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Found 1,056 Collections

 

Art Movement Presentation

#CIETeachArt

WILLIAM MORALES-RAMIREZ
10
 

Art from Memories

Compare and contrast artworks by William Christenberry and Robert Rauchenberg:

How do they depict the passage of time?

How are events or environments represented?

What do these images communicate about control or loss of control?


Jean-Marie Galing
12
 

Art Deco

Art movement of Art Deco 

In this collection its going to speak about:

Historical context

Major Features of this movement

Major inspiration 

Standout artist from the movement 

Examples of art from this period

How this art movement influenced future art movements/artist

#CIETEACHART

VALERIE MONTENEGRO
28
 

Art Conservation Workshop @ SAAM

For Teachers of 6th-12th Grade 

Saturday, March 9 (9:30-1:30) 

Location: Smithsonian American Art Museum (8th and G Streets, NW)


What can you learn when you put art, science, and history together in a room? Come find out why these three disciplines form the foundation of art conservation and how this profession can encourage students to see history as ongoing, science as creative, and art as a Rubik’s Cube of choices. Learn what it takes to preserve a collection with our Lunder Conservation Center’s Program Coordinator, Laura Hoffman!

Elizabeth Dale-Deines
12
 

Art as Resistance (2)

  • How may art be a tool of resistance? 
  • How have  historical movements used art to further their causes? 
  • How might current movements use art to further their causes?
Sher Anderson Petty
16
 

Art as Argument: Contemporary Artists' Voices

This collection explores the ways in which four American artists have used visual tools to share a message. In Amendment #8, Mark Bradford uses his layered paper and mixed media technique to challenge the viewer to consider how we are living up to the ideals of our founding documents. In Portrait of Mnonja, Mickalene Thomas references the art historical canon to address African American representation in museums. In Life Magazine, April 19, 1968, Alfredo Jaar manipulates a historical photograph to make visible the racial disparities it contains. And with her installation Folding the Chesapeake, Maya Lin begs us to see the critical importance of caring for the waterways around us. 

Created for an April 16, 2018 webinar with Montana teachers.

Phoebe Hillemann
11
 

Art and Technology Projects for Museums and Classrooms: From "Today I Am Here" to "Discovering US/Descubriéndonos"

This collection contains assets and resources designed to help teachers (art, English, ESOL, social studies, and media technology), museum educators, and community-based informal learning educators recreate their own "Today I Am Here" project, based on the specific needs of their classroom or learning community. 

"Today I Am Here" is a project in which students make a handmade book from one piece of paper, that tells the story of how they got to where they are today. This project is wonderful in a classroom to show the breadth and diversity of the class, and to encourage cross-cultural understanding. 

Inside you will find instructions and images for the various components of the project, as well as samples of student work. 

#LatinoHAC

Philippa Rappoport
14
 

Art and Technology

A collection of Smithsonian assets related to art and technology.

Neal Stimler
12
 

Art and Exercise: Yoga and Sandpainting

Summary:

Students will learn that exercise changes how they feel, and how they feel can change what they are able to do. While learning about yoga, students will make sand painting inspired by artists around the world.

Essential Questions:

How can exercise change the way we feel? What kind of art can we make when we are calm? What can we do to feel calmer during the day?

Art Standards:

VA:Cr1.1.Pk - Engage in self-directed play with materials

VA:Cn10.1.Pk -  Explore the world using descriptive and expressive words and art-making.

Day One:  

Materials: Colored pencils, coloring sheets,

Compare a neatly colored sheet to a sheet with scribbles. What do you notice? Which one shows care? How do we know? Demonstrate coloring within the lines using one colored pencil at a time. Children can choose one coloring sheet, and complete it at their desk. Look closely at the first image "Indian Man Making Sand Painting." Participate in See Think Wonder thinking routine. Direct students to think about what the person is doing, and how they are feeling.

Day Two:

Materials: Colored pencils, coloring sheets

Watch video about Tibetan sand painting. Participate in See Think Wonder thinking routine. Why would you need to be calm to make this kind of work? What can we do to feel calm? Document answers. Reminders about coloring: within the lines using one colored pencil at a time. Children can choose one coloring sheet, and complete it at their desk.

Day Three:

Materials: Colored pencils, coloring sheets

What can we do to feel calm? Participate in short yoga video. Ask students how do they feel? Document student answers. Reminders about coloring: within the lines using one colored pencil at a time. Children can choose one coloring sheet, and complete it at their desk. Alternatively, students can finish a previous coloring sheet.

