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Truman Michelson notes on Cheyenne and Sutaio, 1913 August 11-15

National Anthropological Archives
Negative microfilm

Digital surrogates are available online.

Digitization and preparation of these materials for online access has been funded through generous support from the Arcadia Fund.

Title changed from "Notes on Cheyenne and Sutaio. August 11-15, 1913" 4/7/2014.

Cheyenne and Sutaio notes collected by Truman Michelson from Wolf Chief, Bull Thigh, and Wrapped Hair, with Milton Whiteman as interpreter. Subjects include: Sutaio-Cheyenne history, Cheyenne relationship terms, joking relationship, English-Cheyenne-Sutaio vocabulary, Cheyenne soldier societies (Red Hoof society, Dog Soldiers, Elk society, Fox soldiers), Sutaio tales (Everybody starving, Prairie chicken), Sutaio customs, Cheyenne customs, and berdaches. According to the BAE catalog card, these notes were collected in Clinton, Oklahoma, which is most likely incorrect. His 1913-1914 correspondence in the Records of the BAE and the 35th BAE Annual Report indicate that he conducted fieldwork on the Sutaio during this period at Tongue River Reservation in Montana.

Vessel

National Museum of African Art
Cast copper alloy five footed vessel with hinged lid. The handle is in the form of a snake biting a man. The spout issues from the mouth of a male two tailed animal, possibly a leopard or a monkey. In relief on the sides of the vessel are heads with arms and legs representing Ofoe, messenger of the god of death. The knob of the lid is a seated male figure. The core remains insidethe vessel and remains of sprues are around the rim.

King Joe Part I (Joe Louis Blues) / King Joe Part II (Joe Louis Blues)

National Museum of African American History and Culture
A 78 rpm black vinyl record (a) with worn Okeh Records paper sleeve (b). The record has a purple label at the center with gold type. OKeh Logo at the top of the label, with title reading [KING JOE PART I / (Joe Louis Blues) Blues Fox Trot / -Wright-Basie- / PAUL ROBESON with / COUNT BASIE and his ORCH.] on side A, with [KING JOE PART II] on side B. Held in extremely worn Okeh paper sleeve.

Cap Of Fur And Feathers

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
From card: "Head-dress - Band of otter skin with scalp and muzzle in front, two brass army buttons in eye-holes. Crown made of the breast of a white aquatic fowl, sewed to the otter skin. Lined with dark-blue cloth. Visor of glazed leather. Worn by Blackfoot Indians. Diameter of top, 9", Height, 3", Size 7.5". Lent to Washington State University, Oct. 13, 1992, returned 3-18-97." A Scotch cap.

July, 2011. Suzanne Peurach, Collections Manager in the NMNH Division of Mammals, identified the face and additional fur on the cap E7130 as red fox, Vulpes vulpes.

White Coat on a Black Bear

Smithsonian Magazine

Generally, having white fur is only good if you live in a white environment. The arctic fox, for example, would probably be eaten pretty quickly if it lived in Florida. Likewise, black bears that inherit two copies of a recessive gene for a white coat tend not to live very long, becoming victims of wolves or grizzly bears.

Except on a few small islands in western Canada that lack wolves and grizzly bears. On those islands, 20 to 30 percent of the black bears are white. They are known as "spirit bears" or Kermode bears. Native American tradition from the region says that the spirit bears lived on the ice-covered landscape of times long ago. Scientists, however, have hypothesized that the white color is a more recent mutation that has become prevalent on these islands due to genetic drift.

Whenever the trait developed, it may have given the white bears some sort of advantage. In a new study, published in the Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, biologists from British Columbia started looking at the diet and foraging behavior of the white and black bears. Both types eat the same kind of food, and go after it in the same ways. The difference comes during the autumn salmon run. During the day, the white bears are about 20 percent more efficient in their fishing compared with the black bears. The biologists say that the white fur is less visible in the water during the day and the salmon are less likely to try to evade the white bears. The spirit bears are able to fatten up faster for winter, which translates to better survival.

It's not all good news for the Kermode bears of western Canada, however. As in many other places along the west coast of North America, the spirit bears' salmon are on the decline.

Western Electric model CW-938 radio transceiver

National Museum of American History

Street and gangland rhythms [sound recording] : beats and improvisations by six boys in trouble / collected and edited by E. Richard Sorenson

Ralph Rinzler Folklife Archives and Collections
Program notes by E. Richard Sorenson (8 p.) inserted in container.

