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Found 2,132 Collections

 

People, Place, and Time: How Art Reflects Culture - Collection 2 - Méndez v. Westminster 1947 - National Postal Museum

In this collection, designed for a Spanish-speaking classroom, students will explore how art reflects culture while studying Méndez v. Westminster 1947, a groundbreaking WWII-era legal case in which a group of Hispanic parents in California successfully sued to end segregation in their schools. The collection includes a teacher's guide in English and suggested authentic resources both in Spanish and English to be adapted by teachers of multiple disciplines. 

Students will investigate how the Méndez v. Westminster 1947 case helped pave the way to desegregation in schools in the United States. Among other activities, students will follow the script for the re-enactment of this case. Students will take action and contribute in their inner circle, their community/country, and/or the world by designing a stamp on a past or present global issue (social, environmental, or cultural), from Latin America or Spain, that matters to them.

This collection is one of three that explore “People, Place, and Time: How Art Reflects Culture.” Products, practices and perspectives displayed in Latinx art, show how our place and history (past) influence who we are (present) and who we want to be (future) in geographical, social, economic, and/or historical contexts. In the three collections, Latin American works of art illustrate how culture shapes the way we see the world, others, and ourselves, and they also raise awareness about Latinx diversity.

The three collections were created by Marcela Velikovsky (Bullis School) and Vicky Masson (Christ Episcopal School) as part of the  2018 Smithsonian Virtual Teacher Curricula Creation Opportunity with the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access (SCLDA), and thanks to the Smithsonian Latino Center's Latino Initiative Pool funds. The three collections highlight Latino history, art and culture, and use Harvard Project Zero Thinking Routines and Global Thinking Routines strategies.

The Smithsonian Learning Lab collections provide an opportunity to invigorate the World Language (Foreign Language) curriculum as it allows to effectively integrate online museum resources (authentic resources) towards a 21st century curriculum. They facilitate student-centered activities within a variety of themes such as, family and communities, personal and public identities, social values and customs, holidays and celebrations, immigration, ethnic groups, Hispanic Heritage,  image and stereotypes, inequality and discrimination, global issues, religious practices, etc. They also provide the opportunity to analyze art, read portraiture, and investigate art media.

These collections also consider ACTFL standards (Communication, Connections, Comparisons, Communities and Culture), Asia Society Global Competence skills, the Sustainable Development Goals (Global Goals), Teaching Tolerance Social Justice standards, the Framework for Developing Global and Cultural Competencies to Advance Equity, Excellence and Economic competitiveness, and Participate Global Competencies.

#Arago #Rafael Lopez #Spanish / English #Mexican-American #California #Latino Civil Rights #Empathy #Desegregation #Critical thinking #Curiosity #Stamps #LatinoHAC #BecauseOfHerStory

Marcela Velikovsky
57
 

People, Place, and Time: How Art Reflects Culture - Méndez v. Westminster 1947 - National Postal Museum

In this collection, designed for a Spanish-speaking classroom, students will explore how art reflects culture while studying Méndez v. Westminster 1947, a groundbreaking WWII-era legal case in which a group of Hispanic parents in California successfully sued to end segregation in their schools. The collection includes a teacher's guide in English and suggested authentic resources both in Spanish and English to be adapted by teachers of multiple disciplines. 

Students will investigate how the Méndez v. Westminster 1947 case helped pave the way to desegregation in schools in the United States. Among other activities, students will follow the script for the re-enactment of this case. Students will take action and contribute in their inner circle, their community/country, and/or the world by designing a stamp on a past or present global issue (social, environmental, or cultural), from Latin America or Spain, that matters to them.

This collection is one of three that explore “People, Place, and Time: How Art Reflects Culture.” Products, practices and perspectives displayed in Latinx art, show how our place and history (past) influence who we are (present) and who we want to be (future) in geographical, social, economic, and/or historical contexts. In the three collections, Latin American works of art illustrate how culture shapes the way we see the world, others, and ourselves, and they also raise awareness about Latinx diversity.

The three collections were created by Marcela Velikovsky (Bullis School) and Vicky Masson (Christ Episcopal School) as part of the  2018 Smithsonian Virtual Teacher Curricula Creation Opportunity with the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access (SCLDA), and thanks to the Smithsonian Latino Center's Latino Initiative Pool funds. The three collections highlight Latino history, art and culture, and use Harvard Project Zero Thinking Routines and Global Thinking Routines strategies.

The Smithsonian Learning Lab collections provide an opportunity to invigorate the World Language (Foreign Language) curriculum as it allows to effectively integrate online museum resources (authentic resources) towards a 21st century curriculum. They facilitate student-centered activities within a variety of themes such as, family and communities, personal and public identities, social values and customs, holidays and celebrations, immigration, ethnic groups, Hispanic Heritage,  image and stereotypes, inequality and discrimination, global issues, religious practices, etc. They also provide the opportunity to analyze art, read portraiture, and investigate art media.

These collections also consider ACTFL standards (Communication, Connections, Comparisons, Communities and Culture), Asia Society Global Competence skills, the Sustainable Development Goals (Global Goals), Teaching Tolerance Social Justice standards, the Framework for Developing Global and Cultural Competencies to Advance Equity, Excellence and Economic competitiveness, and Participate Global Competencies.

