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Oral history interview with Peter Saul, 2009 Nov. 3-4

Archives of American Art
Sound recording, master: 6 memory cards (5 hr., 13 min.) secure digital; 1.25 in.

Transcript 119 p.

An interview of Peter Saul conducted 2009 Nov. 3-4, by Judith Olch Richards, for the Archives of American Art, at Saul's studio, in Brooklyn, N.Y.

Saul speaks of his childhood in San Francisco; boarding school in Canada; his time at the San Francisco Art Institute and Washington University in St. Louis; his travels to and extended stay in Europe: Bergen ann Zee, Netherlands; Paris, France, where he first saw Mad Comics and found his style and became recognized as an artist; and Rome, Italy where he was neighbors to Madame Nhu; his time as a teacher at the University of Texas; his relationship to funk art of the Bay Area, the Chicago imagists and pop art; his thoughts on American popular culture, the ever-shifting concept of being an interesting artist and the contemporary art world; his gallery partnerships with Allan Frumkin and David Nolan; Saul also recalls Max Beckmann, Wally Barker, Fred Conway, James Bishop, Cy Twombly, Peter Selz, Roy De Forest, William T. Wiley, Clayton Bailey, Robert Storr, Robert Crumb, and others.

Oral history interview of Charles Henry Sawyer, 1977 January 25

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 41 pages.

An interview of Charles Henry Sawyer conducted 1977 January 25, by Cynthia Newman (Helms), for the Archives of American Art. Sawyer speaks mainly about his involvement with the Michigan Arts Council.

Oral history interview with Merryll Saylan, 2006 May 20-June 5

Archives of American Art
Sound recording: 7 compact discs (6 hr., 9 min.) : digital ; 2 5/8 in.

Transcript: 116 pages

An interview of Merryll Saylan conducted 2006 May 20-June 5, by Glenn Adamson, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at the Victoria & Albert Museum, in London, England.

Saylan speaks of her childhood in Los Angeles, California; her early musical education in piano and viola; memories of World War II; her family's political views during the Cold War; meeting her first husband at UCLA; dropping out of school to move to Virginia and Georgia in fulfillment of her husband's military service; experiencing anti-Semitism in Georgia; the challenges of her eldest son's speech problems; traveling to France, Japan, Guatemala, Hong Kong and the Philippines; her interest in Japanese culture; completing her B.A. in design at UCLA and her M.A. in studio art at California State University, Northridge; anti-Vietnam sentiment on campus; early interests in environmental design; her second husband and his friends; her interest in furniture and woodworking; differing approaches to woodworking on the east and west coasts; her views on feminism and working women; her use of color and texture in woodworking; teaching experiences; popular perception of her work; receiving a grant to go to England and her involvement with English and German woodturners; the lack of collector interest in her work; forced absences from working because of illnesses; serving on the boards of the American Association of Woodturners and The Woodturning Center; her involvement in the International Turned Objects Show, the Sculpture Objects & Functional Art Biannual Exposition, and the International Turning Exchange; her thoughts on future work. Saylan also recalls George Foy, Bob Stocksdale, Michael Cooper, Pamela Weir-Quiton, Joanne Rapp, J.B. Blunk, Marvin Lipofsky, Gail Fredell, Wendy Maruyama, Ralph Evans, Del Stubbs, Jerry Glaser, and others.

Oral history interview with Eleanor Sayre, 1993 April 19-1997 January 10

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 213 pages.

An interview of Eleanor Sayre conducted 1993 April 19-1997 January 10, by Robert F. Brown, for the Archives of American Art.

Sayre talks about her early childhood in Williamstown and Cambridge, Mass.; her family background; visits to the White House with her maternal grandfather, Woodrow Wilson; living abroad while her father was in government service in Bangkok, then Siam (now Thailand), Paris, and Switzerland, with extensive recollections of her brothers and schooling in Europe.

Attending Winsor School in Boston; her mother's death; her years at Bryn Mawr College, including her switch to art history from political science; Georgianna Goddard King as an influential teacher; an internship under Laura Dudley at the Fogg Art Museum's Print Room and the lasting effect of this experience.

Being a graduate student in fine arts at Harvard and the importance of Edward Forbes and Paul Sachs as teachers; her decision not to pursue a PhD; working with Jakob Rosenberg; helping to get young Jews out of Europe; her position as assistant for exhibitions at Yale University Art Gallery under Theodore Sizer; the trauma of her father's internment by the Japanese in the Philippines, where he was High Commissioner and his rescue; and her decision to turn down a military intelligence job in order to work with German Jewish refugees.

