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Found 5,016 Collections


Existentialism and the Absurd in Art and Culture Across Time

In this collection I explore aesthetic elements of Existentialism and the Absurd in Art and Culture across time. The central preoccupations of Existential Philosophy: the quest for authenticity, the meaning of life, the absurdity of human existence, etc. are central to many dilemmas and fundamental questions in Literature, Philosophy and Art in general. The main motivation for choosing this theme comes from this assay:

Sadigh, Michah. “The Foundation of Existentialism in the Oldest Story Ever Told: The Epic of Gilgamesh.” Existential Analysis 21.1 (2010).

And readings of Albert Camus' books such as The Myth of Sisyphus:

"All Sisyphus' silent joy is contained therein. His fate belongs to him. His rock is a thing. Likewise, the absurd man, when he contemplates his torment, silences all the idols. In the universe suddenly restored to its silence, the myriad wondering little voices of the earth rise up. Unconscious, secret calls, invitations from all the faces, they are the necessary reverse and price of victory... The rock is still rolling. I leave Sisyphus at the foot of the mountain! One always finds one's burden again. But Sisyphus teaches the higher fidelity that negates the gods and raises rocks. He too concludes that all is well. This universe henceforth without a master seems to him neither sterile nor futile. Each atom of that stone, each mineral flake of that night filled mountain, in itself forms a world. The struggle itself toward the heights is enough to fill a man's heart. One must imagine Sisyphus happy."

The Myth of Sisyphus, by Albert Camus (1942)

Elizabeth Burzinski

Beauty in the Ancient World

This collection has been made to depict the ideals of beauty that were birthed in the Ancient World. The differing time periods illustrate similar and different beauty ideals that are still present today. Body types, makeup, fashion, etc will be showcased to demonstrate how the influence of the culture and time defined beauty. #AHMC2019

Women in Egyptian art are often depicted with slim, high waists, and narrow hips. Dark black hair, possibly even with a bluish tinge, and golden or “bright” skin for women were considered ideal.Women also wore long, braided wigs. Men and women in Egypt routinely shaved their hair and wore wigs instead.Men and women also both wore makeup, namely heavy black eyeliner that doubled as protection from the sun.

While many women today would pluck a thick “unibrow,” women in Ancient Greece liked the look, and many used dark pigment to draw one in.They also bleached their hair in vinegar, which often caused hair loss, so wigs were popular.Long hair was also considered beautiful, as only upper-class women were allowed to grow their hair long. Body positive mentalities were also present as women are depicted with "fuller figures" and considered beautiful.

Steiny Gomez-Jimenez

Darkness in Art and Literature

With all pieces of work that is created, there are intentions and feelings attached. Whether that be art, music or literature. Throughout history, many great civilizations have come and gone, but what is important is the legacy that they leave behind. Pieces of art, and parts of stories that lead to a bigger picture. This collection aims to portray the negative aspects that come with great pieces of art and literature. I believe often times we tend to hyperfocus on all the culture, art and philosophy from an era that highlight its peak. However, by also giving attention to the darker, less comfortable topics or simply more minute details, we are able to paint a more realistic and whole picture of the culture. Sometimes it is this darkness that makes the art more memorable, and unique. Just because the product is beautiful does not mean the artist’s intent or the creative process is as pure. Ultimately, this collection is designed to highlight the darkness in certain pieces of art and literature as well as  reflect how the piece is a product of its time period.

Nearyrodh Promket


Steiny Gomez-Jimenez

Classical Period Developing into the Romantic Period

The collection begins with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and his masterpiece Symphony No. 40.  Mozart was designed to be the first aspect of this particular collection because he is probably the most famous name to come out of the Classical Period of music.  He is accompanied by a photograph of the composition of his famous Symphony No. 40 because that symphony meant so much to what Mozart brought to the Classical Period in terms of music.  Mozart may have been a master at his craft, but he was not the "Father," which brings me to my next point.