#Arago #Rafael Lopez #Spanish / English #Mexican-American #California #Latino Civil Rights #Empathy #Desegregation #Critical thinking #Curiosity #Stamps #LatinoHAC #BecauseOfHerStory

Vicky Masson
60
 

On the Pillars

Personal Information

My major is computer science at UMass Lowell. My collection will focus on the representative statues and buildings of the Roman Empire. Architecture reflects the strength of a country, and statues reflect the cultural tendencies of a country. From these two perspectives, I can get a better understanding of the Roman Empire at that time.

The Romans conquered the world in the middle of the third century B.C. and gained the sovereignty over the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea.The Roman Empire is militarily successful, but compared with the remarkable achievements in politics and literature, its achievements in visual art seem to lack an independent and complete feature.The main reason is that the Romans highly admire and carefully imitate Greek art. They not only import a large number of works from Greece, but also imitate them. Even in their own works, the sign of Greek art can still be seen clearly.

On the other hand, because the Romans greatly emphasize the practicality of art rather than creativity, Roman art, whether in architecture, sculpture, or painting, is often copied from Greek works or takes what is good and puts it to its own use. The only ones that can be said to have Roman style are the portraits of people after the late republican period. Different from the aestheticism and elegance of Greek portraits, these Roman portraits resemble real people and are mainly used for memorial purposes. Although they have no profound aesthetic expression, they have left a vivid look of contemporary Roman celebrities.

In the early Rome, the country was founded on agriculture, so the whole society advocated such virtues as diligence, endurance, frugality, etc. However, it constantly invaded the outside world in the republican era,so the discipline of the army derived the requirement for obedience and law-abiding. Among which, the emphasis on the law and the achievements of the rule of law had a great contribution to the civilization of later generations.

Such a character is a practical spirit shown in life, thought, and art.Therefore, among the works of art left over from the Roman period, it is its public works that are best known, such as the roads, water supply pipes, public bathhouses, coliseums and so on.These huge and magnificent buildings were all built for practical purposes, and have all kinds of ingenious architectural techniques. Even in today, their ruins still make people amazing.

Bowen Zengyang
14
 

Communication with the spiritual in ancient to modern art

This collection will examine examples of art as a form of communication between the human and spiritual worlds. These forms of communication may include examples of direct communication — in which an individual or group uses art to speak to and influence the spiritual world — as well as examples that serve to document practices, beliefs, and the place of spiritual practices in society at large.

The form and focus of these communications expressed through art can help to explain the values of particular cultures or individuals, or may serve to question or enforce certain cultural beliefs. This type of art may be the expression of the needs of a social group or culture, such as prehistoric cave paintings that might have functioned in rituals to ensure successful hunts or plentiful game. It may serve to enforce a political agenda such as the Law Code of Hammurabi. Or it may express an individual's personal interpretation and experience of spirituality such as the illustrated poetry of William Blake. However, form does not always imply the expected function: the 19th century English painter and poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti sometimes drew on religious subjects or themes and much of his work has a mysterious and mystical atmosphere. Yet Rossetti, describing his spiritual beliefs, called himself an “art Catholic,” implying that if he engaged in a spiritual dialog through his art, it was with art itself (Faxon, 1989).

This collection will look at examples from the prehistoric era through the early 20th century. These examples help to contextualize the inner lives of individuals, and the collective inner life of the cultures, their environments, wants, needs, and values, to foster a greater appreciation of and respect for these peoples and cultures.

Although there is only limited firm evidence of the purpose of cave art found at sites such as Lascaux, Chauvet, and Les Trois-Frères, scholars generally agree that it served some religious purpose. Various theories have been proposed to provide more specific explanations. Cave art, particularly Paleolithic cave art, depicts almost exclusively animals. Hunting was crucial to the survival of early humans, and it is possible that the images were created as part of hunting rituals. Images of animals superimposed over each other many have represented fertility rituals aimed at increasing the amount of game animals. Some images appear to have been deliberately scratched or gouged with spearheads — in some cases blood was painted flowing from these wounds — suggesting that the images may have been intended as a type of sympathetic magic giving hunters power over and protection from large and dangerous animals (Benton & DiYanni, 2012).

Other images are less easy to explain and have given rise to controversial theories such as the bird-faced human figure in the Lascaux Shaft Scene, that combine elements of humans with other animals in a single figure. The Shaft Scene appears to describe a narrative although the exact meaning is not completely clear. A wounded bison stands ready to charge; the animals intestines appear to be pouring out of its abdomen and a spear is shown near its hindquarters. In front of the bison is a stick figure human with a bird's face. The human figure appears to have fallen or been knocked over. Just below this odd figure is a line topped by a bird, perhaps an object belonging to the bird-faced man. This figure and others that combine humans and other animals into one figure such as The Sorcerer in Les Trois-Freres may document early humans' mythology, and could suggest the origins of certain beliefs and practices (Curtis, 2006).

The meaning of the Law Code of Hammurabi is less ambiguous — the spiritual and the legal/political aspects of the culture are united. The stele dates to approximately 1760 BCE and is divided into two sections. The lower section, which takes up the majority of the stele, consists of the code of laws in effect at the time. The relief at the top depicts the Babylonian king Hammurabi receiving the laws from the god Shamash. The implication is clear: the law itself is a religious document and the social rules it describes are the will of the gods — and Hammurabi whose authority is bolstered by the approval of the gods (Benton & DiYanni, 2012).

