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Regni vegetabilis systema naturale; sive, Ordines, genera et species plantarum secundum methodi naturalis normas digestarum et descriptarum / auctore Aug. Pyramo de Candolle
According to F.A. Stafleu and R.S. Cowan in Taxonomic literature (2nd edition), item 993, volume 1 was published between November 1-15, 1817 (although the title page is dated 1818), and volume 2 was published in late May, 1821
"Venitque in eorumdem bibliopoliis Argentorati et Londini"
Stafleu, F.A. Taxonomic literature (2nd ed.), 993
Also available online
SCNHRB has two copies
SCNHRB copy 1 (volume 1, 39088006138903, volume 2, 39088006138911) has bookplate: Library of A.S. Hitchcock and Agnes Chase; with "A.S. Hitchcock" stamped on the title pages. An illegible handwritten former owner's name is on the front free endpaper
SCNHRB copy 1 has old half-leather bindings with black paste-paper boards; gilt-tooled spine; orange spine label (lacking on volume 1); marbled endpapers and red edges
SCNHRB copy 2 (volume 1, 39088006138887, volume 2, 39088006138895) has bookplates: 1. John Donnell Smith, 505 Park Ave., Baltimore, MD; 2. Ex libris quos Institutioni Smithsonianae anno MCMV donavit John Donnell Smith, accessio n. D18-D19; with stamp on title page: Smithsonian Institution Special Collections Jul. 17, 1929; and the name of a former owner stamped in gold at the foot of the spines: L. Drevault [formerly chief gardener of l'École de pharmacie, avenue de l'Observatoire, 6, Paris, France]
SCNHRB copy 2, volume 1 has a tear at the top of pages 209-210, not affecting the text; and copy 2, volume 2 has a tear on pages 107-108, affecting the text which is still legible. A few of the page gatherings in copy 2, volume 1 are still unopened
SCNHRB copy 2 has an old black quarter-leather binding with green and black mottled paper boards; raised bands; gilt-tooled spine; and marbled endpapers
If you were to buy a donut and cup of coffee at the Donut Bar in the Royal Grand Hotel in Monrovia, Liberia, you would more than likely pay using U.S. dollars. Your change, however, would include a mix of U.S. dollars and Liberian dollars, with the latter holding a lower value and thus serving as small change in place of coins. Why do U.S. dollars circulate in Liberia? And how did this dual currency system emerge?100-dollar note, Liberia, 2011, donated by Leigh Gardner
A dual currency system has existed in Liberia since the late 1800s. It can be a source of great hardship for Liberians, who might be paid in Liberian dollars but need to purchase imported food or other goods in U.S. dollars. This is particularly true when the value of the Liberian dollar falls relative to the U.S. dollar, as it has in recent years.
The Liberian dollar was created when Liberia declared independence in 1847. One of the first acts of the Liberian government was to establish its own currency—in the words of Joseph Roberts, the first president of Liberia, “to mark the existence and the nationality of the Republic.”One-cent pattern coin, Republic of Liberia, 1862, donated by Paul A. Straub
The first Liberian coins tell the history of the Liberian state. One side features the image of a palm tree with a sailing ship, representing the two key sources of Liberian wealth: trade and palm oil. The other side depicts an allegorical female figure wearing what is known as a Phrygian cap or freedom cap, associated in classical imagery with formerly enslaved people.
Such a reference was particularly relevant in Liberia, which was founded in 1822 as a colony for freed African-Americans from the United States. Between 1820 and 1904, some 16,000 African-Americans migrated to Liberia. When they arrived, they found multiple currencies circulating in the region, the most important of which was the iron Kissi penny, pictured below.Kissi penny, Liberia, 19th and 20th centuries, donated by The Chase Manhattan Bank
The American Colonization Society and its subsidiary societies, which organized the migration, also issued their own coins and notes that migrants could use at company stores for the purchase of supplies. The Liberian dollar was intended to replace these when Liberia declared itself an independent state.10-cent note, Maryland State Colonization Society 1837, donated by The Chase Manhattan
When the Liberian dollar was issued in 1847, it had to compete not only with indigenous currencies like the Kissi penny, but also with European currencies like British pounds, shillings, and pence. The Liberian government struggled with debt throughout its early history, and one quick source of revenue was to print paper notes like this one from 1880.25-cent note, Republic of Liberia, 1880, donated by the Department of the Treasury
While printing money provided a short-term solution to the Liberian government’s financial difficulties, it had a long-term cost. Much like today, the Liberian dollar began to lose its value against these other currencies. This made imported goods, for example, much more expensive. For the Liberian government, it also increased the cost of paying interest on its foreign debt. As a result, merchants and then the government began to use the colonial currency of British West Africa instead.One penny coin, British West Africa, 1936, donated by Paul A. Straub
This became Liberia’s main form of currency until 1943, though the Liberian dollar still circulated as small change, such as this two-cent coin from 1941.Two-cent coin, Liberia, 1941, donated by The Chase Manhattan Bank
Despite its use of British West African currency, Liberia’s economic relationships with the United States grew closer during the 1900s. From 1912, the Liberian government’s debt was in U.S. dollars, while tax revenue was collected in British West African currency. When the value of the pound declined relative to the dollar during the 1930s, it became more difficult for the government to pay the interest on its debts. Finally, in 1943, with financial help from the U.S. government, the U.S. dollar replaced British West African shillings as the primary currency in circulation.