Title from sleeve. Record's label is incorrect.

Dancing IS the Jazz Age….Jazz is dancing music. Swing is Jazz music.

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum
American jazz and popular dance tunes- for the foxtrot and other 1920’s and 30’s dances, dominated nightlife and entertainment in the movies and live performance. The 1920s represented a period of “new wildness” and vibrancy created in the aftermath of the first World War in Europe and America. Coined the “Roaring Twenties,” the decade became...

Snapshot: Amalfi Coast

Smithsonian Magazine

Read about southern Italy's Amalfi Coast below, then click on the main image to begin a slideshow about the region.

Origin: Inhabited since the earliest times, in A.D. 840 Amalfi became the first of four maritime republics on the Italian peninsula and the first to codify maritime law. In its heyday, the 11th century, Amalfi traders were known throughout the Mediterranean, bringing great riches back to the coast. The republic went into decline in the beginning of the 13th century as it lost its eminence in trade and fell prey to pirate raids (defensive watchtowers still pepper the coast), and in 1643 lost a third of its residents to the plague.

The appeal: The Amalfi Coast is a unique combination of nature and comfort, old and new, with a good dose of authentic Italian life. Visitors can shop in the trendy boutiques, swim from the little coves that dot the cliffs or trek through the unspoiled Lattari mountains among the flowering plants, vineyards and olive and lemon groves. They can walk along streets that haven't changed in a millennium, enjoy a limoncello (a regional drink made with lemons and alcohol) on a terrace overlooking the sea or eat a gelato on the beach.

Interesting historical fact: The piazza in the port area of the town of Amalfi is named after Flavio Gioia, a 14th-century Italian naval captain from this area, sometimes credited with inventing the magnetic compass.

Famous sons or daughters: The coast is known for its illustrious visitors—British aristocrats; popes; movie stars from Greta Garbo to Paul Neuman, Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie; artists like Klee, Picasso and Cocteau; dancers Rudolf Nureyev and Margot Fonteyn; and writers of great note, including John Steinbeck, André Gide, E.M. Forster, D.H. Lawrence and Gore Vidal.

Who goes there?: More than 400,000 people visited the Amalfi Coast last year. The British are the most numerous, followed by the Germans, the French and the Americans. Amalfi tends to attract people interested more in scenic beauty than excitement.

Then & Now: Fishing is now an occupation in only a very few towns, tourism having become the mainstay of the coast. The fortifications that once guarded against pirates have been turned into restaurants, hotels and residences. The advent of middle-class tourists has led to a greater choice of accommodations—not just the luxury hotels that traditionally have catered to the very wealthy.

Dina Modianot-Fox is a regular Smithsonian.com contributor. She took the photographs except where noted.

Fur Parka

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
From card: "Woman's parka, of reindeer hide trimmed with bands of same, white and brown, also with fox fur. Wolf fur on hood."

Dogon rock paintings on the great vault. Songo village, Mali, [negative]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title source: Index card based on photographer's notes.

"Two large paintings have been made on the rocks which overhang the great vault. The first one is red and white and is called "trace of the sacrificed Nommo's blood" (nommo semi illi bummo). The second one is called " drawing of the stopping (place) of the resurrected Nommo" (nommo bulo inu toy). The drawings on the great vault (about 30m. long and 2m. high) are called ogodine tonu, "tonu of the chameleon." For all initiates these pictures, which are sometimes trichromatic, represent Amma's 266 signs. The two large paintings will be refreshed at the time of the Sigui; those of the vault likewise when the circumcision is performed." [Griaule M. and Dieteren G., 1986: The Pale Fox. Continuum Foundation]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Study Finds that Halal Meat in Iran is Contaminated With Pork

Smithsonian Magazine

By now, it might come as no surprise to you that a lot of the meat you see and eat isn’t exactly as advertised. Whether it’s horse meat in Ikea’s meatballs, or fox meat in China’s donkey, more and more flesh is coming with surprises. Now, a new study suggests that halal meat—meat that supposedly adheres to strict religious rules—isn’t quite so spotless, either.