The spiritual is not always a numinous experience in a cave. Some early laws and social codes were framed as divine communications that enforce social norms and rules — even now, witnesses in courts are generally sworn in by placing their hand on a Bible. Communication with the spiritual in examples such as the Law Code of Hammurabi is aimed at establishing and enforcing order and lending it a weight of legitimacy. It is as critical for the members of an urban culture, such as Babylon, to abide by rules to maintain peace with their neighbors as it was for the Paleolithic peoples to ensure successful hunts. And, kings such as Hammurabi believed it was critical to protect their power. By aligning themselves with gods, they could borrow some of the gods' power in the minds of the people and make rebellion or betrayal a kind of sacrilege. Hammurabi, in fact, was declared a god in his own lifetime (Van De Mieroop, 2005).

Music may also function as a form of communication between gods and humans. In pharaonic Egypt, religious festivals appear to have prominently involved music and dance. Music may have been used in religious rituals to communicate with the gods, invoke deities, or as a medium to transmit offerings. Some instruments were associated with specific deities: the sistrum with Hathor and Isis and the tambourine with Bes. Sistrums may have been played during rituals associated with Hathor to invoke her — and to placate her. Although images of deities playing musical instruments are relatively rare in Egyptian art, Bes is frequently depicted dancing and playing a tambourine. Unlike the other gods, Bes used music to communicate with humans. Bes was associated with the home and family — the front rooms of Egyptian homes appear to have contained shrines to Bes — and he remained a popular deity among the people throughout Egypt's history. Bes was believed to protect people, particularly women in childbirth, by playing music to frighten away evil spirits. Amulets of Bes dancing and playing a tambourine appear to have been a common type of protective amulet worn around the neck. It is worth noting that depictions of Bes differ markedly from depictions of most other Egyptian deities: he is represented in lively motion. In contrast to the image of Egyptian religion based primarily on royal tombs and, therefore, focused on death and the elite members of society, Bes was closely tied to life and the lives of common people (Simmance, n.d.).

Composed by the poet Valmiki in India the fifth century BCE, the Rāmāyana relates the deeds and adventures of Rama, an avatar of Vishnu. According to J. L. Brockington, in Indian tradition the Rāmāyana is designated the ādikāvya, which may be translated as “the first poetic work,” and is regularly referred to as being sung as opposed to spoken in contrast to the Mahābhārata. In one version of the framework story introducing the Rāmāyana, Rama is described as the perfect human being. His behavior is therefore worth emulating, and it is likely that as early as the first millennium BCE that was in a sense being done literally through plays and dances reenacting the story (Brockington, 1998). In that sense, the Rāmāyana represents a complex, evolving dialog, a lived experience of both artistic and spiritual expression.

Euripides' tragic drama The Bacchae is another example of theater acting as a complex dialog between the human and the spiritual worlds. The plot of The Bacchae revolves around the arrival of the god Dionysos in the city of Thebes where his ecstatic worship is opposed by Pentheus, the king of Thebes. As Segal writes, the play is morally ambiguous and may have been designed to implicate the audience in the action. Although Dionysos is a disturbance to Thebes, Pentheus' response is heavy-handed and unsympathetic. However, as the drama unfolds, the audience that may have been rooting for Dionysos is confronted with a climax that sees the god orchestra Pentheus' gruesome death. It is important to note that Dionysos was a well-established and liked god in Athens and that Classical Greek drama was written to be performed during annual festivals in Dionysos' honor. As Vellacott writes, during the festival a statue of Dionysos was brought from a shrine to the amphitheater to watch the plays. As Segal notes, it is unlikely that the play is meant to be critical of Dionysos (his actual worship was much more restrained than depicted in the play or the myths it was based on) but its presentation, at a fundamentally religious festival with the god literally in the audience, could not but have sparked another dialog within the audience, a reflection on their relationship to the god and the sometimes overwhelming forces he represents.

The Temple of Isis at Pompeii declares both the strength of her worshipers' belief and the endurance of her cult in the face of repeated official sanctions. The temple was damaged in an earthquake in 62 AD but was rebuilt by the time of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD; in fact, it was the only civic building in that area of Pompeii that had been completely rebuilt (Hackworth, 2006). The apparent preference for a foreign goddess in a Roman city is all the more significant in light of imperial persecutions and prohibitions against her worship dating back to Augustus and coming to a head in 19 CE when Emperor Tiberius exiled thousands of freedmen who were adherents of the religion (Heyob, 1975). However, the cult of Isis continued to flourish. By the time of Pompeii's destruction, her worship appears to have included individuals from all classes of society, from members of the imperial family and municipal officials to freedmen and slaves (Takacs, 1995). The remains of the temple can still be seen on the original site and at the nearby Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. Although Egyptian decoration was incorporated in the design of the temple and cult objects, the plan of the building and the style of the frescoes was Roman (Moorman, 2011). The navigium Isidis fresco appears to show a distinctly Egyptian scene, Isis resurrecting her husband-brother Osiris, but in a purely Roman style. The Pompeiian worshipers of Isis were part of Roman culture but may have been seeking an opportunity to engage in personally meaningful spiritual communication outside of the state-sectioned venues and deified emperors (Hackworth, 2006).

Early Buddhist art avoided direct representations of the Buddha. The first iconic representations of the Buddha were likely not created until approximately the 2nd century CE in the area of Gandhara, in modern-day Pakistan, under the influence of the Kushan emperors. After their conversion to Buddhism, the Kushan produced distinctive images of the Buddha that drew on Greco-Roman traditions while creating an iconographically unique image that was clearly identifiable as the Buddha (Benton & DiYanni, 2012).