Her brief tenure at Lyman-Allyn Museum, Conn., under Winslow Ames; her years in the education department under Lydia "Ma" Powel at the Museum of Art of the Rhode Island School of Design with Gordon Washburn as director; and working closely with Heinrich Schwartz on prints and drawings.

The liberal tradition of her father's wealthy family; her father; being brought to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston by its curator of prints, Henry Rossiter and on the charming collector and benefactor, Maxim Karolik; MFA curator of paintings, William George Constable; and George Harold Edgell, MFA director.

The collector, Philip Hofer, who by putting his Goya proofs on loan at the MFA, led to Sayre's life-long study of the artist; her research on Goya in Spain; raising of a large sum from Boston businesses to purchase Hofer's prints for the MFA, and the MFA's eminence by the 1960s in Goya's graphic work; the disgusting repression of dissent in Franco-era Spain; Goya's passionate self-assertion, which is what principally attracted Sayre to his work, and his conceptual process and method of work.

Earlier years at the MFA, Boston, including the accessibility of the print department's study rooms; Edwin J. Hipkiss, curator of American decorative arts; the Christmas poetry and prints exhibitions designed as profound learning experiences for a broad public; and being chosen as successor to Rossiter; and further comments on Maxim Karolik.

W.G. Russell Allen and other collectors who gave their collections to the MFA; her efforts to effectively present art to the broad public; her methods of appealing to the public coalescing at the MFA in 1989 with the "Goya and the Spirit of the Enlightenment" exhibition; and an exhibition of the work of Beatrix Potter.

Spain under the dictator, Francisco Franco; her first study in Spain of Goya's drawings and her urging the Prado Museum to conserve its drawings; the Prado's director, F. Sanchez-Canton; her research on prostitution at the Ministry of Justice; being decorated for her recommending the preservation of Goya's art and the marvelous private collections of Goya in Spain; and her obsession with interpreting the meaning of Goya's work.

The MFA, Boston, under the directorship of Perry Rathbone, who wanted many more people involved than had his predecessor, George Harold Edgell, who ran it like a Boston Brahmin Club; Rathbone's accomplishments; his downfall and that of his assistant (and curator of European decorative arts and sculpture) Hanns Swarzenski in bringing a so-called Raphael into this country by irregular means, which led to Rathbone and Swarzenski's firing by George Seybolt, the trustee president; Rathbone's reluctance to hire women curators and Sayre's finally becoming curator of prints and drawings in 1967; her philosophy as curator; on Hanns and Brigitte Swarzenski as dear friends; her exchange of positions with the curator of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, where she put their valuable but neglected print collection in order.

The exhibition and catalog, "Rembrandt: Experimental Etcher," (1969) in collaboration with the Pierpont Morgan Library; general views on exhibitions; co-authoring the exhibition catalog "Goya and the Spiris of Enlightenment" (1989); her contributions to Goya research; her current research and writing on Goya's Capaprichos print series; and her satisfaction in having spent her career in art museums.

Oral history interview with Salvatore Scarpitta, 1975 January 31.-February 3

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 67 pages.

Interview of Salvatore Scarpitta conducted 1975 January 31.-February 3, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art. Scarpitta speaks of his family's background; growing up and going to school in California; moving to Italy and going to art school at 17; attending the American Academy; his experiences in Europe after the war broke out in 1940; being arrested and interned for 18 months in Italy and escaping; joining the United States Navy; getting thrown out of the American Academy after being accused of being a Communist; his abstract paintings; moving back to America after Leo Castelli saw his work; his painting techniques; his thoughts on futurism and cubism; why he shifted from working on a canvas to tearing it apart and using it as materials; his use of color; how his interest in race cars influenced his art work; building race cars; living in New York and the art scene there; his successful art show on the Piazza San Marco in Venice; the reason for using belts in his paintings; how certain paintings led him to building sleds; his feelings about Leo Castelli; and teaching art. He recalls Phil Guston, Jack Levine, Franz Kline, Bill de Kooning, Jackson Pollack, Mark Rothko, and many others.

Oral history interview with Judith Schaechter, 2011 July 19-20

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 148 pages.

An interview of Judith Schaechter conducted 2011 July 19-20, by Mija Riedel, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Schaechter's home and studio, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Oral history interview with Bertha Schaefer, 1970 April 20-22

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 53 pages.

An interview of Bertha Schaefer conducted 1970 April 20-22, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art.

Oral history interview with Kate (Mrs. Hanns S.) Schaeffer, 1975 June 18

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 40 pages

An interview of Kate (Mrs. Hanns) Schaeffer conducted 1975 June 18, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art.

