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Tracks in the Snow [painting] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
"Charles Burchfield: Catalogue of Paintings in Public and Private Collections," Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Museum of Art (Utica, NY: 1970), pg. 319, entry no. 1386.

Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

The Creek Bank [painting] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Clinton Street and Union Road, Gardenville, New York.

Negative marked: 99.

"Charles Burchfield: A Retrospective Exhibition of Watercolors and Oils, 1916-1943," Buffalo: Holling Press, (The Buffalo Fine Arts Academy), 1944, plate no. 32.

Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Indian Chief [painting] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
"George de Forest Brush, 1855-1941: Master of the American Renaissance," New York: Berry-Hill Galleries, Inc., 1985, pg. 62.

Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Nitrate, BW.

copy 1 negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Headquarters Area, Luray, Virginia

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
October 28, 1944. The headquarters area of the United States National Museum (USNM) storage facility in Luray, Virginia, near Shenandoah National Park. The back of photograph states: "Close up of loading platform." The USNM collections were transferred to the storage facility for safekeeping during World War II.

T. Dale Stewart Examining Skull at Desk

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Photograph included in the transcript of T. Dale Stewart Oral History Interview by Pamela M. Henson, March 28, 1975, in Smithsonian Institution Archives.

T. Dale Stewart, physical anthropologist, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum, now the National Museum of Natural History, seated at work table in the collection area holds a skull and other skulls are on the table in front of him and in cases behind him. Photograph was probably taken on October 3, 1950 by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Stewart often examined skeletons for the FBI and pioneered in the field of forensic anthropology.

Proposed United States National Museum by Adolf Cluss and Frederick Daniel

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
Preliminary drawing by Adolf Cluss and Frederick Daniel, architects, of the exterior for the proposed United States National Museum, now the Arts and Industries Building. Cluss and Daniel were business partners from 1876 to 1878. They submitted plans for the SI Bldg Annex in 1976 as well as early plans for the A&I Building.

Sketch of a Woman, Garnes [painting] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Title supplied by cataloger.

Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Nitrate, BW.

copy 1 negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Charlotte Dunwiddie [photograph] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Charlotte Dunwiddie, American Sculptor, 1907-1995.

Dunwiddie, Charlotte.

(No Title Given) [art work] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Grand Central.

Tropical Seas [art work] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Nitrate, BW.

copy 1 negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Brown, Mrs..

Yainey, Daniel [art work] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Mrs. Ogden Pleissner [photograph] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

copy 1 negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Mrs. James McGuire [art work] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Dahlias [art work] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

(No Title Given) [art work] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Nitrate, BW.

copy 1 negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Portrait of a Girl on a Porch [painting] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Title supplied by cataloger.

Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Glass, BW.

Study for the Mosaic "Intelligence Awakening Mankind," Rockefeller Center, New York City (detail) [drawing] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Title supplied by cataloger.

Roussel, Christine, "The Art of Rockefeller Center," New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2006, pg. 134.

Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: Nitrate, BW.

copy 1 negative: 5x7, Safety, BW.

The Concord Minute Man of 1775 [sculpture] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Glass, BW.

Anderson, Karl.

Let the Light Enter [drawing] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, 2009.

Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Painting (detail) [painting] / (photographed by Peter A. Juley & Son)

Archives and Special Collections, Smithsonian American Art Museum
"Sidney Janis Presents an Exhibition of Recent Paintings & Collages by Robert Motherwell, April-May 1961," New York: Sidney Janis Gallery, 1961.

Black-and-white study print (8x10).

Orig. negative: 8x10, Safety, BW.

Catalogue of English silversmiths' work (with Scottish and Irish) civil and domestic; introduction by W.W. Watts ..

Smithsonian Libraries
Plates printed on both sides.

"First printed, July 1920."

"The descriptions of the objects have been written by Mr. H.P. Mitchell, assistant-keeper in the department."--Prefatory note, signed Cecil H. Smith.

Memories of a Runaway Cuban Slave

Smithsonian Magazine
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Biography of a Runaway Slave: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition

~ Miguel Barnet (author) More about this product
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Runaways, there weren’t many. People were afraid of the woods. They said that if some slaves escaped, they would be caught anyway. But for me that idea went around in my head more than any other. I always had the fantasy that I would enjoy being in the forest. And I knew that working in the fields was like living in hell. You couldn’t do anything on your own. Everything depended on the master’s orders.