The middle section of the collection contains a painting of Franz Joseph Haydn who was one of the most influential names in music during the Classical Period as he had a lot to do with the transition into the Classical Period from the previous Baroque Period.  Haydn is accompanied by a photograph of one of his more famous piano trio composition as a composer.  Haydn was nicknamed the "Father of Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet."  Symphony and string quartet are two of the few things Haydn brought to music during the time period, as well as chamber music and the piano trio.

The final section of the collection contains a painting of Ludwig van Beethoven who was one of, if not the very most famous composer (as well as being a pianist) from the Classical Period of Music.  Beethoven was the main driving force at the end of this musical era as he was such a pivotal aspect of the transition into the later Romantic Period.  Beethoven's portrait is accompanied with one of his most famous composition of Symphony No. 5.  If someone says they haven't heard Beethoven's 5th Symphony, throw it on your phone's playlist and let them listen, I'm sure they've heard it.  The symphony is wildly famous and so is the deaf man that wrote it.



Nathan Renaud

Evolution of religion through art

From the beginning of mankind, since our lives began on this earth, humankind has preserved its norm of following a system of faith and worshiping something, whether it be some deity or something materialistic existing in the world with us with hopes of some kind of personal gains. Religion has certainly evolved massively from the beginning of our existence in this universe, and art has had and still has a significant impact on our relationship with religion and it helps us make connections between the belief in some kind of God, atheism, and all other forms of beliefs. It helps to understand religion in ancient times versus modern ways of following religion.

This collection will be looking at the evolution of religion through the perception of art in various forms, throughout the different ages of mankind and the way religion has developed over the course of time. It is specifically going to focus on the religion Islam, a religion that hasn't started too long ago compared to Hinduism, the oldest religion that mankind follows, as we navigate through the collection. It starts from various ways in which the belief in religion started, to how Prophet Muhammad (SM) started the religion Islam, which is now the youngest of the world's major religions.

#AHMC2019 #Arts&Religion

Fariha Hashmi

How Greek Civilization from Antiquity influences The Byzantine Era and Baroque Period

In this collection I am exploring the themes of  art, literature, music, and philosophy  of Greek civilization. I think this is interesting topic to explore because I have always enjoyed learning about Greek civilization and how they invented many things in antiquity. Ancient Greece had many different times period starting from Geometric to Archaic then to Classical and ending in the Hellenistic Period. Throughout these periods many types of art was created. This will soon go with my with my theme of Greek life and how the Greeks helped shape the world that we know today through the Byzantine Empire and through the Renaissance era. Byzantine Civilization also influenced art for the renaissance artists as their main focus was on religious figures.


Odalys Torres

The Portrayal of Powerful Women In Visual Art: A Study Spanning Ancient Egypt, Baroque and Renaissance eras, Through Impressionism, and Pop and Modern Art

This third and final collection “The Portrayal of Powerful Women In Visual Art: A Study Spanning Ancient Egypt, Baroque and Renaissance Periods, Through Impressionism, and Pop and Modern Art” has been building up since the beginning of this project. I cannot stress enough how passionate I am about representing women as strong and powerful beings and I think it is so important to look back over history and find the times that was done despite attitudes towards women. Women have always been viewed as the weaker sex, until very recently in fact. However, the quiet and prevailing strength of women has a thread that is woven back to the dawn of time. As I have stated in a previous collection, visual art is an important way to document our collective present so that future generations may have greater understanding of our ways of thinking, values and more. My goal for these collections was to exemplify the power that was evident in a woman over time and I feel that I have achieved that. This collection spans time and cultures including ancient Egypt, the Renaissance and Baroque periods, Impressionism, and pop and modern art. Influential, resilient, and robust women always have and always will have a role to play in visual art.