Oral history interview with Louis Schanker, circa 1963

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 74 pages.

An interview of Louis Schanker conducted circa 1963, by Harlan Phillips, for the Archives of American Art.

Oral history interview with Miriam Schapiro, 1989 September 10

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 28 pages.

An interview of Miriam Schapiro conducted 1989 September 10, by Ruth Gurin Bowman, for the Archives of American Art, Women in the Arts in Southern California Oral History Project.

Oral history interview with Mary Ann Scherr, 2001 April 6-7

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 71 pages.

An interview of Mary Ann Scherr conducted 2001 April 6-7, by Mary Douglas, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America.

This interview took place in the artist's home and studio, Raleigh, N.C.

Oral history interview with Marjorie Schick, 2004 April 4-6

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 79 pages.

An interview of Marjorie Schick conducted 2004 April 4-6, by Tacey A. Rosolowski, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, in Pittsburg, Kansas.

Schick speaks of her aesthetic goals; making "body sculpture" as opposed to jewelry; being raised by her mother, a teacher and artist; taking art classes in high school; studying art education at the University of Wisconsin, Madison; marrying James Schick; getting an MFA in jewelry at Indiana University; being mentored by Alma Eikerman; transitioning her works from metal to papier-mâché; working with alternative materials; making costume pieces for dancers; being represented by Galerie Ra in Amsterdam; studying metalwork while on sabbatical in London; the importance of change and experimentation in her work; making companion pieces; traveling to Europe and Mexico; creating "teapot jewelry"; and being part of the international jewelry community. Schick also speaks of how collectors and the art market react to her pieces; exhibiting in galleries; being a member of the Kansas Artist Craftsman Association; teaching; giving workshops; working on pieces while traveling; her autobiographical pieces; hiring student helpers; paying attention to craftsmanship; the challenges of being a craft artist and making "unwearable" jewelry; and her current project. Schick also recalls David Smith, Paul Smith, Harry Bertoia, Tom Joyce, and others.

Oral history interview with Cynthia Schira, 2001 July 25-26

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 52 pages.

An interview of Cynthia Schira conducted 2001 July 25-26, by Margo Mensing, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, in Schira's home and studio, in Westport, N.Y.

Oral history interview with Laurence E. Schmeckebier, 1974 June 7-July 15

Archives of American Art
3 tape reels (5 hr., 7 min.)

Transcript: 75 p.

Interview of Laurence E. Schmeckebier, conducted by Robert Brown, for the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, in Lyme, New Hampshire on June 7 and July 15, 1974. Schmeckebier speaks of his education; his training as an art historian in Germany; the influence of Heinrich Wölfflin on his art historical training; his interest in art history and art criticism; his books Art in Red Wing and John Steuart Curry's Pageant of America; and his career as a professor, administrator, and collector at the University of Wisconsin, University of Minnesota, Cleveland Art Institute, and University of Syracuse. Schmeckebier also recalls Oskar Hagen, Carl Horst, José Clemente Orozco, John Steuart Curry, George Grosz, Jean Charlot, and others.

Oral history interview with Katherine Schmidt, 1969 December 8-15

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 60 pages.

An interview of Katherine Schmidt conducted 1969 December 8 and December 15, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art, at the artist's home, in New York, N.Y.

Oral history interview with Ruth Adler Schnee, 2002 November 24-30

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 159 pages.

An interview of Ruth Adler Schnee conducted 2002 November 24-30, by Anita Schnee, at the artist's home in Southfield, Michigan, for the Archives of American Art as part of the Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America.

Schnee talks about her early childhood in Germany, living in Nazi Germany and her family's emigration to the U.S. in 1939; her family's beginnings in the U.S. and her education; working in the display department at Winkleman's Department store; her scholarship to Rhode Island School of Design; experiencing New York City at the close of WWII; attending Cranbrook Academy of Art; her friendship with Eliel and Loja Saarinen; meeting and marrying Edward Charles Schnee; their first silk screening studio in Detroit; early designs; a fire that destroyed the first Adler Schnee shop in 1955; the new Adler Schnee store on Livernois; buying trips to Norway, Sweden, and Finland; difficulties and strategies for selling fabric designs; teaching herself the silk-screening process; designing for the airline industry; her love of color; and the labor intensive process of making the perfect design.

