columbiastatehistoricpark
14
 

Triumph and Tragedy: U.S. Reconstruction, 1865-1877

This collection brings together Smithsonian and other federal resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day 2019, "Triumph and Tragedy in History." #NHD2019


These resources - including photographs, broadsides, political cartoons, publications, correspondence, ledger books, and government documents - explore the varying experiences, political arguments, and consequences of the period following the American Civil War, known as Reconstruction. Resources highlight the opposing ideas for and against Reconstruction policies - and their consequences - by the federal government and its citizens, including political leaders and activists. Also included are digital resources related to Constitutional Amendments passed during this era, supporting secondary resources, and various cartoons, broadsides, speeches, and imagery portraying the African American response to Reconstruction policies and the promises of citizenship and equal rights. Other primary source documents included provide a glimpse into how Reconstruction may have affected individual lives and businesses, and links to digitized collections (and corresponding transcriptions) of thousands of documents from the U.S. Bureau of Freedmen, Refugees, and Abandoned Lands. 

By no means is this collection comprehensive; instead, it provides a launching point for further research. 

Tags: Civil War, Reconstruction, U.S. Reconstruction, postwar, South, perspective, politics, southern democrats, Radical Republicans, African Americans, Freedmen's Bureau, Records of the Bureau of Freedmen, Refugees, and Abandoned Lands, art, photographs, political cartoons, military, 19th century, 1800s, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Hiram Revels, amendments, #NHD

Smithsonian Transcription Center
49
 

Exploration of Different Gold Mining Tools and Techniques

Historical images of placer gold mining tools and techniques used in Columbia, CA may be used for learning different placer gold mining techniques. These visual aids may provide a better understanding of how the types of mining tools changed over time. In the early years of the gold rush, miners traveled with very few items; some which included a gold pan, pick and shovel. As more gold was discovered, mining parties established mining camps or tent towns. The cradle or rocker box was used as towns developed. Further development of mining camps brought in the use of long toms, sluice boxes and water diversions created for mining.

columbiastatehistoricpark
7
 

Breaking Barriers: Reconstruction

This collection brings together EDSITEment and Smithsonian resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day 2020, "Breaking Barriers in History."

These resources—including photographs, primary source documents, portraits, lesson plans, and articles—explore the efforts of individuals and groups to overcome racial, economic, and political barriers during the era immediately following the Civil War known as Reconstruction. Resources highlight influential individuals and groups, the intentional and unintentional consequences of actions and policies that resulted in the construction of new barriers for some, and competing perspectives over the best path toward reuniting the United States after the Civil War. The second resource in this collection contains questions to help with the analysis of a chosen topic alongside photograph, document, artwork, portrait, and object resources. 

By no means is this collection comprehensive; instead, it provides a launching point for further research.

This collection was created in collaboration with the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access.

Share your National History Day collections and let us know what you think! Write to us on Twitter: @EDSITEment and @SmithsonianLab, #NHD2020. If you publish a collection on your National History Day topic, be sure to enter #NHD2020 in the description!

Tags: civil rights, slavery, Freedman’s Bureau, U.S. Bureau of Freedmen Refugees and Abandoned Lands, Fisk Jubilee Singers, African American, Emancipation Proclamation, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Sojourner Truth, South Carolina, Congress, House of Representatives, Frederick Douglass, Robert Smalls, Hiram R. Revels, Benjamin S. Turner , Robert C. De Large, Josiah T. Walls, Jefferson F. Long, Joseph H. Rainey, R. Brown Elliot, Thomas Mundy Peterson, Sidney Taliaferro, John Roy Lynch, Octavius Catto, Edmonia Lewis, Laura Smith Haviland, John W. Menard, Harper’s Weekly, Oliver Otis Howard, William T. Sherman, Howard University, W.E.B. Du Bois, nineteenth century, 19th, Washington, D.C., #NHD

EDSITEment
78
 

Breaking Barriers: Women's Suffrage

This collection brings together EDSITEment and Smithsonian resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day 2020, "Breaking Barriers in History."