A key component of halal meat is that it is free of any kind of pork product. There are other halal rules, as well: the animal cannot have been strangled, beaten, gored, killed by a non-human or been carrion. But once the meat is on your plate, it's pretty hard to determine if those rules have been followed. What's in the meat, however, can be tested.

That's exactly what this study did. The researchers gathered 224 meat products from different food markets in Iran—68 sausages, 48 frankfurters, 55 hamburgers, 33 hams and 20 cold cuts. They tested those meats to see what DNA they could find in them. Here’s what they found:

Results showed that 6 of 68 fermented sausages (8.82%), 4 of 48 frankfurters (8.33%), 4 of 55 hamburgers (7.27%), 2 of 33 hams (6.6%), and 1 of 20 cold cut meat (5%) were found to contain Haram (unlawful or prohibited) meat. These results indicate that 7.58% of the total samples were not containing Halal (lawful or permitted) meat and have another meat.

This isn’t the first time halal meat has come under scrutiny for being contaminated. In February of last year, the U.K. Food Standards Agency had to have an emergency meeting, after a similar DNA study found pork in the meat supplied to prisoners in England and Whales. Those who don’t trust their suppliers to keep halal can even buy a little PCR machine to test their products themselves, according to the American Halal Association. While pork meat is only one part of halal rules, it’s the easiest thing to test. Scientists still haven’t figured out a way to interrogate a slab of meat to see how humanely it was gathered. 

A catalogue of the shells, arranged according to the Lamarckian system : together with descriptions of new or rare species, contained in the collection of John C. Jay : illustrated by several plates

Smithsonian Libraries
"D. Fanshaw, printer ... New York" --Verso of title page.

"Explanation of the plates"--Pages [111]-[126], followed by the plates.

Plates are hand-colored.

Also available online.

Elecresource

SCNHRB has two copies.

SCNHRB copy 1 (39088008863714) has uncolored plates; the paper used for the plates is heavily speckled (from foxing?).

SCNHRB copy 1 is imperfect: plate VIII has been torn and repaired.

SCNHRB copy 1 has stamps of former owners on front free endpaper and t.p.: S. Stillman Berry ... Redlands, California; Richard I. Johnson; and J.C. McGuire, Washington, D.C.

SCNHRB copy 1 is extensively annotated in pencil and ink.

SCNHRB copy 1 has bookplate: Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Bequest of S. Stillman Berry. Gift of Clyde Roper.

SCNHRB copy 1 has a later gilt-tooled red morocco leather binding with yellow paste-paper endpapers and sprinkled edges. Approximately 40 leaves of paper (lined white sheets and brown) are inserted at the end of the volume as filler.

SCNHRB copy 2 (39088003483997) inscribed in ink on original front free endpaper: J. Lea Esq with the respects of the author.

SCNHRB copy 2 stamped on title page: Isaac Lea Collection [and] Division of Mollusks Sectional Library.

SCNHRB copy 2 stamped on title page: Library, U.S. National Museum Smithsonian Institution jan 7 1890 [manuscript accession no.] 134776.

SCNHRB copy 2 bound in brown buckram, title in gilt on spine.

Contributions of Ornamental Taxidermy

Smithsonian Institution Archives
Also known as RU95_Box76_096 [SPI_2150] and 2783.

See also Record Unit 95, Box 76.

Description from "Taxidermy and zoological collecting; a complete handbook for the amateur taxidermist, collector, osteologist, museum-builder, sportsman, and traveller," by William Temple Hornaday and William Jacob Holland.

From the New York exhibition of the Society of American Taxidermists to the United States National Museum. Figures:

1. "Coming to the Point" by William Temple Hornaday

2. "An Interrupted Dinner" by Frederic A. Lucas

3. Head of Caribou (presented by by Professor Henry A. Ward) by W.J. Critchley

4. Peacock Screen by Thomas W. Fraine

5. "Wounded Heron" by F.S. Webster

6. Dead Gull by Edwin A. Capen

7. Frightened Owl by John Wallace

8. Bald Eagle by John Wallace

9. Fox Squirrel by P.W. Aldrich

10. Humming-Bird Group by Mr. and Mrs. George H. Hedley

11. Group of Gray Squirrels by Joseph Palmer

12. Group of Ducks by William Palmer

13. Grotesque Group of Frogs by J.F.D. Bailly

14. Frogs Skating by J.F.D. Bailly

15. Snowy Heron by Thomas Rowland

16. Portrait of Jules Verreaux by by J.F.D. Bailly

Arctic Dispatch: A Toolik Farewell

Smithsonian Magazine

I stepped out of my tent on my last morning at Toolik and saw a fox trotting through the grass. Its tail and pale orange hue looked exactly like the animal we'd encountered on our first day here; giving me the sense that I'd gone full circle in my Toolik experience.