Schnee also discusses her sources of inspiration and how they have changed over the years; good design as "problem solving"; participating in tradeshows and finding clients; the shop paper, "The Bugle;" the Detroit Artists Market; significant commissions including Braniff Airlines, Ford Rotunda Auditorium, the Feld-Weisberg Clinic, and the Jewish Home for the Aged; and a research trip to Williamsburg, Virginia, to learn early American design techniques. Schnee comments on her travels to Mexico, Germany, South America, Israel, and in the U.S. She concludes the sessions by reviewing the recording and providing additional information. Schnee recalls Paul Klee, Albert Kahn, Minoru Yamasaki, Maija Grotell, Richard Savage, Al Taubman, Louis Redstone, Hans Knoll, Victor Gruen, Edward Wormley, Edgar Kaufman, Susanne Dotson, Harley Melzian, Selma Fraiberg, Hedie and Helmut Goedeckemeyer, Roberto Lago, and others.

Oral history interview with Arlene Schnitzer, 1985 June 7-8

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 77 pages.

An interview of Arlene Schnitzer conducted 1985 June 7-8, by Bruce Guenther, for the Archives of American Art's Northwest Oral History Project, at the Fountain Gallery of Art, in Portland, Or.

Oral history interview with Fritz Scholder, 2000 December 7

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 21 pages.

An interview of Fritz Scholder conducted 2000 December 7, by Paul Karlstrom, for the Archives of American Art, in Karlstrom's home, San Francisco, Calif.

The interview focused on the theme of artists and models. Topics discussed include how the incorporation and transformation of the human figure (generally female) occur in Scholder's paintings, from first idea through studio interaction to finished work. He described his goal of breaking with the cliché of the female nude and make the subject his own in terms of expression. Among the artist's thematic series are one devoted to vampires, monsters, passion, shamans, and witches. He describes these themes as providing opportunities to work with nude female individuals as unpracticed amateur models. The model, if stimulated by the themes, contributes to their transformation into works of art. According to Scholder, a special rapport between artist and model (including in some cases intimacy) is often reflected in the final image. He views the studio as an arena for self-discovery, for the artist but especially for the models. The second half of the interview involved a discussion of specific works within key series, including Monster Love, Dreams, Passion, Mystery Women, and Lilith; Scholder idea of the artist-as-vampire. In his view this is a positive attribute, one that brings for the "victim" transformation, release, and self-knowledge and his stated goal to inscribe that experience into his art.

Oral history interview with Fritz Scholder, 1995 March 3-30

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 100 pages.

An interview of Fritz Scholder conducted 1995 March 3-30, by Paul Karlstrom, for the Archives of American Art.

Scholder discusses his family background and growing up in parallel worlds of Anglo and Indian cultures and the frustration of western versus tribal life; his education in Lawrence, Kan. and the University of Wisconsin; moving to California; his father's job as head of Indian relocation; studying at the Indian art program at the University of Arizona, Arizona State University, and the Indian Art Institute in Santa Fe, N.M.; his views on Indians in general and the difficulty of operating in the mainstream art world; his travels and search for adventure in Europe and Egypt; the importance of magic and the occult in his work; myths as a basis for human experience; art as an agent of social change; objections of Indian groups to his work; and his experience as an Indian role model while not part of the movement. He recalls Robert B. Green, Wayne Thiebaud, Ralph Lauren, Vincent Price, Georgia O'Keeffe, Charles Loloma, Agnes Martin, Elaine Horowitch, and Leonard Baskin.

Oral history interview with Clifford Schorer, 2018, June 6-7

Archives of American Art
Audio: 5 sound files (3 hr., 57 min.) digital, wav

Transcript: 110 pages.

An interview with Clifford Schorer conducted 2018 June 6-7, by Judith Olch Richards, for the Archives of American Art and the Center for the History of Collecting in America at the Frick Art Reference Library of The Frick Collection, at the offices of the Archives of American Art in New York, New York.

Schorer discusses growing up in Massachusetts and Long Island, New York; his family and his Dutch and German heritage, and his grandparents' collecting endeavors, especially in the field of philately; his reluctance to complete a formal high school education and his subsequent enrollment in the University Professors Program at Boston University; his work as a self-taught computer programmer beginning at the age of 16; his first businesses as an entrepreneur; the beginnings of his collection of Chinese export and Imperial ceramics and his self-study in the field; his experiences at a young age at art auctions in the New England area; his travels to Montreal and Europe, especially to Eastern Europe, Paris, and London, and his interest in world history; his decision to exit the world of collecting Chinese porcelain and his subsequent interest in Old Master paintings, especially Italian Baroque. Schorer also describes his discovery of the Worcester Art Museum and his subsequent work there on the Museum's board and as president; his interest in paleontology and his current house by Walter Gropius in Provincetown, MA; his involvement with the purchase and support of Agnew's Gallery based in London, UK, and his work with its director, Anthony Crichton-Stuart; his thoughts on marketing at art shows and adapting Agnew's to the changing market for the collecting of Old Masters; the differences between galleries and auction houses in the art market today; and his expectations for his collection in the future. Schorer also recalls Anna Cunningham; George Abrams; Sydney Lewis; Chris Apostle; Nancy Ward Neilson; Jim Welu, as well as Rita Albertson; Tanya Paul; Maryan Ainsworth; Thomas Leysen; Johnny Van Haeften; Otto Naumann; and Konrad Bernheimer, among others.