For my museum paper, I took a close look at impressionism, especially Claude Monet (see the final tile in the collection). “Camille Monet on a Garden Bench” by Claude Monet is an oil on canvas, impressionist painting capturing Monet’s first wife, Camille, whom he painted often.  Impressionism came to be in France in the middle of the nineteenth century and Claude Monet is one of the names you immediately associate with this style of painting. Monet is a household name in the realm of impressionist painting and “Camille Monet on a Garden Bench” is just one of the many famous works he produced in his lifetime. In this painting, her expression is one of quiet defeat and her large, dark eyes seem exhausted as if she is mentally somewhere else while her gaze is fixed directly on the viewer. Her body is hunched over rather than up straight to greet her neighbor. The viewer feels her sadness and I think that is in part because of the contrast in the image. The rest of the painting is bright, sunny and filled with color, things associated with happiness and lightness. Camille is clothed in a dark, heavy looking dress seemingly under the shadow of a tree which I interpret as the metaphorical cloud hanging over her with the sad news of her fathers passing. Monet captures her strength and femininity all at once.

Pop and modern art seem much more literal in what it expresses and is an excellent reflection of society at that point in time. While women still weren’t considered equal, they were still being depicted in visual art and it was typically women of high standard and fame. These women were respected in their fields and were considered icons of their generation; women like Audrey Hepburn, Marilyn Monroe, Billie Holiday, Aretha Franklin, even Queen Elizabeth II. Visual art and its representation of a woman’s place in society still had a long way to go, but by looking at the women, we can tell they know their strength and that is what’s most important.

What I have put together in this collection represents the significance of women at points through history and I hope you will take something away from it. I hope it will spark debate, deeper thought, an emotional response, or even desire to learn more about the culture or time period being represented.


Dana Cox

Classical Art Styles

Utilizing from the text of Janetta Rebold Benton and Robert DiYanni’s Arts & Culture, An Introduction to the Humanities (Prentice Hall, 2012), Smithsonian Learning Labs and other resources, the focus of this collection will be on the classical art styles, particularly in sculpture.  

Let's begin this journey with a glimpse of Classical Greece.  Greek values included a pursuit of perfection and the love of beauty.  Also known for their philosophical impact today, the Greek philosopher Plato's beliefs are reflected in the sculpture of this time.  "Plato postulated that ideal Goodness, Truth and Beauty were all One, in the realm of Ideal Forms.  Thus, all actions can be measured against an ideal, and that ideal standard can be used as a goal toward which human beings might strive.  According to Plato, human beings should be less concerned with the material world of impermanence and change and more concerned with the spiritual realm of Perfect Forms."  (Benton & DiYanni, Arts & Culture, Prentice Hall, 2012, Pg. 73).  Increasingly lifelike, sculpture in the Classical Greek period reflects these ideals.  

Changes came about during this time in the function and style of sculpture.  The rigid form of years past was replaced with more natural, realistic form.  The sculptures/statues began to reflect what the human body can look like at its peak.  The technical skills of the sculptors evolved greatly as well, showing the human form in various poses.  These poses, which came to be known as the contrapposto pose, included characteristics such as the head slightly turned and a shift in weight onto one leg.  Some sculptors also utilized mathematical calculations to achieve these perfectly portioned forms.  

The first sculpture to utilize the contrapposto pose was the Kritios Boy (Sculptor Kritios) with his weight slightly shifted to one leg raising one hip causing an "S" curve at the spine.  The head was also slightly turned.  This piece shows a more natural form and mirrors the Greek's growing knowledge of how bone, muscle, flesh, etc. work together in the anatomy.  This was considered the transition from the Archaic to Classical periods.  The contrapposto pose achieved a perspective of fluidity in movement and a more relaxed appearance. 

Doryphoros or Spear-Bearer, by the sculptor Polykleitos, shows the ideal of perfection better still.  It was while working on this statue that Polykleitos created a set of written rules instructing how to sculpt the perfect human form.  Each part of the body was taken into consideration allowing the sculpture to be fashioned in perfect proportion.  There is also the likes of Discobolus (Discus Thrower) by Myron of Athens.  A sculpture reflective of the perfect human form that incorporates the physical stature of the sporting contest that is still known today in the Olympic games.  Another great sculptor of this period, Praxiteles, is best known for the Aphrodite of Knidos.  Aphrodite is born from the sea and is known as the goddess of love.  While common for the male form to be nude, this piece illustrating Aphrodite in the nude, was rare for its time.  The art of the female nude became a more prominent theme for the Hellenistic period artists that followed.   