Exhausted and not particularly thrilled at the prospect of a 10-hour van ride, we loaded our things into the white Dalton Express vans. The caribou antlers that many of the follows found on their hikes jutted out amidst the luggage. From the vans, we noticed 20 or so Toolik researchers had climbed a picnic table in front of the dining hall and were holding their coffee mugs and grinning. As we drove away, the crowd hollered and waved after us, a Toolik farewell tradition that suddenly made me sad that I would likely never see this place again. I turned back to watch them jump off the table, laughing as they went back to the warm camaraderie of the dining hall.

As we rumbled down the Dalton Highway, I realized why I had taken so strongly to Toolik: It exudes a palpable joie de vivre, a feeling that you're among people that love what they do. And their research is not only relevant for this desolate region of Alaska: Predicting the effects of climate change may ultimately help us all.

The ride back to Fairbanks was nicely broken up between points of interest. We stopped for lunch at Coldfoot, a former gold-mining camp about 55 miles north of the Arctic Circle. It's named after "green stampeders" who got cold feet on their search for gold and set up camp here instead. Coldfoot is also known for having a run of the chilliest days in North American history: For 14 consecutive days in 1989, the mercury dropped to below minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Luckily Coldfoot was a balmy 60 degrees above Fahrenheit during our visit.

Another stop was the Yukon River Camp, consisting of a few stores and a restaurant along the Yukon River. I visited two artists and their small tent of homemade curios. One woman had made a purse out of a wolverine, a scrappy and extremely elusive Alaskan predator that's related to the weasel, and shared a long-winded tale of how the unfortunate animal ended up as a fashion accessory.

Finally, we rolled into Fairbanks at about 7:30 p.m., marveling at the sight of trees and exclaiming at the absence of mosquitoes pricking our skin. We were here in Fairbanks only two weeks ago, but it felt like a lifetime. We said our goodbyes, heading back to comfy lives without daily doses of DEET or three gourmet meals a day.

Bow & 2 Arrows

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
WRITTEN ON BOW: "HAN KUTCHIN YUKON (R.)" FROM CARD: "49139-40. BOW FOUND IN COLLECTION 1/27/1997 FOR 49139."

Source of the information below: Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center Alaska Native Collections: Sharing Knowledge website, by Aron Crowell, entry on this artifact http://alaska.si.edu/record.asp?id=587, retrieved 8-19-2012: Athabascan longbows were made from birch, willow, or spruce wood, with strings of twisted caribou back sinew. The wooden projection on this Gwich'in or Hän bow caught the string and prevented it from lashing the bowman's wrist. Before guns were available, hunters used bows and arrows to kill large animals such as caribou, bear, moose, and mountain sheep and also to take small furbearers such as rabbit, lynx, fox, wolverine, and muskrat. In the fall, migrating caribou were driven into corrals at the end of converging brush fences, where the animals were snared or shot with arrows.

This object is on loan to the Anchorage Museum at Rasmuson Center, from 2010 through 2022. Only bow on loan.

Device For Setting A Trap

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
FROM CARD: "MODEL OF MAHLEMUT FOX TRAP FROM UN ALAKLEET."

Auction House is Selling Decades-Old Slices of Royal Wedding Cake

Smithsonian Magazine

Royal weddings boast pomp and circumstance, A-list guests and plenty of pop culture cachet. But they’re not just big business for UK vendors selling commemorative t-shirts and plates. In fact, one of the most coveted souvenirs of a royal wedding is a slice of cake. Now, a Beverly Hills auction house is selling slices of cake up to 42 years old, and they’re expected to go for thousands.

The cake slices were collected by a former chauffeur of Queen Elizabeth II, writes the AFP. He saved slices from the weddings of Princess Anne (1973), Prince Andrew (1986), Prince Charles (both weddings, in 1981 and 2005), and Prince William (2011). The AFP reports that all five slices are in their original packaging — monogrammed boxes given to wedding guests. The slices are expected to sell for up to $2,000, writes the auction house in a release.