The Liberian government has tried over the years to return to a single currency system based on the Liberian dollar, however many people still use U.S. dollars for everyday transactions. Around the world, the U.S. dollar is frequently used by people who want to use a more stable currency for transactions, even if it isn’t their national currency. The story of the dollar in Liberia shows that this is nothing new. As the saying goes, it is dollars to donuts that once a country adopts a foreign currency, it will have difficulty reversing the decision.
This story of the role of the U.S. dollar in Liberia is now featured in the New Acquisitions case in The Value of Money exhibition.
Leigh A. Gardner is an associate professor of Economic History at the London School of Economics. Ellen Feingold is the curator of the National Numismatic collection.
The Value of Money is made possible through leadership support from Bill Gale, Lilly Endowment Inc., Lee and Saundra Minshull, an anonymous donor, and contributions from many others in the numismatic community.
Representation Matters: Bringing Women’s Stories Into the Classroom Through American Art and Portraiture
Hugo Crosthwaite, winner of the 2019 Outwin Boochever Portrait Competition, traces his artistic influences to his parents' curio shop in Tijuana, where statues of Aztec gods co-existed with Bart Simpson. Fast-forward to his winning entry, and he walks us through the first scene of his stunning stop-motion drawing animation about a woman who crosses the border from Mexico into the United States.
You can see Hugo’s video at this link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JJcmmWaW0nY&feature=youtu.be
Check out earlier episodes plus the images we discussed at our website: https://npg.si.edu/podcasts
Transcript: 21 pages
An interview with George E. Downing conducted 1973 March 22, by Robert F. Brown, for the Archives of American Art.
Transcript: 115 pages.
An interview with Margret Craver Withers conducted 1983-1985, by Robert F. Brown, for the Archives of American Art.
Withers discusses her childhood in Kansas; early education; and aptitude for drawing.Education in art and design, including studying crafts at the University of Kansas, 1925-29; her position as a grade school teacher in Kansas and as a crafts instructor at Wichita Art Association, 1930s; study with various master metalworkers, including Arthur Nevill Kirk, Arthur J. Stone, Leonard Heinrich and Wilson Weir in the USA, and Baron Erik Fleming in Sweden.Development of Hospital Service Program, with the support of Handy and Harman, precious metal refiners, during World War II, to train army therapists in metalworking for disabled soldiers; supervision in post-War period of Handy and Harman's Craft Service Department, producing films on hand-wrought silver, a traveling exhibition of outstanding contemporary silver, instructional brochures, and a series of workshops for American silversmiths, taught by European masters.Marriage in 1950 to Charles Withers, president of Towle Silver, and that company's policy of employing top designers; Towle's commissioning of works in silver from top modern sculptors; her making of silver holloware and jewelry for private clients; her re-invention of the en resille process for enameling (1959) and in the early 1980s her invention of a process for combining enamel, glass, and silver and gold leaf in jewelry; and her involvement in crafts organizations.She discusses her en resille enameling technique. [This session is transcribed, and is accompanied by slides of the work discussed].
.2: A black hard plastic briefcase-style case for the microphone (.1ab). The case is rectangular with rounded corners and a sloping angle on the top side around the handle and clasps. Gold text is painted on the front of the case reading "SHURE ®" in the top left facing corner, "UHF-R (R) Wireless Systems" in the top right facing corner, and "Audio/Reference/Companding" in the bottom left facing corner. Opaque white adhesive tape is placed at the center top edge with black typed text reading "OPRAH'S GOLD MIC". The top of the case has a rounded handle at the center, with two (2) gray plastic clasps, one on either side of the handle. There are plastic ridges on the bottom of the case that act as feet when the case is closed and standing upright. Inside the case on both the top and bottom is gray soft foam with shapes cut out to so the microphone and its components can be nested inside.