Day Four:

Materials: trays, colored sand, small containers (ice cube trays or similar would be ideal)

Teacher demonstrates sand painting. Emphasis on moving slowly, using pinching, having a plan, not bumping the tray, etc. If there is time, have one student also try sand painting while teacher and students narrate what they are doing. Ask students, how do we need to feel to do this kind of work? Participate in short yoga video. Transition to tables. Students make sand paintings, teachers document student work with photographs. Afterwards, ask why was it so important for us to feel calm for this work? What did we do to make sure that we felt calm? What would have happened if we were jumping around?

Keywords: yoga, sand, mandala, exercise, sandpainting, Tibetan, American Indian, Two Rivers

#LearnWithTR

Allison Yood
8
 

Art and Exercise: Yoga & Sanpainting.

Summary:

Students will learn that exercise changes how they feel, and how they feel can change what they are able to do. While learning about yoga, students will make sand painting inspired by artists around the world.

Essential Questions:

How can exercise change the way we feel? What kind of art can we make when we are calm? What can we do to feel calmer during the day?

Art Standards:

VA:Cr1.1.Pk - Engage in self-directed play with materials

VA:Cn10.1.Pk -  Explore the world using descriptive and expressive words and art-making.

Day One:  

Materials: Colored pencils, coloring sheets,

Compare a neatly colored sheet to a sheet with scribbles. What do you notice? Which one shows care? How do we know? Demonstrate coloring within the lines using one colored pencil at a time. Children can choose one coloring sheet, and complete it at their desk. Look closely at the first image "Indian Man Making Sand Painting." Participate in See Think Wonder thinking routine. Direct students to think about what the person is doing, and how they are feeling.

Day Two:

Materials: Colored pencils, coloring sheets

Watch video about Tibetan sand painting. Participate in See Think Wonder thinking routine. Why would you need to be calm to make this kind of work? What can we do to feel calm? Document answers. Reminders about coloring: within the lines using one colored pencil at a time. Children can choose one coloring sheet, and complete it at their desk.

Day Three:

Materials: Colored pencils, coloring sheets

What can we do to feel calm? Participate in short yoga video. Ask students how do they feel? Document student answers. Reminders about coloring: within the lines using one colored pencil at a time. Children can choose one coloring sheet, and complete it at their desk. Alternatively, students can finish a previous coloring sheet.

Day Four:

Materials: trays, colored sand, small containers (ice cube trays or similar would be ideal)

Teacher demonstrates sand painting. Emphasis on moving slowly, using pinching, having a plan, not bumping the tray, etc. If there is time, have one student also try sand painting while teacher and students narrate what they are doing. Ask students, how do we need to feel to do this kind of work? Participate in short yoga video. Transition to tables. Students make sand paintings, teachers document student work with photographs. Afterwards, ask why was it so important for us to feel calm for this work? What did we do to make sure that we felt calm? What would have happened if we were jumping around?

Keywords: yoga, sand, mandala, exercise, sandpainting, Tibetan, American Indian, Two Rivers

#LearnWithTR

Lianne Perez
8
 

Art and Exercise: Large Drawings and Strength Training

Summary:

Students will learn that exercise changes how they feel, and how they feel can change what they are able to do.While learning about muscles and strength training, students will create large scale drawings using their whole body in the style of artist Heather Hansen.

Essential Questions:

How can exercise change the way we feel? When might we need to be strong? What can we do to make our bodies stronger? How can we use our muscles to make art?

Art Standards:

VA:Cr1.1.Pk - Engage in self-directed play with materials

VA:Cn10.1.Pk -  Explore the world using descriptive and expressive words and art-making.

Day One:

Materials: Playdoh, trays

Show children playdoh. How do I use this? Don't mix the colors. Keep it on the tray or in your hands. Close the container when finished. Never take any playdoh with you.  Squeeze a ball of playdoh in your hands. Have children feel your bicept, notice the difference in my arm. These are my muscles. At tables, have children use playdoh. Encourage children to squeeze playdoh and feel their arms.

Day Two:

Materials: Playdoh, trays

 Watch film "Weightlifting at the Zoo." Participate in See, Think, Wonder thinking routine. Direct the conversation to why animals might need to be strong and what they are doing to make sure that they are strong. At tables, have children use playdoh. Encourage children to squeeze playdoh and feel their arms.