Many of these early sculptures of the Buddha depict a serene, sublime figure, perfectly proportioned and untouched by time or the rigors of his life. However, a small group of statues presents a radically different image of the Buddha. One of these statues, Fasting Buddha, created between the 2nd and 4th centuries CE, depicts the physical effects of the Buddha's forty-five days of fasting and meditation before achieving enlightenment. In an interview with Hyperallergic in 2016 when Fasting Buddha was seen publicly at an Auctionata sale, Dr. Arne Sildatke, Auctionata's head of Asian art, explained that although the Fasting Buddha and similar images can be compared to depictions of the crucified Jesus Christ, the Buddhas are not images of death and resurrection. Instead, they are meant to communicate to followers Buddhism the concepts of self-empowerment and the overcoming of suffering, according to Sildatke. Despite the figure's protruding bones, sunken stomach, and hollow face, the image expresses the strength of the Buddha's will (Voon, 2016).

The Ajanta caves in Maharashta state, India, contain some of the finest examples of Indian Buddhist art and represent several centuries of complex artistic spiritual expression. The caves were created as a monastery and decorated in the Gupta style of sculpture and painting. The Gupta style moved away from the Greco-Roman influence and embraced a more fully Indian style in which characteristics of physical beauty associated with Indian art are adapted to symbolize spiritual beauty (Benton & DiYanni, 2012).

The monks' work on the caves was likely supported during its later phase by wealthy patrons, including the 5th century CE Emperor Harisena and his courtiers. These patrons sponsored the construction and ornamentation of specific caves to honor the Buddha and earn religious merit, as well as worldly praise, for themselves. According to Spink, Cave 1, created in the late 5th century CE, was sponsored by Harisena. Cave 1 contains some of the most sumptuous and well-preserved murals in Ajanta. It is likely that these images, including the Bodhisattva Padmapani, are so well-preserved because Cave 1 was never used for worship. Spink theorizes that Cave 1 was not used because Harisena died suddenly before the cave could be dedicated. An undedicated cave could not be used for worship; therefore, if the cave was indeed left undedicated, Harisena would not have achieved the religious merit he desired (Spink, 2008). In that case, Harisena's attempt to communicate with the spiritual, to have his faith validated, and his attempt to communicate his spiritual virtue to the human world were both left unfulfilled.

Rich ornament and stylization was also used to signify spirituality in European Christian manuscript paintings. As Christianity spread through Europe, representations were adapted to the local Celto-Germanic styles, which bore more in common with the luxurious, symbolic, and stylized Byzantine art than the naturalistic Greco-Roman tradition. The Book of Kells is an illuminated gospel created c. 800 CE by Irish monks. A figure of St. John on one folio is an exercise in elaborate stylization, a purely two-dimensional figure made up of patterns of decorative lines, emphasizing the image's spiritual rather than physical reality (Benton & DiYanni, 2012).

An illuminated gospel such as the Book of Kells was not merely a book — as the chalice used in Mass is not merely a cup — it was created as a sacred object (Calkins, 1983). Like the images in Chauvet cave or the ceremonial sistra used in Egyptian religious ceremonies, it formed part of the necessary accouterments of communication with the spiritual. And, therefore, its form and image took precedence over its physical practicality (Calkins, 1983). In that light, the entire object itself, not only individual folios, can be seen as a translation of spiritual experiences and a vehicle for spiritual communion.

Liturgical music has been a key part of Christian ritual since the earliest days of the religion. Most early Christian music was woven into the services and often consisted of chants based exclusively on scripture. Over time, the scope of music in Christianity grew and original pieces were composed. One notable composer in the Early Middle Ages was Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179). Beginning in early childhood, Hildegard experienced intense visions. She entered a community of nuns when she was eight and became a poet, composer, and playwright (Benton & DiYanni, 2012).

Hildegard also wrote several books detailing her mystical visions and theological instructions derived from them. One of these, Scivias, contained sections that Hildegard later adapted to the Ordo Virtutum, a sacred music drama (King-Lenzmeier, 2001). The plot revolves around the struggle between the devil and the Virtues for a human soul. The Ordo was not written to be performed as part of the Mass or liturgy and does not depict biblical events: the allegorical story is adapted directly from her personal visionary experiences (Potter, 1986). When performing the Ordo, the nuns were embodying and participating in Hildegard's visions by bringing these invisible spiritual experiences into the human world (Davidson, 1992).

The Unicorn Tapestries were made in Brussels c. 1500 and depict the hunt, capture, and death of a unicorn. The tapestries may have been made as a wedding gift and may have been intended to communicate a multilayered message that combined romance and fertility with Christian doctrine (Benton & DiYanni, 2012). The chivalric tradition of courtly love had introduced the idea that romantic love was a symbol of God's love: Marie de France's Eliduc employs this symbolism to suggest that when two individuals loved each other completely they could leave each other for God, separating to live in different religious communities (Potkay, 1994). In The Unicorn Tapestries, Margaret B. Freedman explores the complex interweaving of secular and religious messages encoded in the tapestries, including references that syncretize polytheistic deities into Christian mythology. For example, the fountain in the tapestries may be a symbol of the Virgin Mary, who was compared to a fountain in many medieval hymns, as well as Venus and Cupid, who were frequently depicted holding court in gardens dominated by a fountain. The highly detailed flora in several of the tapestries also simultaneously references Christ and Venus. In Freedman's analysis, the tapestries can be understood as symbolizing and communicating the doctrines and values of the overlapping Christian god of heaven and the god of love, a concept that was well-established by the late medieval period. In the context of the tapestries as a wedding gift, this dual meaning is perfectly appropriate to express, reminding the newlyweds of their spiritual, personal, and social duties and rewards.