Sculpture was secondary to mosaic and painting in the Early Christian era due to their rejection of idol worship.  Sculpture of this time was found on stone, typically coffins, and small ivory panels or plaques.  The Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus is one of the most famous pieces from this era.  The Islamic civilizations' greatest contribution was architecture while the Romanesque periods' focus was in architectural sculpture.  "Romanesque architectural sculpture is concentrated on church portals, especially on tympana (the tympanum is a semicircular section above the doorway, with a horizontal lintel at the bottom, supported by a central trumeau, or post) and column capitals."  (Benton & DiYanni, Arts & Culture, Prentice Hall, 2012, Pg. 246).  One phenomenal example is the Mission of the Apostles at the church of Sainte-Madeleine in Vezelay.  As in the Early Christian civilization, Romanesque era sculptors also carved in stone.  Included in these stone sculptures was a book of pictures created for use in sermons for those who were illiterate.   

The Gothic era, like the Romanesque, also incorporated sculpture in their architecture.  Unlike Romanesque sculpture; however, their column figures, as they were called, were peaceful and calm looking.  It mirrored the intensified idealism and realism of the era, thoroughly illustrated in the Annunciation and Visitation at the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Reims.  As we move toward the Renaissance, a time in which there was an urgent desire to seek truth in life and to know every detail of the world as it existed, sculpture came back with a classical elegance engaging naturalism.  The human anatomy was extremely important to them, they essentially picked up where the ancient Greeks and Romans left off with the look of fluidity and movement in their sculpture.  "Sculpture in Italy differs from that of the rest of Gothic Europe.  Nicola Pisano (ca. 1220/25 or before-1284) reintroduced a classical style, as demonstrated by the marble pulpit he made for the baptistery in Pisa, 1259-1260."  (Benton & DiYanni, Arts & Culture, Prentice Hall, 2012, Pg. 278).

The period of the early Renaissance, which means rebirth, brought forth the interest in the person as an individual and a new intrigue with nature.  The Italians thought it "marked a radical break from the past and a reinvention of the civilization and ideals of classical Greece and Rome."  (Benton & DiYanni, Arts & Culture, Prentice Hall, 2012, Pg. 289).  Renaissance culture fostered the idea of individual creativity and supported competition amongst artists.  Sculptors of this time include Donatello and Lorenzo Ghiberti, then some years later in the High Renaissance period, Michelangelo.

Over time, through the course of centuries, the art of sculpture continued to evolve.  The contrapposto pose of Classical Greece led the way to the more elaborate, almost theatrical Baroque sculpture.  What was initially made in bronze came to be made in materials such as stone, marble, wood and a variety of metals.  Some sculptors go back to the earliest forms of the art in their productions.  In the Sleeping Faun, 19th century Harriet Goodhue Hosmer captures the beautiful curves and perfect physical proportions of Greek Hellenistic sculpture in her marble creation.

Come the 20th century, while utilizing these various materials, sculpture became more diversified and ornate.  Some pieces, such as Noguchi’s Kouros, incorporated elements of both carved and ‘constructed’ components while Calder's Mobiles physically moved.  The utilization of blown glass, although previously used as an art medium in ancient Roman times, became a fine art with the likes of sculptor Dale Chihuly.  Time shall tell what new, innovative twists in sculpture will emerge.  



Pauline Kalil

Prehistoric Art

This collection will focus on Prehistoric Art and take you through some of the most magnificent and interesting art from the era. My first resource is based upon Hittite Art. The hittites were a civilization in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. Many of the art pieces revolve around Hittite ritual practices. While this civilization left no written pieces, pictures are worth a thousand words and the art they left behind gives you a glimpse of what life was like in 1600 BC. 