Before they’re sold, the cake slices are being featured in an exhibit at a London hotel. But why are a few pieces of old cake such big news? Chalk it up to public fascination with the royals and the monarchy’s penchant for over-the-top cakes. TIME’s Kiran Hefa notes that William and Kate’s wedding cake had eight tiers — and that Queen Elizabeth’s wedding cake weighed 500 pounds.

A slice of William and Kate’s celebratory cake has already sold for big bucks at auction. In 2014, a slice of cake from the wedding scored $7,500 at auction, according to CNN’s Emily Jane Fox. But the lucky bidder on this year’s available slices won’t be able to dig in to a piece of history: the AFP reports that the slices come complete with warnings that they’re “not suitable for consumption.”

Conradi Gesneri medici Tigurini Historiae animalium liber IV : qui est De piscium & aquatilium animantium natura : cum iconibus singulorum ad viuum expressis ferè omnibus DCCXII

Smithsonian Libraries
Title page vignette (Mustela) also used on p. 605.

Head- and tail-pieces; initials; side-notes.

"Continentur in hoc volumine, Gulielmi Rondeletii quoque medicinae professoris regij in schola Monspeliensi, & Petri Bellonij Cenomani, medici hoc tempore Lutetiae eximij, de aquatilium singulis scripta. Paralipomena quaedam ad finem adiecta sunt."

The numbers 809-828 are repeated in the pagination sequence with different text. Pages 64, 65, 76, 126, 264, 289, 322, 336, 342, 359, 476, 480, 507, 539, 540, 606, 964, 991, 20 and 37 misnumbered 60, 63, 62, 130, 263, 288, 242, 426, 344, 369, 466, 408, 508, 514, 542, 605, 974, 990, 10 and 38 respectively.

Signatures: a-b⁶ *⁸ A-4T⁶ 4V⁸ a-b⁶ c⁴(- c₄) d⁴; leaves I4 and 2nd b1 signed [lamda]4 and B respectively.

Includes indexes.

Wellisch, H. Conrad Gessner, 26.2

Also available online.

SCNHRB copy 39088016899775 is stamped on t.p.: National Zoological Park; overstamped: Cancelled; written in ink: 488.

SCNHRB copy is stamped on verso of t.p.: Ludwig K. Schmarda; Smithsonian National Zoological Park Institution [overstamped] Cancelled; Smithsonian Institution Aug 23 1944 National Museum [in red] 326594.

SCNHRB copy has worm holes slightly affecting the text on leaves from gatherings 3V and 3Y; there is a smal hole in p. 773-774 (leaf 3T3). Many text leaves are heavily foxed. The final leaf has been reinforced with a stiffer sheet of paper on the blank verso side.

SCNHRB copy has some dried and pressed botanical specimens found in the volume (a flower similar to a daffodil found between p. 974 and 975; some other small plant pieces found between p. 706 and 707) transferred to archival envelopes and laid in.

SCNHRB copy has an old gilt-tooled, tree-stained full leather binding with raised bands, marbled endpapers, and all edges gilt. Housed in a later linen-covered box with printed spine label.

Elecresource

Bonnet

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
FROM CARD: "MAN'S. NO. 168923 FOX SKIN. NO.168924 SEA GULL SKIN. *THROUGH DR. SOPHIUS MULLER, DIRECTOR. FUMIGATED APR 2 1985. INVENTORIED 1977."

Dogon rock paintings on the great vault. Songo village, Mali, [negative]

Eliot Elisofon Photographic Archives
Title source: Index card based on photographer's notes.

"Two large paintings have been made on the rocks which overhang the great vault. The first one is red and white and is called "trace of the sacrificed Nommo's blood" (nommo semi illi bummo). The second one is called " drawing of the stopping (place) of the resurrected Nommo" (nommo bulo inu toy). The drawings on the great vault (about 30m. long and 2m. high) are called ogodine tonu, "tonu of the chameleon." For all initiates these pictures, which are sometimes trichromatic, represent Amma's 266 signs. The two large paintings will be refreshed at the time of the Sigui; those of the vault likewise when the circumcision is performed." [Griaule M. and Dieteren G., 1986: The Pale Fox. Continuum Foundation]. This photograph was taken when Eliot Elisofon was on assignment for National Geographic and traveled to Africa from January 19, 1972 to mid April 1972.