In 15th century Florence, a renewed interest in and availability of Classical Greek and Roman scholarship fueled the development of Neoplatonism, a new school of philosophy that sought to merge the principles espoused by the Classical Greek philosopher Plato and the Roman philosopher Plotinus with Christian spirituality. Platonism and Christianity are dualistic and perceive a separation between the physical and the spiritual that humans should strive to breach. According to Neoplatonist thought, this could be done by recognizing the spark of the divine — the work of God — in beautiful things in the physical world; therefore, the love of beauty was a form of worship (Benton & DiYanni, 2012). Florentine Renaissance ideals of beauty were heavily indebted to Greco-Roman traditions that emphasized harmony, rationality, and balance. Therefore, in art and architecture, this could be performed by using geometry as a symbol.

The elaborate geometrical floor pavings in the Medicis' private chapel, the Chapel of the Magi, may be a deliberate geometric code that communicated Neoplatonic ideals and functioned as a type of devotional communication. Cosimo de' Medici, who commissioned the chapel, and several of the artists and architects involved in the design and construction of it were closely involved with the founding of the Accademia Platonica in Florence, an influential group of scientists, artists, and philosophers and which was the cradle of Neoplatonism. The chapel's pavings following distinctive, complex geometrical patterns and ratios tied to Neoplatonic thought. The chapel was constructed for the use of the Medici family and those close to them — it was not intended as a place of worship for the public. Therefore, the Medicis and the artists, scientists, and intellectuals close to them could freely express in a precise geometric language certain beliefs and modes of thinking that were not completely orthodox. In the carefully measured, sumptuous marble pavings of the chapel, they could demonstrate theories of elevated scientific and religious though: divine harmony communicated through mathematics (Bartoli, 1994).


References

Bartoli, M. T. (1994). A Neoplatonic pavement. In The Chapel of the Magi: Benozzo Gozzoli's frescoes in the palazzo Medici-Riccardi Florence (p, 25-28). New York: Thames and Hudson.

Benton, J. R. & DiYanni, R. (2012). Arts and culture: An introduction to the humanities. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Brockington, J. (1998). The Sanskrit epics. Boston: Brill.

Calkins, R. G. (1983). Illuminated books of the Middle Ages. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

Curtis, G. B. (2006). The cave painters: Probing the mysteries of the world's first artists. (2006). New York: Knopf.

Davidson, A. E. (1992). Music and performance: Hildegard of Bingen's Ordo Virtutum. In The Ordo Virtutum of Hildegard of Bingen: Critical studies (p. 1-29). Kalamazoo, Michigan: Western Michigan University.

Faxon, A. C. (1989). Dante Gabriel Rossetti. New York: Abbeville Press.

Freeman, Margaret B. (1983). The Unicorn Tapestries. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Hackworth, P., L. (2006). The freedman in Roman art and art history. Oxford: Cambridge University Press.

Heyob, S. K. (1975). The cult of Isis among women in the Graeco-Roman world. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

King-Lenzmeier, A. H. (2001). Hildegard of Bingen: An integrated vision. Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press.

Moorman, E., M. (2011). Divine interiors: Mural paintings in Greek and Roman sanctuaries. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam Press.

Potkay, M. B. (1994). "The Limits of Romantic Allegory in Marie de France's Eliduc," Medieval Perspectives, 9 (1), 135-145. http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/55697230/limits-romantic-allegory-marie-de-frances-eliduc

Potter, R. (1986). The “Ordo Virtutum”: Ancestor of the English moralities?. Comparative Drama, 20 (3), 201–210. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41153244

Segal, C. (2001). Introduction. In Euripides, Bakkai (3-32). New York: Oxford University Press.

Simmance, E. (n.d.) Communication through music in ancient Egyptian religion. University of Birmingham. Retrieved 2/4/2019 from https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/connections/Essays/ESimmance.aspx.

Spink, W. (2008). Ajanta lecture: Korea 2008. WatlerSpink. Retrieved February 22, 2019, from https://www.walterspink.com/ajanta/ajanta-lecture

Takacs, S., A. (1995). Isis and Sarapis in the Roman world. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Van De Mieroop, M. (2005). King Hammurabi of babylon: A biography. Hoboken: Blackwell Publishing.

Vellacott, P. (1959). Introduction. In Aeschylus, The Orestian trilogy (9-40). New York: Penguin.

Voon, C. (2016). The raw expression of a rare, emaciated Buddha. Hyperallergic. Retrieved February 21, 2019, from https://hyperallergic.com/3448...

#AHMC2019

Nicole Votta
14
 

Mexican Heritage

This collection contains Chicano artwork  and historical images that embody my Mexican heritage.

Lucy Briseno
6
 

Scholars Spring 2019 Pics

Cooper Hewitt Design Scholars
2
 

ORIENTATION | Smithsonian Secretary's Youth Advisory Council (SSYAC) Fall 2018 - Spring 2019

<<This information is relevant to the Fall 2018 - Spring 2019 SSYAC Program.>>

SUPER IMPORTANT: When you click into the tiles, be sure to notice in the upper left hand corner if there is a "paper clip" icon. Clicking on the paperclip icon will lead to more information on a side panel. Some of the tiles will be website links or video links. Tiles marked as PDF or DOC are downloadable information. Within a tile, arrows at the bottom of the screen will navigate you between tiles.