The second resource is focused on the Venus of Willendorf, which is an 11.1 centimetre tall venus figurine which was estimated to have been built around 30,000 BC. The sculpture is depicting a naked woman. The exaggerated sexual features can be interpreted as a possible fertility fetish. 

The third resource revolves around ancient sculptures from Jordan.  These sculptures are rather mysterious and lack an sort of gender as well as some human features. The uniqueness and mystery surrounding them brings much attention to them. 

The fourth resource is about the Excavation of Persepolis. Archaeological evidence show that some of the earliest remains of Persepolis come from about 515 BC. It came from inscriptions on the wall of the palace that led archaeologists to believe that Darius 1 built the terrace and the palaces. Another great example of art leading to historical breakthroughs. 

The fifth resource is about the Excavation of Samarra, which is just north of Baghdad. Plenty of Female statuette and pottery were discovered from this excavation. 

The sixth and final resource is about the vicinity of nihavand. Attached are some art pieces from Nihavand. 

Works Cited:

Smithsonian Archives - History Div, Smithsonian Institution. “Smithsonian Learning Lab Resource: Ancient Sculptures from Jordan.” Smithsonian Learning Lab, Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, 2 Nov. 2015. Accessed 17 Feb. 2019.

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Smithsonian Institution. “Smithsonian Learning Lab Resource: Excavation of Persepolis (Iran): Prehistoric Flint Tools [Drawing].” Smithsonian Learning Lab, Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, 27 Oct. 2015. Accessed 17 Feb. 2019.

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Smithsonian Institution. “Smithsonian Learning Lab Resource: Vicinity of Nihavand (Iran): Two Daggers, from Prehistoric Mound of Tepe Giyan [Graphic].” Smithsonian Learning Lab, Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, 3 Nov. 2015. Accessed 17 Feb. 2019.


For Resources 7-12 text will be attached to each picture explaining the significance.

Resources 13-18 will be attached with captions to the pictures explaining the significance and how it relates to some of what we have learned and the overall theme as well. 

Quinlan Evans

The Power of A Woman Represented in Visual Art During A Time Of Repression: Renaissance and Baroque Periods

I created this second collection to build on the topic of my first: The Portrayal of Powerful Women Through Visual Art. I began the introduction of my previous collection with an explanation of why I chose this topic. I will repeat that when I began at UMASS online, I immediately chose Gender Studies as one of my concentrations as I am fascinated with woman’s evolution through time. Art is the perfect time capsule to look at such a topic over time and I began with the first collection focusing on Egyptian Art. In this collection I will look at the representation of women in Renaissance art and some Baroque art. Again, my hope is that this collection will exemplify the power that was evident in a woman in this time period. My main sources of study were Arts and Culture: An Introduction to the Humanities, and the Smithsonian Lab.

Art is an important way to document our collective present so that future generations may have greater understanding of our ways of thinking, values and more. Norman Rockwell's iconic paintings are a window into the lives of ordinary people in the 20th century. Reaching further back into time, the cave paintings of the prehistoric era provide one of the last few glimpses into how these people lived and their religious and moral values. Art is a product of its time. It is a result of the social, political, and religious context in which it was made. Visual art is one of the best ways to understand women of a certain time period. In the Renaissance Era, women had no personal option in the choice of a marriage partner. The role of women continued to be to serve their husbands because the church, communal and judicial laws that at this time favored the ambitions of men. It seemed that Renaissance women were cast into a subservient state from the time of birth. Despite these values, I think that the power of a woman is still evident in art.

One piece in particular, which I have included in the collection, is The Birth of Venus by Botticelli. It immediately caught my eye when I turned to that page in our textbook. Venus is depicted standing upright in an oversized clamshell, her posture is unstable and off balance, her hands attempt to modestly cover her statuesque beauty as her long, golden hair billows in the breeze. She rises from the sea looking like a classical statue and floating on a seashell. Time seems to stop around her, and she stands alone, captivating the viewer with her gaze. She is the goddess of love and holds us all under her spell. This is just one example of representation of a woman in Renaissance art.

What I have put together in this collection represents the significance of women at this point in history.   