One day I began to watch the overseer. I had already been studying him. That dog got stuck in my eyes, and I couldn’t get him out. I think he was a Spaniard. I remember that he was tall and never took his hat off. All the blacks had respect for him because one of the whippings he gave could strip the skin off of just about anybody. The thing is, one day I was riled up, and I don’t know what got into me, but I was mad, and just seeing him set me off.

I whistled at him from a distance, and he looked around and then turned his back. That’s when I picked up a rock and threw it at his head. I know it hit him because he shouted for someone to grab me. But he never saw me again because that day I made it into the woods.

I traveled many days without any clear direction. I was sort of lost. I had never left the plantation. I walked uphill and downhill, all around. I know I got to a farm near Siguanea, where I had no choice but to camp. My feet were full of blisters and my hands were swollen. I camped under a tree. I stayed there no more than four or five days. All I had to do was hear the first human voice close by, and I would take off fast. It would have been real shitty if you got caught right after escaping.

I came to hide in a cave for a time. I lived there for a year and a half. I went in there thinking I would have to walk less and because the pigs from around the farms, the plots, and the small landholdings used to come to a kind of swamp just outside the mouth of the cave. They went to take a bath and wallow around. I caught them easy enough because big bunches of them came. Every week I had a pig. That cave was very big and dark like the mouth of the wolf. It was called Guajabán. It was near the town of Remedios. It was dangerous because it had no way out. You had to go in through the entrance and leave by the entrance. My curiosity really poked me to find a way out. But I preferred to remain in the mouth of the cave on account of the snakes. The majases [large Cuban boa constrictors] are very dangerous beasts. They are found in caves and in the woods. Their breath can’t be felt, but they knock people down with it, and then they put people to sleep to suck out their blood. That’s why I always stayed alert and lit a fire to scare them away. If you fall asleep in a cave, be ready for the wake. I didn’t want to see a majá, not even from a distance. The Congos, and this is true, told me that those snakes lived more than a thousand years. And as they approached two thousand, they became serpents again, and they would return to the ocean to live like any other fish.

Inside, the cave was like a house. A little darker, naturally. Oh, and dung, yes, the smell of bat dung. I walked on it because it was as soft as a mattress. The bats led a life of freedom in the caves. They were and are the masters of them. All over the world it’s like that. Since no one kills them, they live a long time. Not as long as the snakes, for sure. The dung they drop works afterward as fertilizer. It becomes dust, and it’s thrown on the ground to make pasture for animals and to fertilize crops.

One time that place nearly burned up. I lit a fire, and it spread all through the cave. The bat shit was to blame. After slavery I told the story to a Congo. The story that I had lived with the bats, and that joker, they could sometimes be more jokers than you might imagine, he said: “Listen here, boy, you know nothin’. In my country that thing what you call a bat is big like a pigeon.” I knew that was a tall tale. They fooled nearly everyone with those stories. But I heard it, and smiled inside.

The cave was quiet. The only sound always there was the bats going: “Chwee, chwee, chwee.” They didn’t know how to sing. But they talked to each other and understood each other. I saw that one would say “Chewy, chewy, chewy,” and the bunch would go wherever he went. They were very united about things. Bats have no wings. They’re nothing but a cloth with a little black head, very dirty, and if you get up real close, you’ll see they look like rats. In the cave I was summering, you might say. What I really liked was the woods, and after a year and a half I left that darkness behind. I took to the footpaths. I went into the woods in Siguanea again. I spent a long time there. I took care of myself like a spoiled child. I didn’t want to be chained to slavery again.

Translation copyright © 1994 by W. Nick Hill. First U.S. edition published by Pantheon Books, 1968. Revised edition published by Curbstone Press, 2004. New revised edition published by Curbstone/Northwestern University Press, 2016. All rights reserved.

Read more from the Smithsonian Journeys Travel Quarterly Cuba Issue

Rover May Have Found a Water Source for Humans on Mars

Smithsonian Magazine

Mars could be the next galactic frontier, but before humans go we’ll have to figure out how they will get water. In a study published today in Nature Geoscience, scientists report they have found evidence to support a saline solution: it may be possible to collect water from the brine that exists in fiery planet’s soil.

Contrary to some reports, this isn’t the first evidence of liquid water on Mars. The Mars Phoenix lander reportedly photographed water droplets forming on its leg in 2009 (and also found the presence of perchlorates in the soil). But it's always exciting find any hint of possibility of water on another planet—water! on Mars!—and this new evidence makes it that much easier to indulge in dreams of off-Earth living. 