Day Three:

Materials: chalk, black paper

Ask children when does someone use their strength? Why might someone want to become stronger? Document their answers. Show children chalk. How would you use this? Make sure that you are careful because it can break easily. If you drop it on the floor, pick it up right away. Use one piece of chalk at a time. Draw only on your own paper. Send children to tables to draw on paper with chalk.

Day Four:

Materials: Large paper taped to the floor, chalk, playdoh, trays

Watch video of Heather Hansen working. Participate in See, Think, Wonder thinking routine. How would we do this kind of work? Demonstrate how to draw like Heather Hansen. In small groups have children try drawing in the style of Heather Hansen. Children who are not drawing can use playdoh.

(This lesson make take more than one day)

Day Five:

Materials: Large paper taped to the floor, chalk taped to weights, playdoh, trays

Show students chalk taped to weights. Today we will continue working like Heather Hansen, but using these instead. Demonstrate using the weights on large paper. How do you think this will be different? Will it be easier or harder? In small groups have children try drawing in the style of Heather Hansen. Children who are not drawing can use play doh.  What would happen if we didn't have strong muscles for this work? What can we do to make our muscles stronger. 

(This lesson make take more than one day)

Key Words: muscle, strength, weight, lift, Heather Hansen, body, exercise, Two Rivers

#LearnWithTR

Allison Yood
7
 

Art and Exercise: Jackson Pollock and Zumba

Summary:

Students will learn that exercise changes how they feel, and how they feel can change what they are able to do. While learning about Zumba, students will make Jackson Pollock inspired artwork.

Essential Questions: 

How can exercise change the way we feel? What kind of art can we make when we are energized? What can we do to feel more energized during the day? 

Art Standards:

VA:Cr1.1.Pk - Engage in self-directed play with materials

VA:Cn10.1.Pk -  Explore the world using descriptive and expressive words and art-making.

Day 1:

Materials: butcher paper taped to tables, crayons

Students look at images of Jackson Pollock in his studio. Students participate in See Think Wonder thinking routine. Emphasis on what Jackson Pollock does with his body to make art. I wonder, do you think that he could make this artwork if he was really sleepy? What can we do to feel more energized. Participate in Zumba video. Demo how to draw collaboratively on tables covered with butcher paper using crayons. Transition to tables with butcher paper for large collaborative drawings. 

Day 2:

Materials: butcher paper taped to tables, crayons

Students review images of Jackson Pollock in his studio. What is Jackson Pollock doing to get these drippy lines? Is he splashing all over the place? Let's watch a video of Jackson Pollock working! How do we look and sound when we watch a video? See think wonder thinking routine. Is he just smashing everywhere or is he making sure to hit the canvas? Is he painting directly on the canvas or is the paint falling through the air? Participate in Zumba video. Have one student demonstrate how to draw collaboratively on tables covered with butcher paper using crayons. Transition to tables with butcher paper for large collaborative drawings. 

Day 3:

Materials: Play dough, trays, paint in cups, canvas on floor, aprons, sticks and brushes, drop cloth/plastic to protect the floor

Look closely at examples of Jackson Pollock artwork. Participate in See, Think, Wonder routine. Emphasize that Jackson Pollock painted drips, not his house or his mom. Today we are going to paint just like Jackson Pollock, but first we need to make sure we aren't too sleepy to do it. Participate in Zumba video. How do we use play dough? Some children will use play dough and some will paint like Jackson Pollock. Everyone will do both, but maybe not today. Thumbs up if you understand. Transition to tables some children use play dough and some work with the teacher to paint like Jackson Pollock on the floor. Transition to carpet. What did you notice when you were painting like Jackson Pollock? What would have happened if we were really sleepy? What did we do to get energized?

(this may take more than one class to complete)

Keywords: Zumba, sand, energized, paint, Jackson Pollock, Two Rivers

#LearnWithTR

Allison Yood
7
 

Art and Exercise: Jackson Pollock and Zumba

Summary:

Students will learn that exercise changes how they feel, and how they feel can change what they are able to do. While learning about Zumba, students will make Jackson Pollock inspired artwork.

Essential Questions: 

How can exercise change the way we feel? What kind of art can we make when we are energized? What can we do to feel more energized during the day? 

Art Standards:

VA:Cr1.1.Pk - Engage in self-directed play with materials

VA:Cn10.1.Pk -  Explore the world using descriptive and expressive words and art-making.

