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Found 1,508 Collections

 

Buddhism

Kirra Lent
3
 

Hinduism Resources

Kirra Lent
3
 

The Progressive Era?

Objective: Students will be able to identify the objectives of the Progressive Movement through primary source analysis in order to evaluate their impact on American society.

Essential Questions: 

  • What were the main objectives of the Progressive Movement?
  • Is 'progressive' an appropriate term to define this era?
Emily Surman
19
 

Women´s Suffrage in the United States (early 20th c.)

Artifacts of the Suffrage Movement  and Anti-Suffrage Movement 

Avery Beebe
16
 

Righting a Wrong: Japanese Americans in World War II

This collection includes objects and resources related to Japanese incarceration during World War II. Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 through which tens of thousands of Americans of Japanese ancestry were moved into relocation centers. Additional resources can be found by visiting the National Museum of American History's online exhibitions at AmericanHistory.si.edu and History Explorer at HistoryExplorer.si.edu

NMAH Education
41
 

Ruth Law: Breaking Barriers in Aviation and the War Effort

This topical collection of resources and analysis strategies can be used as a brainstorming tool to support student research on the National History Day (#NHD) 2020 theme of  "Breaking Barriers in History". This collection focuses on primary and secondary sources on the accomplishments and contributions of aviator, Ruth Law. 

#BecauseOfHerStory #NHD #NHD2020

Tags: Ruth Bancroft Law Oliver, aviator, world records, flight, military, World War I, women's history

Ashley Naranjo
36
 

Money and Exchange in West Africa

The objects in this collection, from the crescent-shaped manilla to the colorful banknotes, formed part of West Africa’s vibrant and varied monetary system in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Each object has its own story about when and how it was used. A person shopping in a market in Accra, Ghana in the 1980s, for example, might have received the 1 cedi coin below as change from a small transaction. In the Akan language, the word “cedi” means cowrie shell, a currency which a person shopping in the same market a century earlier might have used. Like the 1 cedi coin, cowrie shells were used to make small purchases. Symbolically, the image of a cowrie shell appears on the coin. Not far from Accra, in the old Asante city of Kumasi, the figurative gold weights pictured here would have been used around the same time to measure gold dust for transactions ranging from significant market purchases to judicial fines. 

How did West Africa move from a monetary system based on objects like manillas, gold dust, and cowrie shells to one based on notes and coins? It was once popular to attribute this change to the colonization of West Africa by European governments in the nineteenth century. According to this story, colonial governments wanted to impose their own “modern” currencies on West African economies to make it easier for merchants and colonial authorities to do business between the colony and Europe. From recent historical research on West African currencies and their uses, we now know the story is not that simple. Colonial governments did introduce new currency systems with European forms of money, but they were not immediately or universally adopted by Africans in the way that colonial governments intended. 

After the end of the colonial period, some countries like Ghana and Nigeria, issued their own currencies as an expression of national sovereignty. Other new countries, such as Senegal and the Ivory Coast, focused instead on building or maintaining monetary unions with shared currencies in order to reinforce links between their economies. Some of these post-colonial coins and banknotes depict pre-colonial currencies, like the cowrie on the Ghanaian cedi coin or the Kissi penny on the Liberian dollar. 

The history of West African money from the nineteenth century onwards reflects the history of economic, political, and social change in the region over that same period. This collection uses objects from the Smithsonian’s National Numismatic Collection to tell that history, linking to broader questions about the nature and uses of money, the ways in which economic change can influence how money is used, and the relationship between money and political sovereignty.

 

Below is a list of suggested readings on West African money and exchange. To see all of the West African currency objects in the National Numismatic Collection, click here.  Please feel free to reach out to Dr. Leigh Gardner or Dr. Ellen Feingold with questions or feedback.

 

This project was generously funded by the Knowledge Exchange and Impact Fund at the London School of Economics. It was completed in partnership with the Smithsonian’s National Numismatic Collection.

 

Suggested Reading

Historical overviews:

Gardner, Leigh A. “From Cowries to Mobile Phones: African Monetary Systems Since 1800.” In The History of African Development: An Online Textbook for a New Generation of African Students and Teachers, edited by Ewout Frankema, Ellen Hillbom, Ushehwedu Kufakurinani, and Felix Meier zu Selhausen. African Economic History Network (2018): https://www.aehnetwork.org/textbook/from-cowries-to-mobile-phones-african-monetary-systems-since-1800/

Guyer, J. and Karin Pallaver. "Money and Currency in African History.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History (2018): https://oxfordre.com/africanhistory/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190277734.001.0001/acrefore-9780190277734-e-144


Pre-colonial currencies:

Arhin, Kwame. “Monetization in the Asante State.” In Money Matters: Instability, Values and Social Payments in the Modern History of West African Communities, edited by Jane I. Guyer, 97-110. London: James Currey, 1995.