Here's what's new: After analyzing the temperature and humidity data that NASA’s Curiosity rover collected during its first year roaming Mars’ equator, the researchers believe Martian winters provide the right conditions for liquid to form, even in the face of the planet’s icy cold environment (with temperatures sometimes dipping below 225 degrees Fahrenheit). That’s because soil on Mars contains perchlorate salts, which drastically lower the freezing point of water.

New Scientist explains:

The team found that during Martian winter, conditions throughout the cold but humid nights would allow liquid water to be stable in the first five centimeters of the surface. Shorter periods of stability would also be possible in other seasons.

They suggest that calcium perchlorate in the ground absorbs water from the atmosphere until it dissolves into a salty solution, or brine. This process is called deliquescence. When the sun comes up and the temperature rises, the water evaporates and returns to the atmosphere, starting the cycle anew.

This finding does not necessarily support evidence for life on Mars (because temperatures are still far to cold for any known organisms), but it could help us one day inhabit the place ourselves. “It’s a proof of a concept of an instrument that will take water out of the atmosphere to produce liquid water for astronauts,” study author Javier Martin-Torres tells New Scientist. Who’s ready to go exploring? Who knows — a new expedition might even find the newest "first evidence" that there's water on the red planet.

Half the Cells in This Mouse’s Brain Are Human

Smithsonian Magazine

There are mice running around in labs that are smarter than their peers. This distinction goes beyond an above-average aptitude for mouse-intelligence tests: These mice are smarter because half the cells in their brain are actually human cells.

A new study, published in The Journal of Neuroscience, explores the consequences of creating mice that have mousy neurons but human glial cells—cells that support nerve cells and strengthen connections between them. Steve Goldman, a researcher at the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York, led a research team that took immature glial cells from human fetuses (donated to research) and injected them into the brains of mouse pups, reports Andy Coghlan for New Scientist. Since the glial cells were immature, they continued to grow and divide in the mouse brain, crowding out the mouse cells.  

"It’s still a mouse brain, not a human brain," Goldman told Coghlan. "But all the non-neuronal cells are human." Glial cells can mature into the star-shaped glial cells called astrocytes that help connect neurons. But the human astrocytes have more tendrils and are larger than mouse astrocytes. That difference gives the mice with these human-mouse chimera brains an advantage. "It’s like ramping up the power of your computer," Goldman says.

The altered mice scored higher on a bunch of tests of mouse memory and cognition, including those mentioned above.

This isn’t the first so-called humanized mouse that researchers have created; it just is the most striking because it involves brain cells. There are mice that are mostly mice but that have a human immune system, for instance. Scientists are interested in creating these kind of animals because, although mice make good study animals and are close enough to humans, they aren’t a perfect match. Humanized mice close the gap a bit more and can give us better insight to human diseases like cancer, Alzheimer’s, heart disease and more.

But in creating mice that are more like us, we are blurring the line between human research and mouse research. These mice with "half-human" brains are still very much mice. There are also plans to create rats with human brain cells. But Goldman told New Scientist that he and his colleagues think putting human cells into monkeys brings up more tricky ethical issues. 

Jamais Cascio, a writer and futurist, outlines the difficulties of drawing the line between humans, research animals and humanized research animals in his blog, Open the Future. This research group doesn’t intend to add human brain cells to monkeys, but that doesn’t mean that another group won’t. He writes:

[We’re] making these non-human animals demonstrably smarter. We are, in a very limited fashion, uplifting them (to use David Brin's terminology). They will be able to understand the world a bit (or even a lot) better than others of their kind. And at some point, we may well even end up with test subjects significantly smarter than typical and able to demonstrate behaviors unsettlingly close to our own. 

What rights should any of these types of uplifted animals have? Do we need to spell out a greater set of rights for the human chimera mice in the news report? Or as we create increasingly more-intelligent-than-typical animals, will there a point at which they could no longer be limited to the rights given to all scientific research animals? At what point would it become a crime to kill them, no matter how humanely or in accordance with ethical standards?

These questions may seem to be well into the realm of science fiction, but just several years ago a mouse carrying human brain cells would have seemed just as outlandish. And already, our growing understanding of the intelligence of great apes and cetaceans has ignited debate about what rights those animals have. These are questions that someone needs to ask.

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