Oral history interview with Karl Schrag, 1970 October 14-20

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 45 pages.

Interview of Karl Schrag conducted 1970 October 14-20, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art. Schrag speaks of his childhood in Germany; how his parents were nervous about him becoming an artist; going to various art schools; studying with Bissiere; his first exhibition in Brussels; moving to America because of the political situation in Europe; enrolling in the Art Students League; getting involved with Atelier 17; how the mid-1940s were crucial in his development; American artists he found interesting; his thoughts on the Abstract Expressionists; how he started teaching; joining Tamarind workshop; his first retrospective, the Ford Foundation-A.F.A Show; being on the Fulbright jury; how his pictures relate to each other; his technique; and becoming the Director of Atelier 17. He recalls Andre L'Hote, Roger Bissiere, Harry Sternberg, Anton Refregier, William Kienbusch, Fred Farr, Carroll Cloar, John Sloan, Maurice Becker, Stanley William Hayter, Yves Tanguy, Bohuslav Horak, Robert Broner, Margaret Lowenbraun, and many others.

Oral history interview with Richard Schultz, 2012 September 25-26

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 110 pages.

An interview of Richard Schultz conducted 2012 September 25-26, by Jeannine Falino, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, at Schultz's home, in Brattleboro, Vermont.

Oral history interview with Frederick Schwankovsky, 1965 March 1

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 29 pages.

An interview of Frederick Schwankovsky conducted 1965 March 1, by Betty Hoag, for the Archives of American Art.

Oral history interview with June Schwarcz, 2001 January 21

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 75 pages.

An interview of June Schwarcz conducted 2001 January 21, by Arline M. Fisch, for the Archives of American Art's Nanette L. Laitman Documentation Project for Craft and Decorative Arts in America, in Schwarcz's home and studio, Sausalito, California.

Schwarcz speaks of her family background; early interest in color and form; studies at Pratt Institute; working in as a package designer and free-lance designer for department stores such as Macy's in New York and Hochschild-Kohn in Baltimore; living in Chicago, Brazil, and Denver; learning about enamels from a group of "housewives" in Denver; reading Kenneth Bates's book [Enameling: Principles and Practice] "as if it were the Bible"; visiting America House and meeting Dominick Maillard; settling in Sausalito, California, in 1954; the comparison of natural erosion in streams and rocks to etched surfaces; sources of inspiration including fog, folk art, African art, ancient Chinese ceramics, the Japanese aesthetic, ethnic clothing and fabrics, pleats and folds, and works by Isamu Noguchi, Constantin Brancusi, Morris Louis, and Mark Rothko; the practice of working on several pieces at one time; the influence of two books, Santayana's "The Sense of Beauty" and Junichiro Tanizaki's "In Praise of Shadows;" her desire to "making things that are beautiful"; her husband's support and assistance with tools, materials, and techniques; the significance of various tools and equipment; developing forms through paper patterns; the body as vessel; color as "personality"; technical pitfalls of the enameling process; technical problems of electroplating; the 1974 World Craft Conference in which Stanley Letchzin presented his findings on electroforming; meeting Letchzin and comparing processes; the difficulties in selling work; the lack of an audience; teaching workshops at Arrowmont and Vail; aversion to teaching and commissions; relationships with Susan Cummins Gallery, Bellas Artes Gallery, Japonesque Gallery, De Vera Gallery, Sybaris Gallery, and Mobilia Gallery; travel to Europe and Japan; honors and awards; and interest in transparent enamels. Schwarcz also describes her use of basse taille, plique-à-jour, electroplating, electroforming, brush plating, raku, scotchbrite, and Mi-Tique (patina solutions). She also recalls development of each piece in her retrospective catalog, "June Schwarcz : forty years, forty pieces" (San Francisco Craft & Folk Art Museum, 1998) and concludes the interview by discussing five current pieces in progress.
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