Benton, Janetta Rebold, and Robert DiYanni. Arts and Culture: an Introduction to the Humanities. Pearson, 2014.


Dana Cox

The Respect of Ancient Egyptian Women and Their Role In Society Through Visual Art

I come from a family of very strong and independent women, and I was raised in a feminist household and was taught that there is power in femininity. When I began at UMASS online, I immediately chose Gender Studies as one of my concentrations as I am fascinated with woman’s evolution through time. While we are only just now on the brink of true equality, there are some examples from specific cultures in history that show the power of women. I chose to look closely at Egypt from its earliest cultures through the New Kingdom. My hope is that this collection will exemplify the power that was evident in a woman in this time period. My main sources of study were Arts and Culture: An Introduction to the Humanities, and the Smithsonian Lab.

Visual art can be an influential force. I feel that it is a direct and tangible example of how the artist sees it’s subject (person, place, object, thought or idea), and that perception is molded by culture, values, lessons, and history. Reactions to visual art can spark debate, deeper thought, an emotional response, or even desire to learn more about the culture or time period it was created. I hope what I have put together here will spark one of those things in my viewers. I really hope that it will put our view of women into perspective. We have evolved so much since this time in our thoughts of equality, worth, capability, representation and I hope to show that in following collections with examples from different cultures and time periods.

In Arts and Culture: An Introduction to the Humanities there is a section in Chapter 1 about Queen Hatshepsut and how she was viewed as a powerful and important ruling figure in a male dominated world. I think this is important to note as we don’t read very much about women figureheads during this time. She was respected, trusted, and listened to. She was valued by her people which is exemplified in her tomb. It is described in the text as, “constructed of repeated elements- colonnaded terraces with columnar porticoes…halls, and private chambers. The three terraces are connected by ramps to the cliff…These chambers are chapels to the god Amen; to the cow-headed goddess Hathor, who protects the dead; and to the queen herself…sculpture was used lavishly; there were perhaps two hundred statues in Hatshepsut’s funerary temple” (Benton 27). It bears noting the love and respect for one woman in 1458 B.C.E. Women were also praised in the form of goddesses, ruling over things such as truth, justice, order, hunt, etc.

What I have put together in this collection represents the significance of women at this point in history.    

Benton, Janetta Rebold, and Robert DiYanni. Arts and Culture: an Introduction to the Humanities. Pearson, 2014.


Dana Cox

Greek and Roman Influence on Art and Culture

I find Greek and Roman art to be extremely beautiful and interesting. Greek and Roman art was very influential in many other cultures. 


Shannon Despres

Mid-Twentieth Century and Later

After the war, people are eager to repair and rebuild those damaged by the war, not only buildings, land but also people's wounded hearts. The emergence of new philosophical ideas is bound to affect artists to re-examine the surrounding environment.
American modernism was born.
Bowen Zengyang

Ancient Greece art and it's people

  The focus of this collection is to accurately depict Ancient Greece culture and inform the reader on, the cultural significance of the artwork , architecture, gods, and individuals who lived in Ancient Greece. I have always had a fascination with Ancient Greece and the influence it left on the world. I think they are one of the most beautiful cultures to ever exist and the people from this time left a lasting impact on the world around us.  

  The first two pieces of my collection include two busts; one of Zeus and one of Aphrodite.  They are both vital parts of Greek mythology and were highly respected by the Ancient Greeks at the time. Zeus was the the king of all the gods and was believed to live on top of mount olympus.  Aphrodite was the Greek goddess of beauty. An interesting fact about Aphrodite is that in some Greek myths she was known as the mother of Eros (Cupid).

The next two pieces of my collection include sculptures of Alexander the Great and Achilles. Alexander the great was born in Pella where is father was king and controlled Macedonian Army. Due to the success of his father Alexander inherited one of the most powerful Armies of the time which allowed him to expand his empire even further. Achilles is the protagonist of the Iliad a story created by Homer. The significance of Achilles is he was grabbed by the heels and dipped in a river which turns him immortal. However, since his heels did not touch the water and later on he was hit by an arrow in that spot which led to his downfall.