Two Novel Parvoviruses in Frugivorous New and Old World Bats

Smithsonian Libraries
Bats, a globally distributed group of mammals with high ecological importance, are increasingly recognized as natural reservoir hosts for viral agents of significance to human and animal health. In the present study, we evaluated pools of blood samples obtained from two phylogenetically distant bat families, in particular from flying foxes (Pteropodidae), Eidolon helvum in West Africa, and from two species of New World leaf-nosed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae), Artibeus jamaicensis and Artibeus lituratus in Central America. A sequence-independent virus discovery technique (VIDISCA) was used in combination with high throughput sequencing to detect two novel parvoviruses: a PARV4-like virus named Eh-BtPV-1 in Eidolon helvum from Ghana and the first member of a putative new genus in Artibeus jamaicensis from Panama (Aj-BtPV-1). Those viruses were circulating in the corresponding bat colony at rates of 7-8%. Aj-BtPV-1 was also found in Artibeus lituratus (5.5%). Both viruses were detected in the blood of infected animals at high concentrations: up to 10E8 and to 10E10 copies/ml for Aj-BtPV-1 and Eh-BtPV-1 respectively. Eh-BtPV-1 was additionally detected in all organs collected from bats (brain, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys and intestine) and spleen and kidneys were identified as the most likely sites where viral replication takes place. Our study shows that bat parvoviruses share common ancestors with known parvoviruses of humans and livestock. We also provide evidence that a variety of Parvovirinae are able to cause active infection in bats and that they are widely distributed in these animals with different geographic origin, ecologies and climatic ranges.

Whaling Letter from Henry White to Parents, dated October 18, 1860

National Museum of American History
Letter 5, dated October 18, 1860

Rec'd package of letters from home; discusses births & deaths. Sailed from Honolulu 29 Oct 1859, went to Matia (Society Is.), Tahiti, Mataar Manges (Harvy group), French Rocks, Mongonui (N. Zealand), left, took a lively whale, Egg Island (Mitchel group), fastened but had to cut loose of sperm whale (left 7 irons and one lance in him), Drummons, Ocean & Pleasant Islands (Kingmill Group), sighted Strongs Is., put into Parnapy/Ascension Is., sighted Fox Is., met weather so cold it froze the fish in the ocean and they picked up 2 bbl in 2 min. Last year=700 bbl; this year, none. Then took a few, inc. one that struck and stove the boat, line got foul and boat swamped, crew saved after 20 min. in water. Struck more whales, 700 bbl; 100 sperm 30,000 lbs bone for the voyage. Through Strait 14 Sept. ½ mi. from Gores/St. Mattens Is. Nantucket sleigh ride described: "In latitude 56 N. where the water is ice cold towed behind a whale in a small boat within about two boats lengths of his flukes at the rate of about 10 miles an hour and slaked to the skin with cold water & blowing almost a gale of wind from the NorWest for 3-1/2 & if it had not been for the fog it might have been for 3-1/2 longer." "I am ships painter and Capt of the Fore Hold. The old man has been talking to me about learning navigation."

Fire Helmet, "Hampton 6"

National Museum of American History
The traditional American leather firefighter’s helmet with its distinctive long rear brim, frontpiece, and crest adornment was first developed around 1821-1836 in New York City. Henry T. Gratacap, a New York City luggage maker by trade, is often credited as the developer of this style of fire helmet. Gratacap created a specially treated leather helmet with a segmented “comb” design that led to unparalleled durability and strength. The elongated rear brim (also known as a duckbill or beavertail) and frontpiece were 19th century innovations that remain the most identifiable feature of firefighter’s helmets. The body of the helmet was primarily designed to deflect falling debris, the rear brim prevented water from running down firefighters’ backs, and their sturdy crowns could aid, if necessary, in breaking windows.

This leather fire helmet dates to the mid-19th century. The helmet is painted black overall, with eight combs painted gold, and a red underbrim. The rear brim has the date “1867” painted in gold with red shadowing, and a scroll pattern is stamped around the hat’s rim. A metal fox is mounted onto the top of the crown as a frontpiece holder. The leather frontpiece is white overall, with gold letters on a red background that reads “HAMPTON/6/FIRE Co”.
7249-7272 of 7,571 Resources