These resources—including photographs, objects, portraits, lesson plans, and articles—explore how women during the 19th and 20th centuries organized, petitioned, marched, and spoke out for the removal of barriers to full voting rights for women. While the 19th Amendment was passed in 1920, the extent to which this law led to equity for all women remains a point of debate. Resources address how groups and individuals sought to bring attention to the disenfranchisement of women, highlight the often overlooked perspectives and actions of women of color during the suffrage movement, and offer insight into the legacy of the suffrage movement on the larger fights for women’s and civil rights. The second resource of this collection contains questions to help with the analysis of a chosen topic alongside photograph, document, artwork, portrait, and object resources. 

By no means is this collection comprehensive; instead, it provides a launching point for further research.

This collection was created in collaboration with the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access.

Share your National History Day collections and let us know what you think! Write to us on Twitter: @EDSITEment and @SmithsonianLab, #NHD2020. If you publish a collection on your National History Day topic, be sure to enter #NHD2020 in the description!

Tags: voting, protest, African American, Mary Church Terrell, Ida B. Wells, Belva Ann Lockwood, Sojourner Truth, Mary McLeod Bethune, Anna Julia Cooper, Jeannette Pickering Rankin, Victoria Woodhull, Wyoming, Suffragette, Suffragist, Fannie Lou Hamer, Felisa Rincón de Gautier, Zitkala-Ša, Susette LaFlesche Tibbles, Alice Paul, ERA, civil rights, women’s rights, Edith Mayo, protest, boycott, twentieth century, 20th, #NHD

EDSITEment
79
 

Breaking Barriers: United Farm Workers

This collection brings together EDSITEment and Smithsonian resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day 2020, "Breaking Barriers in History."

These resources—including photographs, objects, portraits, lesson plans, and articles—explore how the United Farm Workers, and leaders Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, and Larry Itliong, organized for worker and civil rights during the 1960s and 70s. Resources address how groups and individuals sought to bring attention to the mistreatment of farmers—particularly Chicano and Filipino workers—the barriers they sought to break, and the reforms they fought to establish through artistic expression, as well as organized boycotts and strikes. The second resource of this collection contains questions to help with the analysis of a chosen topic alongside photograph, document, artwork, portrait, and object resources. 

By no means is this collection comprehensive; instead, it provides a launching point for further research.

This collection was created in collaboration with the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access.

Share your National History Day collections and let us know what you think! Write to us on Twitter: @EDSITEment and @SmithsonianLab, #NHD2020. If you publish a collection on your National History Day topic, be sure to enter #NHD2020 in the description!

Tags: UFW, Latino, Hispanic, California, Fred Ross, art, grapes, lettuce, farmers, immigration, citizenship, labor, laborers, workers, unions, protest, twentieth century, 20th, #NHD

EDSITEment
66
 

Breaking Barriers: Innovation and Industry

This collection brings together EDSITEment and Smithsonian resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day 2020, "Breaking Barriers in History."

These resources—including, objects, photographs, portraits, lesson plans, and articles—explore how technologies developed in the interest of advancing industrialization during the United States’ Second Industrial Revolution made it possible to overcome economic and social barriers, while, in some cases, unintentionally creating new ones. Innovators who developed technologies and tools to make every day living easier and more enjoyable, along with transportation technologies that broke barriers in terms of travel and movement, are also included in this collection. Users are also asked to consider the legacies of these inventions and their significance to innovation and industrialization through to today. The second resource of this collection contains questions to help with the analysis of a chosen topic alongside photograph, document, artwork, portrait, and object resources. 

By no means is this collection comprehensive; instead, it provides a launching point for further research.

This collection was created in collaboration with the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access.

Share your National History Day collections and let us know what you think! Write to us on Twitter: @EDSITEment and @SmithsonianLab, #NHD2020. If you publish a collection on your National History Day topic, be sure to enter #NHD2020 in the description!

Tags: factory, industry, invention, innovator, Thomas Edison, Nikola Tesla, Alexander Graham Bell, Samuel F. B. Morse, telegraph, Christopher Latham Sholes, typewriter, telephone, communication, technology, workers, labor, International Ladies Garment Workers Union, David Dubinsky, Asa Philip Randolph, John Llewellyn Lewis, Frances Perkins, Samuel Gompers, strike, boycott, union, Transcontinental, railroad, nineteenth century, 19th, twentieth, 20th, #NHD

EDSITEment
98
 

Breaking Barriers: Race, Gender, and the U.S. Military

This collection brings together EDSITEment and Smithsonian resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day 2020, "Breaking Barriers in History."