Herbert, Eugenia W. Red Gold of Africa: Copper in Precolonial History and Culture. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

Hogendorn, Jan S., and Marion Johnson. The Shell Money of the Slave Trade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.


Colonial currency systems and African responses:

Feingold, Ellen R. "International Currency Counterfeiting Schemes in Interwar West Africa." Journal of West African History 3, no. 1 (2017): 77-101. 

Gardner, Leigh A. “The Curious Incident of the Franc in the Gambia.” Financial History Review 22, no. 3 (2015): 291-314.

Gardner, Leigh A. "The Rise and Decline of Sterling in Liberia.” Economic History Review 64, no. 4 (2014): 1089-1112.

Guyer, Jane I. “Introduction: The Currency Interface and its Dynamics.” In Money Matters: Instability, Values and Social Payments in the Modern History of West African Communities, edited by Jane I. Guyer, 1-34. (London: James Currey, 1995).

Helleiner, Eric. “The Monetary Dimensions of Colonialism: Why Did Imperial Powers Create Currency Blocs?” Geopolitics 7, no. 1 (2002): 5-30.

Hogendorn, Jan S., and Henry A. Gemery. “Continuity in West African Monetary History? An Outline of Monetary Development.” African Economic History 17 (1988): 127-146. 

Hopkins, A.G. “The Currency Revolution in South-West Nigeria in the Late Nineteenth Century.” Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria 3, no. 3 (1966): 471-483. 

Saul, Mahir. “Money in Colonial Transition: Cowries and Francs in West Africa.” American Anthropologist 106, no. 1 (2004): 71-84.


Money and national independence:

Schenk, Catherine R. “Monetary Institutions in Newly Independent Countries: The Experience of Malaya, Ghana, and Nigeria in the 1950s.” Financial History Review 4, no. 2 (1997): 181-198.

Stasavage, David. The Political Economy of a Common Currency: the CFA Franc Zone Since 1945. Aldershot: Ashgate (2003).

Uche, Chibuike U. “Bank of England vs. the IBRD: Did the Nigerian Colony Deserve a Central Bank?” Explorations in Economic History 34 (1997): 220-241. 

NMAH and London School of Economics
31
 

Peace

Look closely at the resources. Read the information included on the resource. What looks like an example of Peace to you?

Eveleen Eaton
24
 

Simplicity

Look closely at these resources. What looks like an example of simplicity to you?

Eveleen Eaton
24
 

Exploring Korean Art at the Freer|Sackler

This Learning Lab contains introductory materials to help educators explore Korean art from Freer|Sackler collections with students.  It includes the following:

  • a founding history of Korean art collections at the Freer|Sackler
  • an illustrated timeline of Korea
  • a map of major ceramic production sites in Korea
  • images and information regarding rare Buddhist paintings from the Goryeo dynasty (935-1392)
  • definitions and examples of selected clay, decoration, glaze, pigment, and symbol types in Korean art
  • Freer Gallery of Art audio tour selections of Korean art
  • curator videos from Discovering Korea's Past: Interdisciplinary Connections Summer Institute for Educators held at the Freer|Sackler, Summer 2018
  • related educator resources from other museums
  • teacher-created lessons and Learning Lab Collections from Discovering Korea's Past: Interdisciplinary Connections Summer Institute for Educators held at the Freer|Sackler, Summer 2018

Tags: Korea, Goryeo, archaeology, art, celadon, ceramics, painting, symbols, Buddhism

Freer|Sackler Education
113
 

The National Numismatic Collection's East Asian Currency Highlights

Established in the mid-19th century, several of the earliest additions to the NNC were artifacts from Japan, Korea, and China, including coins and medals gifted to President Ulysses S. Grant from Japanese Emperor Meiji (received in 1881) and the 2,025 East Asian coins, amulets, and notes from George Bunker Glover’s private collection (received in 1897). These donations were the foundation of the NNC’s East Asian holdings, which continues to grow with new acquisitions, such as the Howard F. Bowker collection in 2017. 

Emily Pearce Seigerman
94
 

Persepolis

Annette Spahr
8
 

Battles Of The Revolutionary War

Learning Target: I will trace the development of the most significant events of the American Revolution, including the following: declaring independence, fighting the Battles of Lexington, Concord, Saratoga, and Yorktown.

I will investigate the struggles that were endured during the winter at Valley Forge and the signing of the Treaty of Paris of 1783.

Katie Davidson
31
 

"Crossing the Delaware": Who is portrayed in American history?

This collection highlights variations on a theme through works of art: George Washington Crossing the Delaware, George Washington Carver Crossing the Delaware and Shimomura Crossing the Delaware. Comparisons of these works could serve as springboards for discussions about identity, immigration, "master" or dominant narratives in history, and hero myths. 

#EthnicStudies

Ashley Naranjo
7
 

Immigration and Community: What is Home?