Orientation for new members of the Smithsonian Secretary's Youth Advisory Council (SSYAC) for Fall 2018 - Spring 2019

  • About the Smithsonian Secretary's Youth Advisory Council (SSYAC) -- including forms and other important information
  • About Secretary David J. Skorton
  • About Smithsonian's past and present
  • About Smithsonian Affiliate participants
  • About Smithsonian operations, and policy information helpful to SSYAC members. 
  • Meeting Resources (relevant info related to upcoming meetings will be added closer to meeting dates). 

KEYWORDS: teen council, student engagement

Tracie Spinale
32
 

Bracero Program: Step In, Step Out, Step Back

In this activity, students will examine a painting of Mexican guest-workers, known as braceros, involved in the Bracero Program (1942-1964), the largest guest-worker program in US history.  Started as a temporary war measure to address labor demands in agriculture and railroads, the program allowed Mexican nationals to take temporary agricultural work in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and 24 other states. By the time the program ended in 1964, over 4.6 million work contracts were awarded. 

Using a Project Zero Global Thinking Routine - "Step In - Step Out - Step Back" - students will examine the perspectives of those depicted in the painting, consider what it means to take the perspectives of others, and explore avenues and methods to learn more about Braceros. Resources for learning more about the Bracero program are located at the end of the collection and include: Bittersweet Harvest, a digital exhibition about the Bracero Program; the Bracero History Archive, which includes oral histories, objects, and more; and a Learning Lab collection of photographs documenting the Bracero Program.

Keywords: laborer, immigration, work, migration, migrant workers, agriculture, reform, politics, government, photojournalism, activity, inquiry strategy, global competency, global competence, latino, chicano, 1940s, 40s, 1950s, 50s, 1960s, 60s

Tess Porter
6
 

Antisemitism Through the Ages

In recent years, antisemitism is thought to be a relatively new phenomenon. However, its roots are found much deeper in history: back to Roman times.  The collection is based chronologically to follow Antisemitism from its source leading up until the 21st century A.D. My expectation is that these collections will serve as a means to deepen the understanding of Antisemitism found within the Christian culture.

In the first century B.C.E. Cicero (Lawyer, writer and orator) wrote his Pro L. Flacco in defense of his client L. Valerius Flaccus. In defending his client (the governor of Asia), who was accused of embezzlement as well as corruption, Cicero accuses the Jews as the foundations for the conspiracies against his client. Cicero claims that Jews are the "variance" and go directly against the pietas (family, gods and state) Roman culture embraced. Cicero further back up his claim by stating that Roman gods don't even care for them or else the Jews city of Jerusalem would not have been conquered by the Romans and made tribute. In his work Pro L. Flacco he coined the phrase "barbara superstitio." The insult was meant to directly oppose the meaning of pietas; to oppose Rome itself.  It wasn't until a century later, when Rome laid siege to Judea, that his anti-Jewish beliefs would take root. 

Nearly a hundred years after Cicero first wrote his poisonous anti-Jewish work did Judea rebel against Rome. Emperor Vespasian's son Titus, constructed an army that brutally attacked the city of Jerusalem. There are several explicit records that denote Titus' relentless starvation of Jews, burning of synagogues (while Jews remained inside), outright slaughter of Jews (approximately 600,000 to 1.1 million Jews), and the remainder were sold into slavery. The sacking of Judea was extremely important to the Romans, because it signified their dominance. In celebration of this monumental event, the Arch of Titus was created to depict the sacking of Judea. In the relief, the menorah that Titus took from the Second Temple is displayed as the focus of the sculpture. 

During the time of the rebellion, Tacitus constructed his Historiae (70 C.E.) where he demonized Jews for their sacrilegious views of Roman gods. Tacitus created the four pillars that formed the anti-Semitic beliefs. He stated that Jews were affluent, perverted, "out-breeding," and sacrilegious. The way in which Tacitus illuminated the Jews caused the creation of a "mythology". This anti-Jewish mythology deemed Jews as tempting people from their families, religions, and patriotism (all pietas of Roman culture) as a way of destroying all who were not Jewish.  

In addition to the Arch of Titus, commemorative coins were also issued as part of the celebration. The coins depict a Roman soldier hovering over a Jewish woman. The anti-Jewish propaganda (the Arch and the coins, among others) allowed this perpetual violence to become palatable among Romans. 

In light of the growing anti-Semitic violence, Titus Flavius Josephus, a Jewish scholar during the 1st century A.D., wrote his work Contra Apionem , where he attempted to combat the anti-Jewish propaganda being spewed by the Romans. Much of Josephus argument was founded on past rebellions by Jews (like that in Egypt) and combating agitated Greek philosophers (regarding the spread of Judaism). 

In the following century after the conquest of Rome, Jews revolted to take back Judea. Just as the Romans created commemorative coins, so did the Jews. The rebellion was led by Simon Bar Kokhba. However, the Jews took Roman coins and filled them down before being over-struck with their own rebellious images. 

Our journey of Antisemitism during the Medieval period starts with the First Crusade in 1095 through 1099. During the First Crusade Christians attacked the Jew's sacred city, Jerusalem, taking the city as theirs. The First Crusade began to recall (if it ever went away) the Roman pillars against Jews. Until the year 1100 Jews were indistinguishable from Christians in artwork. In the early 1100's Jews were given pointed hats to differentiate them in paintings. 