These resources—including photographs, objects, portraits, lesson plans, and articles—explore how individuals overcame barriers during and following their service in the U.S. military. Resources address how issues of race and gender operated as barriers to equal treatment for all those who serve in the U.S. military, as well as circumstances endured by veterans following the end of major wars. The experiences of members of the armed forces during the American Revolution, U.S. Civil War, WWI, and WWII are highlighted; however, other wars and perspectives should be considered when exploring these resources. The second resource of this collection contains questions to help with the analysis of a chosen topic alongside photograph, document, artwork, portrait, and object resources. 

By no means is this collection comprehensive; instead, it provides a launching point for further research.

This collection was created in collaboration with the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access.

Share your National History Day collections and let us know what you think! Write to us on Twitter: @EDSITEment and @SmithsonianLab, #NHD2020. If you publish a collection on your National History Day topic, be sure to enter #NHD2020 in the description!

Tags: military, soldiers, women, African American, Tuskegee, Airmen, Airwomen, war, World War One, World War I, World War Two, World War II, Red Jacket, Tayadaneega, Joseph Brant, Native Americans, American Indians, Horace Pippin, Theodore Milton Sullivan, J.W. Lucus, Buffalo Soldier, Charles Young, Carter Woodson, Willa Beatrice Brown, Bessie Coleman, Airforce, pilots, Jacqueline Cochran, Janet Harmon Bragg, Cornelia Fort, Nancy Love, WASPs, twentieth century, 20th #NHD

EDSITEment
94
 

Japanese Internment

These are three primary source documents that can be used as a prediction activity prior to investigasting Japanese Internment.  The first document is a personal letter written just after Pearl Harbor, the second document is a 1945 rejection letter from Yale, and the third is an apology letter from President George H.W. Bush.

If an additional scaffold is needed, students can use the APPARTS strategy to help analyze the documents.  For a description of the APPARTS strategy, click here.

#EthnicStudies

David Levee
4
 

American Indian Culture and Rights

#ethnicstudies

Meridith Manis
9
 

Ingenuity Challenge 2019

RebeccaBeakerhead
13
 

Emma Tenayuca: La Pasionaria

Emma Tenayuca was just sixteen years old in 1932 when she joined a strike of women cigar makers. By 1937, when she was twenty-one Emma held a leadership role with the Workers Alliance of America, a group that sought to unite organizations of unemployed and industrial workers.

In January 1938, when pecan shellers in San Antonio walked out of their jobs, they looked to Emma for leadership. Their ranks swelled to between six and eight thousand strikers. Emma was arrested and released along with hundreds of others. Although she took a background role for the duration of the strike, she continued to write flyers and provide support behind the scenes.

Then a dispute over leadership arose between the Workers Alliance and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).  Emma’s communist affiliations were used to discredit her.

Emma was supposed to meet with Communist Party members in the municipal auditorium in 1939 when a riot broke out. A crowd stormed the building, smashing windows and attacking participants. Emma managed to escape, but she never again led a major labor protest. Employers blacklisted her. As a result, Emma was unable to find work in San Antonio.

She moved to California in 1946, where she earned a college degree and stayed for many years. Returning to San Antonio in the late 1960's, she was amazed to find herself hailed as "some sort of heroine." She earned a master's degree in education at Our Lady of the Lake University and taught in San Antonio public schools until retiring in 1982. She died of Alzheimer's disease in 1999. People still remember her as La Pasionaria for her fierce defense of the working poor.

#ethnicstudies #NHD2020 #BecauseOfHerStory 

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.

Melanie Schwebke
30
 

Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood

Meet the butcher, baker, pizza-dough maker, and all of the friendly people who make our neighborhoods terrific places to live every day. Recycled crafting and interactive songs make this community day the perfect blend of learning and just plain fun.

Discovery Theater
36
 

Japanese Rice Farmers in Texas

This collection includes resources about focusing on the story the Japanese rice farmers who immigrated to Texas in the early 1900's. Included are photos of the Japanese farmers in the rice fields and photos of families who owned the largest rice farms.

Teachers and students may use this collection as a springboard for classroom discussions , such as those about immigration policy and/or discrimination. This collection is not comprehensive but rather provides a launching point for research and study. Documents are included to guide students through analysis activities of the documents, photos and oral history.

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center. 

Keywords: Japanese immigration,rice farming, sharecropping

 #EthnicStudies

Melanie Schwebke
24
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