This collection is a teacher resource for ELL populations who are making connections between their homes/communities and housing communities for migrant populations of the past. #SAAMteach.

arteacher
14
 

Chinese immigration experience to Texas featuring Jim Eng's story

This collection includes resources about focusing on the story of Jim Eng (Ng San Wah) who immigrated to Texas when he was seven years old. Included are the various documents that he and his mom needed to immigrate and excerpts from his oral history are included.

Teachers and students may use this collection as a springboard for classroom discussions , such as those about immigration policy and/or discrimination. This collection is not comprehensive but rather provides a launching point for research and study. Documents are included to guide students through analysis activities of the documents, photos and oral history.

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center. 

Keywords: chinese exclusion act, 1882,

 #EthnicStudies

Melanie Schwebke
29
 

Japanese Rice Farmers in Texas

This collection includes resources about focusing on the story the Japanese rice farmers who immigrated to Texas in the early 1900's. Included are photos of the Japanese farmers in the rice fields and photos of families who owned the largest rice farms.

Teachers and students may use this collection as a springboard for classroom discussions , such as those about immigration policy and/or discrimination. This collection is not comprehensive but rather provides a launching point for research and study. Documents are included to guide students through analysis activities of the documents, photos and oral history.

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center. 

Keywords: Japanese immigration,rice farming, sharecropping

 #EthnicStudies

Melanie Schwebke
24
 

Dolores Huerta: Revolution in the Fields/Revolución en los Campos

Dolores Huerta: Revolution in the Fields/Revolución en los Campos shares the compelling story of legendary activist and leader Dolores Huerta (b. 1930) and the farm workers movement of the 1960s and 70s. It is a quintessentially American tale of struggle and sacrifice, of courage and victory.

As a complement to the exhibition, these educational resources explore Huerta's public life as an activist and co-founder of the United Farm Workers  (UFW) and what led her to become a Latina civil rights icon. In her life as a communicator, organizer, lobbyist, contract negotiator, teacher and mother,  Huerta's unparalleled leadership skills helped dramatically improve the lives of farm workers.

Users will broaden their understanding of the farm workers movement through a careful look at Dolores Huerta's significant - but often under-acknowledged - contributions. The exhibition and educational resources also explore how workers of different ethnic and racial backgrounds came together to empower the movement and how the arts played an essential role. In addition, users will come to understand Huerta's far-reaching impact and important legacy.

#NHD #NHD2020  #BecauseOfHerStory


Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service
40
 

Prototyping

#designthinking

Taryn Grigas
16
 

Becoming the Historian: Historical Context

Historical thinking skills allow historians to better practice and interpret history. This series teaches students how to develop these skills to become better historians themselves.

This Learning Lab will guide students through the process of defining historical context and practicing employing strategies from an example dealing with the 1968 Poor People's Campaign. 

 Historical context is the background information that informs a deeper understanding of a historical individual, group or event. Historical context is important because it allows historians to better understand history in the ways a historical individual or group understood the world around them, which leads historians to analyze the past more accurately. 

 Keywords: nmaahc, African, American, historical, thinking, skills, context, historical, contextualization, background, 1968, Poor People's Campaign, history, interpret, analyze

NMAAHC Education
16
 

AFRICAN COSMOS

Put the ARTS in STEM - From Egypt to South Africa, take a brief tour of the African Cosmos  and have your students discover the intersection of Art and Astronomy in the southern hemisphere.   Explore constellations only seen on the African continent.  See why the Goliath beetle became a symbol of rebirth for the Egyptian scarab.  Learn about celestial navigation by people and animals. 

Create Your Own Constellation!  



Deborah Stokes
73
 

Black Panther Movie Collection

The visual arts can be an entry point to literacy in the classroom.  Use these objects in the collection of the National Museum of African Art to aid students to explore authentic African art works that inspired the Academy Award winning costume design of Ruth Carter in the blockbuster movie Black Panther.  Students can develop visual vocabulary through close looking to describe mood, tone, atmosphere, and inference and explore cross-curricular and cross cultural connections.  It allows them to really be creative and critical thinkers!  

Keywords: Arts Integration; Africa; African Art; Global Arts; 

Deborah Stokes
88
 

Student Activity: An Exploration of Immigration/Migration Experiences

With this collection, students can explore people's stories of moving to a new country or culture (both forced and voluntarily), and then walk, fly, or sail "a mile in their shoes" to imagine some of the challenges they encountered in moving to their new home.

Then, they can write up their own family stories, using a variety of resources including a "Today I Am Here" homemade book, or PBS Learning Media's resources, "Digging at the Roots of Your Family Tree."

#EthnicStudies 

This collection supports Unit 1: Precious Knowledge - Exploring notions of identity and community, Personal history / identit / membership / agency, of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part A course.

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center. 

Philippa Rappoport
11
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