The hatred of Jews began to rise in England with the mutilated dead body of William of Norwich in 1144. The crazy rumors surrounding his mutilation formed the myth known as Blood Libel. The myth of the blood libel was seen as the slaughter of young Christian children, where Jews used their blood for religious rites. Not long after, starting in 1150, Jews were demonized in art as well. 

The fear of Jews ran rampant throughout Europe. Christians even began to publicly display their hatred on the churches themselves. In 1240, the construction of Notre Dame included statues of Synogoga and Ecclesia, latin for Synagogue and Church. The two women represented more than just the names, they also represented the Christians view on the Jewish religion. Synogoga is depicted as wearing a helmet that covers her eyes (for her inability to "see" the truth), slouching, holding a broken spear (represent the death of Christ; blaming Jews for Christ's death), and the Torah (which she is barely hanging on to). In contrast, Ecclesia is standing straight with a crown (assuming the Christians are now the ones with the royal blood line), a cross staff, as well as a grail or chalice. The grail or chalice is perhaps in representation of the Holy Grail, the vessel believed to catch the blood of Christ during his Crucifixion. 

In 1267 two church councils order Jews to wear the pointed hats (as they did in paintings). Around the same time Jews were beginning to be depicted with abnormally large noses as well as with beards. This change of style is easily noted in the illuminated manuscript produced in 1275, called "Jesus before Caiaphas," Jesus (although a Jew) is not pictured with the Jewish nose as the four other men in the illumination are. Also note the two men in the front with the pointed hats. 

Churches continued the theme of degradation of Jews in their facades. However, in 1305 they reached an all time low, the Judensau was born. The Judensau is the depiction of Jews suckling a pig. According to Jewish law, pigs are considered to be unclean (not for consumption) and furthers the insult, comparing Jews to swine and claiming they are dirty and unclean peoples. 

As the style of art transitioned into the High Renaissance style, the depictions of Jews became further demonized. A late Renaissance painting by Albrecht Durer called "Christ Among the Doctors" notes this demonetization. The Jews are easily noticeable by their horrid appearance.  

The persecution of Jews continued across the continent. In Bildchronik of Diebold Schiling illuminated manuscript page, Jews are wearing the pointy hats as well as yellow identifying badges on their clothing while being burned alive at the stakes. One of the many reasons that this hatred was so easily accessible was the invention of the printing press. In a printing from 1596 we can see the reproduction of Martin Luther's 1543 Judensau article, which he pinned on his church door in Wittenberg, Germany. 

Jews were being "attacked" by rumors of blood libel, portrayed as wicked in art, portrayed as blind/dumb and unclean on church facades, as well as literature being spread against them, all over the span of 500 years. 

 #AHMC2019 #antisemitism #medieval #EcclesiaSynogoga #Judensau #JesusBeforeCaiaphas #ChristAmongDoctors #BildchronikofDieboldSchiling #PrintingpressJudensau #AntisemitismRomans #Cicero #ArchofTitus #BustofJosephus #RomanCommerorativeCoins #Tacitus #Barkokhbacoins

Jacquelyn Lopez
13
 

Abolition of slavery in Brazil

Did the abolition really change the life of the former slavers? #TeachingInquiry
Monaquelly Jesus
3
 

The Red Scare

This collection features resources (photographs, portraits, documents, articles, and videos) about the Second Red Scare (1947-57), a period of anti-communist fear, also known as "McCarthyism," that spread through American life at the beginning of the Cold War.  Resources include key people, such as Joseph McCarthy, Edward R. Murrow, Alger Hiss, and Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, letters documenting a university's requirement that faculty affirm they were not members of the Communist Party, individuals targeted by House Un-American Activities Committee, and more.

This collection provides a launching point for further research and should not be considered comprehensive.

Keywords: communism, anti-communism, anticommunism, HUAC, HCUA, hollywood blacklist, ray cohn 

Tess Porter
45
 

The Face of Feminism

Who gets to be the face of a movement?

Created for the National Portrait Gallery Learning to Look Summer Institute, 2016 #NPGteach #BecauseOfHerStory

Rachel Slezak
4
 

The Women Who Made a Differnce in the Ancient Times

Though most rulers in the ancient (and classical) world were men, some women wielded power and influence. 

Some ruled in their own name, some influenced their world as royal consorts, but they all made an impact during the ancient times.

bridgette
7
 

Sustainable Textiles

Sustainability is about using techniques that allow for continual reuse of resources. Why might textile designers want to reuse scraps or reclaim waste fibers? What other things that get thrown away could be reused as part of a woven textile? 

ART MAKING CHALLENGE: Incorporate something recyclable in a hand-woven textile.  Consider color, texture, and how well it will perform for a particular purpose.  Would you combine the recycled items with traditional yarns or just use re recycled items? Which method is likely to get the results you want?

Jean-Marie Galing
10
 

Tribal Membership and Blood Quantum

For the edx course "Teaching Historical Inquiry with Objects", "Is blood quantum a good way to determine whether or not someone can be a tribal member?

#teachinginquiry

Kirsten Bisson
4
 

Women in the Great War

This collection brings together objects and resources from the National Museum of American History that consider some of the critical ways that women supported and participated in World War I. Using these artifacts and resources, engage students in a thoughtful discussion to analyze the guiding question: How did women shape the outcomes of World War I?

Additional information and resources can be found in the museum's online exhibitions The Price of Freedom: Americans at War, Advertising War: Women and the War, Modern Medicine: Women in the War, and Uniformed Women in the Great War.