Day 1:

Materials: butcher paper taped to tables, crayons

Students look at images of Jackson Pollock in his studio. Students participate in See Think Wonder thinking routine. Emphasis on what Jackson Pollock does with his body to make art. I wonder, do you think that he could make this artwork if he was really sleepy? What can we do to feel more energized. Participate in Zumba video. Demo how to draw collaboratively on tables covered with butcher paper using crayons. Transition to tables with butcher paper for large collaborative drawings. 

Day 2:

Materials: butcher paper taped to tables, crayons

Students review images of Jackson Pollock in his studio. What is Jackson Pollock doing to get these drippy lines? Is he splashing all over the place? Let's watch a video of Jackson Pollock working! How do we look and sound when we watch a video? See think wonder thinking routine. Is he just smashing everywhere or is he making sure to hit the canvas? Is he painting directly on the canvas or is the paint falling through the air? Participate in Zumba video. Have one student demonstrate how to draw collaboratively on tables covered with butcher paper using crayons. Transition to tables with butcher paper for large collaborative drawings. 

Day 3:

Materials: Play dough, trays, paint in cups, canvas on floor, aprons, sticks and brushes, drop cloth/plastic to protect the floor

Look closely at examples of Jackson Pollock artwork. Participate in See, Think, Wonder routine. Emphasize that Jackson Pollock painted drips, not his house or his mom. Today we are going to paint just like Jackson Pollock, but first we need to make sure we aren't too sleepy to do it. Participate in Zumba video. How do we use play dough? Some children will use play dough and some will paint like Jackson Pollock. Everyone will do both, but maybe not today. Thumbs up if you understand. Transition to tables some children use play dough and some work with the teacher to paint like Jackson Pollock on the floor. Transition to carpet. What did you notice when you were painting like Jackson Pollock? What would have happened if we were really sleepy? What did we do to get energized?

(this may take more than one class to complete)

Keywords: Zumba, sand, energized, paint, Jackson Pollock, Two Rivers

#LearnWithTR

Robin McLaurin
7
 

Art & Resistance: Frederick Douglass

Why art & resistance in a novel study of The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass

  • This lesson may be used as a pre-reading activity for a study of the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass.  My two year literature course begins junior year with the reading and interrogation of Douglass' Narrative.  
  • Students often have a limited view of the author, the historical context of 19th century America and especially the resistance against oppression and struggle for agency of racialized groups (like the kidnapped Africans who were stolen from their homes, trafficked and enslaved).  
  • This collection is designed to help students construct meaning around one of Douglass' many means of resistance to oppression by the careful curation of his image.

Why resistance?  

  • My rationale for centering our literature study on the concept of resistance was born from conversations with students last year that revealed their false beliefs that enslaved people (specifically the kidnapped and enslaved Africans trafficked and sold into the American Slave Trade) did not by and large resist.  There was large scale ignorance across all my classes of the scale of acts of resistance as well. 
  •  Additionally,I thought since my students are developmentally at a stage of differentiating themselves from their parents/ families (often looking like resistance to norms) that they would find relevance and resonance with a unit centered on resistance.

#goglobal #andersonpetty

Sher Anderson Petty
67
 

Art & Culture Sort

First, sort the images by type of art/artist. Teacher should make index card headings for the following categories: Painting/Painter, Textile/Weaver, Clothing/Fashion Designer, Architecture/Architect, Prints/Printmaker, Sculpture/Sculptor, Functional Ceramics/Potter or Ceramist. Sometimes an image may cross categories (painting of a house might be categorized in architecture or painting); either answer would be acceptable if the student can justify why.

Second, make an educated guess about culture represented in selected images. Students can "guess and check" with teacher. Online research option: students work in pairs to access this collection and click on the info button for an image to learn about the maker, time period, and culture. They can record their findings to help answer the reflection questions below.

After the sorting activities, ask students to choose an image and answer: Why is/was this object of value (or useful)? How do you think it expresses something important to the people of that culture?

Jean-Marie Galing
28
 

Art & Culture Guessing Game

1. Can you guess who made these? Look at each picture and decide which type of maker created it:      Painter, Sculptor, Potter, Printmaker, Weaver, Architect

2. Can you guess what culture or time these things are from?  Write your guess, then click on the picture. Click the  i  symbol to learn the answer.

3. Choose a picture and tell why  you think this object is special or useful.

4.  How do you think it expresses something important to the people of that culture?

Jean-Marie Galing
24
 

Are You Sold?

Taking an eclectic look at advertisements in the past few decades.

