Found 78,018 Resources
New species of Rhabdosynochus Mizelle and Blatz 1941 (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae) from the gills of centropomid fishes (Teleostei) off the Pacific coast of Mexico
Out of Amazonia again and again: episodic crossing of the Andes promotes diversification in a lowland forest flycatcher
The influence of canopy traits on throughfall and stemflow in five tropical trees growing in a Panamanian plantation
Body size shapes caste expression, and cleptoparasitism reduces body size in the facultatively eusocial bees Megalopta (Hymenoptera : Halictidae)
Biology of a nocturnal bee, Megalopta atra (Hymenoptera: Halictidae; Augochlorini), from the Panamanian highlands
Transcript: 23 pages
An interview with Irving Marantz conducted 1968 August 31, by Dorothy Seckler, for the Archives of American Art.
Transcript: 40 pages
An interview of Virginia Cuthbert conducted 1995 August 28, by Robert F. Brown, for the Archives of American Art, in Cuthbert's home, Buffalo, New York.
Virginia Cuthbert discusses her family background in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area; and her father's love of art and acquaintance with Homer Saint-Gaudens, Director of the Carnegie Museum of Art; her very early art education and, later, her study in Europe on a Syracuse University fellowship; her brief study with Felice Carena in Florence and critiques of her work in London by Augustus John and Colin Gill; her study and friendship in New York with George Luks and the beginning of a long friendship with the composer, Virgil Thompson; graduate study in fine arts at the University of Pittsburgh; her engagement to the future museum director, Andrew Ritchie, its breaking-off, and her marriage to Philip Elliott; her further study at the Carnegie Institute with Alexander Kostellow; and a sketching trip to France and Spain.
Transcript: 148 pages
An interview with John Coolidge conducted 1989 March 7-29, by Robert F. Brown, for the Archives of American Art.
Bolotowsky is interviewed by Adelaide Freer, a student of Irving Sandler's. He discusses his association with the group called "The Ten Whitney Dissenters," his personal history, various styles of art, and his own work.
"Transmitted January 17, 1890."
Also available online.
NZP copy bound with Report of the Acting Manager of the National Zoological Park and succeeding title of the report as well as other material, barcode 39088017698358.
"A monthly record of science applied to art and manufacture."
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 7, no.  (July 1867) = n.s., no. .
Vol. 7, no. 73- also called: New ser., no. 1-.
Also available online.
As fog drifts over the coast of California, it may carry a noxious substance that is endangering one of the region’s keystone species. A new study in Scientific Reports has found elevated levels of mercury in pumas that roam through the Santa Cruz Mountains—and researchers suspect that marine fog is responsible for wafting the neurotoxin into the terrestrial food chain.
Mercury is a naturally occurring element that is released into the environment through both natural processes and human activities, like mining and coal-fired power plants. Once mercury is in the atmosphere, it can rain down into the ocean, where anaerobic bacteria convert it into methylmercury—“the most toxic form of mercury,” according to the University of California, Santa Cruz. At high enough concentrations, methylmercury can cause neurological and reproductive damage, among other negative effects.
Some of the methylmercury in the ocean rises to the surface of the water, where it is carried inland by fog. "Fog is a stabilizing medium for methylmercury," explains Peter Weiss-Penzias, an environmental toxicologist at UC Santa Cruz and lead author of the new study. "Fog drifts inland and rains down in microdroplets, collecting on vegetation and dripping to the ground, where the slow process of bioaccumulation begins."
Mercury levels in fog are not high enough to pose a danger to humans. But land-dwelling organisms are at risk because as mercury moves up the food chain—from plants, to plant-eating animals, to carnivores—its concentrations can increase by 1,000 times.
For the new study, researchers sought to determine how an apex predator along the coast of California—a region that is likely to be swallowed up by marine fog—is being impacted by mercury in the atmosphere. The team focused on the Santa Cruz Mountains because this geographic area “form[s] an effective barrier to the inland penetration of marine fog,” as the study authors explain.
The researchers analyzed hair and whisker samples from 94 pumas that dwell along the coast and 18 pumas that occupy inland areas. The coastal mountain lions had higher concentrations of mercury in their biological samples, with an average of 1,500 parts per billion (ppb), compared to around 500 ppb in the inland puma samples. Two of the pumas displayed “sub-lethal” mercury levels that may have a negative impact on reproduction. One animal was contaminated with mercury levels known to be toxic to other species, like mink and otters. “It was found dead,” Weiss-Penzias tells Alani Letang of KSBW.
To trace the trickle-up effect of mercury in the environment, the researchers also looked at levels of the neurotoxin in both lichen and deer samples; deer eat lichen, and pumas eat deer, as Letang explains. Once again, concentrations were higher in samples from ocean facing sites, compared to those from inland sites. The presence of elevated mercury levels in the lichen was particularly telling because, as Weiss-Penzias explains, the organism does not have any roots—meaning that the contamination had to be coming from the atmosphere, rather than the ground.