#BecauseOfHerStory

NMAH Education
20
 

african architecture

Michelle Nguyen
5
 

The Edward H. & Rosamund B. Spicer Photos of Yaqui Culture

The Rosamund B. and Edward H. Spicer of photographs of Yoeme (Yaqui) documents lifeways, culture, ceremonies, and families from the mid-1930s to the early 1940s in the villages of Old Pascua, Arizona and Potom, Sonora, Mexico.

#LatinoHAC

Arizona State Museum
21
 

Arizona State Museum Donald Cordry Photographs of Mexican Indian Costumes

The Donald B. Cordry collection contains photographs of Mexican mask-makers and textile weavers. Many of these photographs appear in his two books Mexican Masks and Mexican Indian Costumes.

#LatinoHAC

Arizona State Museum
55
 

La Lotería: A Mexican Bingo Game

Loteria arrived in Mexico the last half of the 18th century.  It began as a Spanish colonial card game played for amusement by the social elite, but was eventually played by all social classes.   Unlike bingo, loteria is played using a board filled with colorful illustrations and instead of numbers being drawn, cards with corresponding images are selected from a stack.  There is yet another twist, the announcer does not simply say the name of the image, traditionally he recites a poem or phrase to hint at what the card depicts before revealing it by name.      

Prior to the Spanish colonization of Mexico, the Aztecs of Mesoamerica played a similar game of chance called Patolli, which means beans in Nahuatl, the Aztec language. High wagers were placed on a Patolli game, sometimes resulting in the loss of home, freedom and family members.   The main objective of the game is to move a marker across 52 squares on an X shaped game board.  Beans, or patolli, with a painted white dot on one side would determine the passage of a player’s markers. 

Today, loteria is often played using beans as markers and can be utilized as an informal educational language tool.  The Traditional Instrument Loteria, created by the Arizona State Museum, is an example of how this fun game can be a way to learn Spanish and Yaqui words, as well as an excellent introduction to Yaqui and Mexican culture. 

Description Credit:  Arizona State Museum

#LatinoHAC

Arizona State Museum
37
 

What Would Frida Wear?

This collection provides students the opportunity to dress artist Frida Kahlo in traditional Mexican garb that she favored, the huipil and the quechquemitl.

Frida Kahlo was born in Coyoacan on July 6, 1907.  Thoughout her life Frida was a fierce nationalist and a vocal socialist. As a reflection of her beliefs, Frida often wore the indigenous clothing of Mexico.  This can be seen both in photographs of her and in her paintings.  Frida completed 143 paintings during her lifetime, 55 of which are self-portraits.  Many of these self-portaits are among her most famous works.  

Most of the costumes Frida wears were hand-woven, as well as hand embroidered and stitched.  The colors and many of the symbols used in her work are clearly influenced by Mexican tradition.

She died in 1954.

#LatinoHAC

Arizona State Museum
14
 

Image Analysis: "Girl at Gee's Bend, Alabama" by Arthur Rothstein

Developing an inquiry-based strategy to support students can allow them to investigate objects and images as historians do. In this example, students try to reveal the story behind the image. They raise questions for their own further research. Because the image has only a title, the photographer's name, the "sitter"'s name, the place and the date, students have to rely on their own analysis of evidence in the image, rather than someone else's interpretation. When they read the expert's analysis, they will have already considered many of the elements that the expert highlights and can compare their interpretations.

"Girl at Gee's Bend, Alabama" is a provocative photograph that can be used in discussions ranging from history of the South during the Great Depression, to social justice.

Ashley Naranjo
3
 

"Let Women Fly!": Female Aviators and Astronauts

Did you know that astronaut Mae Jemison carried a picture of aviator Bessie Coleman in her uniform pocket? Or that astronaut Sally Ride was a major supporter of vice presidential candidate Geraldine Ferraro? Maybe you knew that Jane Briggs Hart was Michigan's first female helicopter pilot and flew her husband, the late Senator Hart, to his political campaign stops as well as being vocal and liberal political activist? Find out about these inspirational women and others in this collection. This topical collection is a great starting point for research about female aviators and astronauts, and includes articles, images, artifacts, and video. Some guiding questions to consider might be:
-Why do you think it was so challenging for female pilots to become accepted? Compare the inclusion of women in aviation to other industries and fields.
-What role did the military play in the growth in the number of female aviators?
-What connections can you find between various female pilots and astronauts?
-Is being the "first" of something a political act? How do many female aviation leaders use their public voice?

#BecauseOfHerStory

Kate Harris
48
 

National History Day: "Flygirls"

This collection brings together EDSITEment and Smithsonian resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day.  While originally created for the 2017 theme, "Taking a Stand in History," resources found in this collection are useful for researching other National History Day themes.

These resources - photographs, objects, videos, articles, and more - focus on the lives and contributions of the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs), or "Flygirls" of WWII. Highlighted in this collection are also two African-American aviators, Willa Brown and Janet Bragg; discriminatory practices disallowed African-Americans from joining the WASPs during WWII. This collection is part of the larger collection, Taking a Stand: Women's Rights. When navigating this collection, please see the standalone text tile for a summary of collection resources.

By no means is this collection comprehensive; instead, it provides a launching point for further research.

This collection was created in collaboration with EDSITEment, a website for K-12 educators from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Tags: woman; women; female; feminism; feminist; pilot; aviator; army; world war 2; ww2; world war II; national endowment for the humanities; #nhd; #NHD2017, #BecauseOfHerStory

Tess Porter
29
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