Marvin Luu
17
 

Architectural Elements and Archways- Maya Eisenberg

Cooper Hewitt Design Scholars
21
 

AP Art History Curriculum Framework: Focus on "Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings"

This educational resource is designed especially for teachers and students in Advanced Placement (AP) Art History courses. It focuses on an artwork from the Freer|Sackler collection, Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings; one of the 250 works that are featured in the AP Art History curriculum. In particular, this artwork is in Content Area 8 - South, East, and Southeast Asia.

The AP Art History curriculum stresses the investigation of four key areas for each artwork: Form, Function, Content, and Context. This resource will touch on all four areas and can be adapted for use.



Tags: Album, AP, Art History, emperor, India, Jahangir, manuscript, Mughal dynasty, Muslim, portrait, Project Zero, See/Think/Wonder


Background Note to Teachers

India's Mughal emperors, who reigned over a vast and wealthy empire that extended over most of the South Asian subcontinent between the 16th and 19th centuries, were passionate about lavish manuscripts and paintings. Between 1556 and 1657, the greatest Mughal patrons—the emperors Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan—formed grand workshops that brought together and nurtured India's leading painters, calligraphers and illuminators. This resource focuses on just one of the paintings created for Jahangir, but the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery form one of the world's most important repositories of Mughal and Persian painting. To search our collection, refer to http://www.asia.si.edu/collections/edan/default.cf....


Related Standards

  • C3 D2.His.1.6-8 - Analyze connections among events and developments in broader historical contexts.
  • C3 D2.His.2.6-8 - Classify series of historical events and developments as examples of change and/or continuity.
  • C3 D2.His.14.6-8 - Explain multiple causes and effects of events and developments in the past.
  • C3 D2.His.15.6-8 - Evaluate the relative influence of various causes of events and developments in the past.
  • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.7 - Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
  • NAEA | Anchor Standard 7 - Perceive and analyze artistic work.
  • NAEA | Anchor Standard 8 - Interpret intent and meaning in artistic work.
  • NAEA | Anchor Standard 11 - Relate artistic ideas and works with societal, cultural and historical context to deepen understanding.
  • NCHS WH Era 6 | Standard 1B - The student understands the encounters between Europeans and peoples of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.
  • NCHS WH Era 6 | Standard 3C - The student understands the rise of the Safavid and Mughal empires.
  • NCHS WH Era 6 | Standard 6A - The student understands major global trends from 1450 to 1770.
  • NCSS 1 : Culture - Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of culture and cultural diversity.
  • NCSS 2 : Time, Continuity, and Change - Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of the past and its legacy.
  • NCSS 3 : People, Places, and Environments - Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of people, places, and environments.


Resources

This collection has been compiled from materials available on the Freer|Sackler website. In addition, these resources have been especially useful:

Milo Cleveland Beach, The Imperial Image: Paintings for the Mughal Court. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2012.

Print and online materials related to "Worlds within Worlds: Imperial Paintings from India and Iran," an exhibition held at the Freer|Sackler from July 28 through Sept. 16, 2012.


Freer and Sackler Galleries
12
 

Antisemitism Through the Ages

In recent years, antisemitism is thought to be a relatively new phenomenon. However, its roots are found much deeper in history: back to Roman times.  The collection is based chronologically to follow Antisemitism from its source leading through the 21st century A.D. My expectation is that these collections will serve as a means to deepen the understanding of Antisemitism found within the Christian culture.

In the first century B.C.E. Cicero (Lawyer, writer and orator) wrote his Pro L. Flacco in defense of his client L. Valerius Flaccus. In defending his client (the governor of Asia), who was accused of embezzlement as well as corruption, Cicero accuses the Jews as the foundations for the conspiracies against his client. Cicero claims that Jews are the "variance" and go directly against the pietas (family, gods and state) Roman culture embraced. Cicero further back up his claim by stating that Roman gods don't even care for them or else the Jews city of Jerusalem would not have been conquered by the Romans and made tribute. In his work Pro L. Flacco he coined the phrase "barbara superstitio." The insult was meant to directly oppose the meaning of pietas; to oppose Rome itself.  It wasn't until a century later, when Rome laid siege to Judea, that his anti-Jewish beliefs would take root. 

Nearly a hundred years after Cicero first wrote his poisonous anti-Jewish work did Judea rebel against Rome. Emperor Vespasian's son Titus, constructed an army that brutally attacked the city of Jerusalem. There are several explicit records that denote Titus' relentless starvation of Jews, burning of synagogues (while Jews remained inside), outright slaughter of Jews (approximately 600,000 to 1.1 million Jews), and the remainder were sold into slavery. The sacking of Judea was extremely important to the Romans, because it signified their dominance. In celebration of this monumental event, the Arch of Titus was created to depict the sacking of Judea. In the relief, the menorah that Titus took from the Second Temple is displayed as the focus of the sculpture. 