The the last two pieces of my collection contain Ancient Greek architecture. One of the pieces I specifically wanted to focus on the columns since they were such a pivotal part of Ancient Greek architecture. They created three types of columns corinthian, doric and Ionic. The second piece of architecture I include was the Parthenon. This piece of architecture was on the Athenian Acropolis, and was dedicated to Athena, who the people of Athens thought was their patron

In the second installment of my collection I added four pieces of art I found to be significant during this time. I also believe the pieces I chose are extremely interesting as well as informative. The two other following pieces I added were based on architecture. I believe the architecture I have added to my collection represent well the styles of columns and other specific aspects that are unique to ancient Greece. For the new pieces of my collection I focussed on adding most of the detail of my pieces in the description part of each image.

My final installment of my collection will be about the music history and what role it played in Ancient Greece. 

Music was an important part of life in the ancient Greek world. A wide range of instruments were used to perform music which was played on all manner of occasions such as religious ceremonies, festivals, and during athletic and military activities. Music was also an important element of Greek education and dramatic performances held in theatres such as plays, recitals, and competitions.   

This collection is a great place to start if you are looking for some interesting artwork, information or history from Ancient Greece. Ancient Greece has always been a fascination of mine since first starting to learn about in sixth grade. I hope you enjoy.

Work cited:

1. “Parthenon Facts.” Math,

2. “Aphrodite • Facts and Information on Greek Goddess Aphrodite.” Greek Gods & Goddesses,

3. Cartwright, Mark. “Column.” Ancient History Encyclopedia, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 11 Feb. 2019,

4. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Smithsonian Institution. “Smithsonian Learning Lab Resource: Psyche.” Smithsonian Learning Lab, Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, 2 Nov. 2015. Accessed 12 Feb. 2019. 

5.“Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon.” Khan Academy, Khan Academy,

6 .McDowall, Carolyn, and Carolyn McDowall FRSA. “Motya Charioteer – Ancient Greek Sculpture at Its Finest.” The Culture Concept Circle, 1 Sept. 2012,


chris miller

Performance Art

This collection is meant to showcase and demonstrate the importance and impact of performance arts throughout history. Music will be the focus but any type of performance may be used to establish the value of performance arts.


Sean Duggan

Evaluating the Atomic Bomb - Modern World History

Students will be assigned to argue for the dropping of the atomic bomb, or against the dropping of the atomic bomb. Your task is to find at least 6 of these resources that will help you form your argument. While you are filling out your graphic organizer, make sure to click on the actual resource to see the guiding question to consider (there will be a paper clip next to a "1" on the upper left hand corner - click on that). Note your answer on your graphic organizer.

If you would like to fill out your graphic organizer electronically, here is the link - PLEASE MAKE A COPY:

Lea Silverstein

Artists and Innovators Across Time and their Environmental Influences

This three-part collection will explore many of the different ways that the people from the past and present, and their communities, understood nature and its importance to their way of life. Many artists and innovators from ancient times to the present have come to rely on the environment and items found there to complete great works that are enjoyed by many. Ancient Egyptians, for example, were known for worshiping various gods, and many of them were believed to be in total control of the weather and the natural environment of Egypt. It was very important to these people that they lived their lives in such a way that would please the gods so as to be able to live in harmony with the gods and also with their environment. Astronomy was a large influence on their building designs and many structures were created to be aligned with stars and constellations. Ancient Egyptians however, were not the the only people to study the stars and planets as we will see in the early Islamic civilization. These people were also very interested in astronomy, and although it was also partly for religious purposes, it was not to appease various gods but instead it was to make sure they were praying to Mecca in the right direction and at the right times of day. 