As Alejandra Reyes-Velarde of the Los Angeles Times points out, the risk of fog-borne mercury poisoning is just one of several threats to pumas in California. Since 2002, five of the great cats have died after ingesting rat poison, which can be dangerous to pumas even if it does not kill them. Biologists suspect the toxic substance is making the animals vulnerable to mange, a potentially fatal skin disease. Roads and freeways fragment the animals’ habitat, leading to fatal vehicle collisions and creating barriers that force the cats to in-breed, reducing their genetic diversity.
“These mercury levels might compound the impacts of trying to make it in an environment like the Santa Cruz Mountains, where there is already so much human influence, but we don’t really know,” says Chris Wilmers, study co-author and director of the Puma Project. “Levels will be higher 100 years from now, when the Earth’s mercury budget is higher because of all the coal we’re pumping into the atmosphere.”
As apex predators, pumas play an important role in their ecosystem, helping control populations of large ungulates, like deer, as well as small predators. Any threats to the cats’ well-being also risk disrupting the delicate balance of their environment.
"We need to protect the top predators in the environment," says Weiss-Penzias. "They perform ecosystem services. When you change one thing, it has cascading effects through the system."
Almost 30 years after its discovery, a small sandstone figurine unearthed in Jordan has been identified as perhaps the oldest chess piece discovered to date.
As John Oleson, a researcher at Canada’s University of Victoria, reported during the annual meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research late last month, archaeologists found the carved piece of white sandstone while conducting excavations at Humayma, a former Islamic trading post in Jordan, in 1991.
Initially, Oleson writes in his presentation abstract, he and his colleagues thought the two-horned object, which measures less than an inch high, resembled an altar created by the Nabatean civilization. But after further examination, he is now convinced the carving is a “rook” or “castle” chess piece, as it closely resembles other ivory, stone and wooden rooks found at later sites in the Islamic world.
“This shape is standard for early Islamic pieces right through the 13th [or 14th] century,” Oleson tells Haaretz’s Ariel David.
Per Science News’ Bruce Bower, the potential chess piece dates to between 680 and 749 A.D. At the time, the powerful Abbasid family owned and operated the Humayma trading outpost.
The rook’s discovery doesn’t change what researchers know about the origins of chess, but it does shed some light on how quickly the game gained traction and who exactly played it. David reports that chess was likely invented in India during the sixth century, spreading to Persia and throughout the Muslim world before eventually arriving in Europe.
The Humayma rook is carved of local sandstone, meaning the individual who owned it was likely not a social elite.
“In the literature, naturally they talk about the elites playing with chess pieces made of ivory, ebony, gold or rock crystal,” Oleson explains to David. “The world of low-class players doesn’t appear in that kind of literature so it’s good to have an archaeological record.”
According to the abstract, Humayma was a trading post located between Petra, capital of the Nabatean kingdom, and the Red Sea port of Aqaba on a trade route known as Via Nova Traiana.
Oleson writes, “Since the game probably was carried westward from India by the movement of merchants and diplomats, it is no surprise that early evidence for it should be found at a site on the busy Via Nova Traiana.”
The chess piece may boast ties to one of the most notable families in Islamic history. As David reports, Humayma was the hometown of the Abbasid clan, which overthrew the Ummayad caliphate in 750 and ruled much of the Islamic world until 1258 A.D.
While living in Humayma, the Abbasids kept tabs on events occurring in Syria and Iraq—including, in all likelihood, the emergence of a new game called chess.
“Early historians of the Abbasid family say the revolution was plotted in the little mosque next to the manor house,” says Oleson to David. “They talk about merchants coming around and giving information about events in Damascus and what the Umayyads were up to. So the Abbasids were in a place where they would have learned about chess fairly early on, fairly easily.”
Speaking with Bower of Science News, Oleson notes that chess quickly became “very popular in the early Islamic world,” serving as a pastime that helped bridge differences between the rich and the poor, as well as Muslims and Christians.
The two-pronged Humayma rook’s abstract shape is a variation on the chess piece’s initial form: a chariot pulled by two horses. Per Haaretz, the rook’s appearance shifted upon its arrival in the Islamic world, which prohibited the use of figurative images, but the piece retained its original name—rukh, or “chariot” in Persian. When Europeans adopted the game centuries later, players interpreted the prongs as masonry work on forts or towers, and so the rook became the castle seen today.
Given the fact that archaeologists don’t know exactly when the sandstone rook was created, other specimens recovered may have a better claim to the title of “oldest known chess piece.”
A set of figurines found in Uzbekistan in 1977 dates to around 700 A.D., for example, and in 2002, archaeologists in Albania unveiled a sixth-century ivory piece unearthed in a Byzantine palace. The figure resembles a modern chess piece, complete with a cross on top, and would predate the widely accepted arrival of chess in Europe by 700 years. Critics, however, point out that chess was likely not even invented at this point in history.
Oleson tells David there are probably older chess pieces out there still waiting to be found. After all, the strategic showdown was invented at least a century before an early chess aficionado carved the Humayama rook.