During the time of the rebellion, Tacitus constructed his Historiae (70 C.E.) where he demonized Jews for their sacrilegious views of Roman gods. Tacitus created the four pillars that formed the anti-Semitic beliefs. He stated that Jews were affluent, perverted, "out-breeding," and sacrilegious. The way in which Tacitus illuminated the Jews caused the creation of a "mythology". This anti-Jewish mythology deemed Jews as tempting people from their families, religions, and patriotism (all pietas of Roman culture) as a way of destroying all who were not Jewish.  

In addition to the Arch of Titus, commemorative coins were also issued as part of the celebration. The coins depict a Roman soldier hovering over a Jewish woman. The anti-Jewish propaganda (the Arch and the coins, among others) allowed this perpetual violence to become palatable among Romans. 

In light of the growing anti-Semitic violence, Titus Flavius Josephus, a Jewish scholar during the 1st century A.D., wrote his work Contra Apionem , where he attempted to combat the anti-Jewish propaganda being spewed by the Romans. Much of Josephus argument was founded on past rebellions by Jews (like that in Egypt) and combating agitated Greek philosophers (regarding the spread of Judaism). 

In the following century after the conquest of Rome, Jews revolted to take back Judea. Just as the Romans created commemorative coins, so did the Jews. The rebellion was led by Simon Bar Kokhba. However, the Jews took Roman coins and filled them down before being over-struck with their own rebellious images. 

Our journey of Antisemitism during the Medieval period starts with the First Crusade in 1095 through 1099. During the First Crusade Christians attacked the Jew's sacred city, Jerusalem, taking the city as theirs. The First Crusade began to recall (if it ever went away) the Roman pillars against Jews. Until the year 1100 Jews were indistinguishable from Christians in artwork. In the early 1100's Jews were given pointed hats to differentiate them in paintings. 

The hatred of Jews began to rise in England with the mutilated dead body of William of Norwich in 1144. The crazy rumors surrounding his mutilation formed the myth known as Blood Libel. The myth of the blood libel was seen as the slaughter of young Christian children, where Jews used their blood for religious rites. Not long after, starting in 1150, Jews were demonized in art as well. 

The fear of Jews ran rampant throughout Europe. Christians even began to publicly display their hatred on the churches themselves. In 1240, the construction of Notre Dame included statues of Synogoga and Ecclesia, latin for Synagogue and Church. The two women represented more than just the names, they also represented the Christians view on the Jewish religion. Synogoga is depicted as wearing a helmet that covers her eyes (for her inability to "see" the truth), slouching, holding a broken spear (represent the death of Christ; blaming Jews for Christ's death), and the Torah (which she is barely hanging on to). In contrast, Ecclesia is standing straight with a crown (assuming the Christians are now the ones with the royal blood line), a cross staff, as well as a grail or chalice. The grail or chalice is perhaps in representation of the Holy Grail, the vessel believed to catch the blood of Christ during his Crucifixion. 

In 1267 two church councils order Jews to wear the pointed hats (as they did in paintings). Around the same time Jews were beginning to be depicted with abnormally large noses as well as with beards. This change of style is easily noted in the illuminated manuscript produced in 1275, called "Jesus before Caiaphas," Jesus (although a Jew) is not pictured with the Jewish nose as the four other men in the illumination are. Also note the two men in the front with the pointed hats. 

Churches continued the theme of degradation of Jews in their facades. However, in 1305 they reached an all time low, the Judensau was born. The Judensau is the depiction of Jews suckling a pig. According to Jewish law, pigs are considered to be unclean (not for consumption) and furthers the insult, comparing Jews to swine and claiming they are dirty and unclean peoples. 

As the style of art transitioned into the High Renaissance style, the depictions of Jews became further demonized. A late Renaissance painting by Albrecht Durer called "Christ Among the Doctors" notes this demonetization. The Jews are easily noticeable by their horrid appearance.  

The persecution of Jews continued across the continent. In Bildchronik of Diebold Schiling illuminated manuscript page, Jews are wearing the pointy hats as well as yellow identifying badges on their clothing while being burned alive at the stakes. One of the many reasons that this hatred was so easily accessible was the invention of the printing press. In a printing from 1596 we can see the reproduction of Martin Luther's 1543 Judensau article, which he pinned on his church door in Wittenberg, Germany. 

Throughout this period Jews were forced to leave their homes due to expulsions from lands like that of the Spanish Inquisition led by King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella.  In 1807 Napoleon Bonaparte emancipated the Jews in his Great Sanhedrin. In protecting the Jews, Napoleon received much backlash, including the Russian Orthodox Church claiming Napoleon to be the “Antichrist” as well as an outright “Enemy of God.”

In 1843 Karl Marx published his work “On the Jewish Question.” The book has received mixed criticisms on whether it is truly an antisemitic piece of literature, especially considering he was of Jewish linage. It appears however, that many critics believe that Marx’s perceptions of Jews economic role largely fulfill the antisemitic pillars.

Richard Wagner in his 1850 publication “Das Judenthum in der Musik,” which translates to “Jewishness in Music” in German, attacks both Jews and Jewish composers (particularly Giacomo Meyerbeer and Felix Mendelssohn). He wrote his work under a pseudonym in order to prevent personal Jewish inquiry.

In an issue of “Sound Money” published in 1896, a antisemitic political cartoon shows Uncle Sam being crucified akin to Jesus. There are two men on the outside stabbing Uncle Same, they are supposed to be members of Wall St. The cartoonist gives them the large Jewish noses as well as labeling them as pirates. Indicating that Jews have control of the US’s money and are stealing it. In addition, they are stabbing Uncle Sam with “Single Gold Standard” and wetting Uncle Sam’s lips with poisonous “Debt” on the sponge of “Interest on Bonds.”  The two men on the inside flanking Uncle Same represent James G. Blaine as the “Republicanism” and Grover Cleveland as “Democracy” in which they are seen pick pocketing Uncle Sam.

Throughout Europe pogroms were taking place. Pogroms were violent acts against Jews that often ended in massacre or persecution. One such Pogrom was that in Kiev, Ukraine in 1919.  During the pogrom many Jews were raped, murdered or affected by looting. The picture is of four Jewish victims at an Alexander Hospital. In total 1,326 pogroms took place in Ukraine; some 30,000-70,000 Jews were murdered.

Meanwhile accusations of the medieval belief of blood libels were still prominent throughout even the early 20th century.

In the 1920s Henry Ford published his article “The Ford International Weekly” were most weeks (91 issues) had some antisemitic statement. Eventually these antisemitic statements grew into its own publication of “The International Jew: The World’s Foremost Problem” published in 1920, comprised of 4 volumes.

As you can see, the world was riddled with antisemitism by the time of the 1920s, including the United States. Although Hitler is thought of as the reason behind the Holocaust, he clearly wasn’t lacking in supporters. It was merely a matter of how far these people were (who shared his antisemitic beliefs) willing to go. In 1925 Hitler wrote his “Mein Kampf” meaning “My Struggles” in German. In this work he outlined his antisemitic beliefs as well as his intentions.

Ten years after Hitler’s publication of “Mein Kampf,” Nazi Germany passed the antisemitic laws known as the “Nuremburg Laws” in 1935.  The laws largely dealt with protecting both German blood as well as honour. People were classified by their blood status, depending on your Jewish percentage of blood was the way in which you were approved to obtain Reich citizenship or not. If you were considered to be racially defiled (certain percentage of Jewish blood) you were first sent to prison and later sent to concentration camps.

Directly proceeding Kristallnacht or the Night of Broken Glass on November 9-10, 1938, started the six-year long genocide known as the Holocaust, 1938-1945. I have included several pictures that evoke strong emotions of Jews inside the concentration camps. I have tried however to abstain from using the more graphic and dead riddled photos. I felt that one picture was not merely enough to demonstrate the torture and the injustice Jews received during this time. I wish I could say that after 6 million Jews died that History could finally end its antisemitic beliefs and achieve peace. However, that is not the case.

Hatred still ruins in the veins of many people during the later half of the 20th and 21st centuries. Just over 10 years after the Holocaust officially ended, in 1958 an Atlanta, Georgia temple, Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Temple, was bombed. Luckily no one was injured, however the building received extensive damage.

Rumors surrounding the Holocaust’s legitimacy surfaced. In 1969 professor of History David Hoggan published “The Myth of the Six Million.” In his book, he denied that the Holocaust ever happened!

In Miami, Florida in 1988 yet another synagogue (Bet Shira Congregation) was attacked, this time however it was defiled with misdrawn swastikas. The defamation was completed by a group of local teenagers.

One year ago, in March 2018 in Paris, France, an elderly lady Mireille Knoll was murdered “…because she was Jewish.” She was not only stabbed but also burned. It is believed that as a child (9 years old) she was able to escape capture and deportation to Auschwitz.

Later last year in October, a temple, Tree of Life, in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania was attacked by an antisemitic gunman killing 11 people and injuring 7 more, 4 of which were police officers.  

By no means have I been able to provide a thorough account of all the hatred Jews receive and continue to receive daily. This project serves as a cultural understanding and in hopes that one day, the world will be able to eradicate its hatred. 

 #AHMC2019 #antisemitism #medieval #EcclesiaSynogoga #Judensau #JesusBeforeCaiaphas #ChristAmongDoctors #BildchronikofDieboldSchiling #PrintingpressJudensau #AntisemitismRomans #Cicero #ArchofTitus #BustofJosephus #RomanCommerorativeCoins #Tacitus #Barkokhbacoins #Holocaust #MeinKampf #HenryFord #KeivPogrom #Napoleon #Nuremburglaws

Jacquelyn Lopez
29
 

Antelope Valley Indian Museum

The Antelope Valley Indian Museum has been a public museum since 1932, but it has also been a homestead, a theater, a dude ranch, a Hollywood set, and an attraction. It is situated on 147 acres of desert parkland on the south side of Piute Butte in the Mojave Desert against a dramatic backdrop of Joshua trees and towering rock formations. The building’s unique architecture and creative engineering earned it a spot on the National Register of Historic Places, and the Native American Heritage Commission designated Piute Butte as a sacred landscape.

The Collection
The museum exhibits over 3,000 objects, including many rare and outstanding objects from the Antelope Valley, California coast, Great Basin, and the Southwest. An important four way trade route developed in the Antelope Valley at least 4,000 years ago. The trade routes went west and south to the California coast, north to the Central Valley, northeast to the Great Basin (the desert east of the Sierra Nevada Mountains), and east to the pueblos in what is now Arizona, New Mexico, and Mexico. The trade route expanded and enriched the material and social resources available to Antelope Valley residents, allowing large villages to develop near the valley’s springs.

History of H. Arden Edwards
Howard Arden Edwards, a self-taught artist, was fascinated with the scenery around the buttes in the Antelope Valley.  He homesteaded 160 acres on rocky Piute Butte and in 1928.  With his wife and teenage son, he began construction of what was to be a combination home and showcase for his extensive collection of American Indian culture.  A unique structure evolved: a Tudor Revival style building, decorated inside and out with American Indian designs and motifs, incorporating large granite boulders as an integral part of the building both inside and out. You actually climb upon these rocks as you go from picturesque Kachina Hall upstairs to California Hall. This unusual upper level housed Mr. Edwards' original "Antelope Valley Indian Research Museum."

History of Grace Oliver
Grace Wilcox Oliver, a onetime student of anthropology, discovered Edwards' property while hiking in the desert.  She felt it would be a perfect setting for a personal hideaway. She contacted the owner with an offer to buy the property.  Successful in these negotiations, she modified some features of the main building, added her own collections, and expanded the physical facilities on the property.  By this time she had decided to open the entire structure as The Antelope Valley Indian Museum.  Grace operated the museum intermittently through the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s and 1970s.

Becoming a State Park
Local support for the acquisition of the property by the State of California led Oliver to sell the land and donate the collection to State Parks in 1979. The museum has been designated as a Regional Indian Museum, emphasizing American Indian cultures of the Great Basin.

Lori Wear
40
 

Anna May Wong

Movie Star

A complementary collection of extension activities is available here: https://learninglab.si.edu/collections/anna-may-wong-extension-activities/Eo4txiDzJnf8arqN#r

NPG Final Project July 2017

mae
1
 

Animals in Art

This collection is about animals art.
Galileo Galileo
6
 

Animals in Art

This three part collection is a curation of examples of the relationship between animals and art. Animals were around before the human race appeared and they will probably still be around when we are long gone. Animals have been involved in every civilization whether they are pets or predators. Some see animals as sacred beings- whether it be for religious purposes, or because they are a beloved pet. In modern society, actual animal bodies could be considered art as well. Mounting deer heads, making bear skin rugs, or taxidermy, These forms can also be seen as a way of representing an animal is sacred to them. 

I will be exploring animals in art from Egyptian to modern day in different forms including paintings and sculptures. 

#AHMCFall2019

KAYLA BLAIR
18
913-936 of 1,056 Collections