Tiles in the first two collections will show that past civilizations were very interested in the natural environment around them and figured out ways for using things such as flooding to their advantage. Ancient Egyptians used plants such as papyrus reeds to form a type of paper that could be used to write on and they also made instruments from reeds that grew along the Nile River. They also came up with a writing system known as hieroglyphics that was created as a way to communicate and write important things down. Within these hieroglyphics we can see reeds, birds, and other things found in nature. The art in this part of the world was consistently showcasing everyday life and a large part of that had to do with animals and the land the Ancient Egyptians called home. Early Islamic people used various materials found in their own environment to build large stone statues. They became experts at making mosaic and tiles, and took advantage of scarce wood that was rare in this part of the world to build furniture among other items. Like the Egyptians, this civilization appreciated beauty and pleasant fragrance. Because of this, early Muslims were some of the first people who used flowers and plants to produce perfume. 

Tiles from the third collection focus more on the people of today and their use of nature and overall respect for the planet when creating art. Whether talking about Abstract Expressionism and its suggestion of a flowering limb in a painting, or a touching song written by a Pop Culture icon from Late Modern Music that pleads with us to listen to the Earth, our planet, our environment, and the beauty that surrounds us continue to provide inspiration for many types of artists all across the world. 

This collection as a whole is meant to be a helpful tool for anyone who is interested in learning about how humans, specifically artists and designers, from the past as well as the present, show respect for nature and their attempts work with it, not against it. It will hopefully serve as a reminder to anyone who reads it that this respect for our environment should be just as important now as it was to the past civilizations. We have much to learn from the artists who provide their vision and their ability to conserve and cherish the Earth while creating works that inspire people near and far. 


Renee Hawkins

The Roman Empire

As I am writing this I am sitting in a cafe shop in a small town on an island Sardinia in Italy. To this day, the remains of the Roman Empire and it's architecture can be found all over the island, which sparked an interest in me for that great culture and it makes me want to focus this project on that. This project focuses on the architecture of the great Roman empire and the influence that the architecture of the Roman Empire, changes in the way this Culture express itself trough architecture and art work within that architecture. When traveling to a new place, I believe the first thing people notice is the architecture and then they look within. This is exactly what this project will try to do.   

This collection will focus on art throughout of history or Roman Empire and Italy as we know it today. It will start from the Ancient Greece where early Roman Empire drew most of it’s inspiration for art  and architecture and connect various different forms of art and how it interacted with the history of this great nation. I hope you enjoy the collection. 


Ivan Abramovic

The Character of Man

Understanding the nature of our own species has been one of the greatest mysteries addressed in the history of human art, philosophy, literature, and culture. This collection will present a history of man’s search for the meaning of his own character—what impulses drive man, what morals and desires construct his life, and what artwork is produced as a result of this character. Does culture impact the character of man? Does it influence the men of one culture towards a particular mindset that distinguishes it from other men, or are there foundations of character that run throughout all of mankind? By examining the way that authors, artists, and philosophers approach the study of their fellow men, we can understand not only the cultural influences that drive these questions but also the nature of the men doing the questioning.


Briana Hanratty

Music and Dance in Visual Art

Music and dance have always been an integral part of life. They serve to unite and harmonize people, and inspire our lives. There are many types of music and dance, some of which are highlighted in this collection. You will see cultures from the Egyptians, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Middle Ages, Renaissance, Rococco, Harlem Renaissance. Types of dance such as the Flamenco dance. Mid-twentieth century musicians such as Elvis Presley, and The Beatles. To modern day music and dance events such as, Coachella Music Festival. There are many purposes and reasons why people dance, with each type of dance either exhibiting a message, a communion with God, or simply imparting inspiration, therapy, happiness, and a way to simply express themselves and give life to their soul or come together as a social experience. Visual images such as these, have given us knowledge that dancing has existed for all of human existence and has played an integral part in connecting humankind together. You will learn of the many types of dance and ritual they were involved, along with the music which was so important for any dance to occur. Music served to enlighten and lift people's spirits, or show them the depths of their soul. It has always had the power to change how a person feels, or move them emotionally in one way or another. Music and dance combined can serve to evolve people time in and again. They are a way to channel into higher gods or into our higher selves. When people participate in these kinds of rituals, it not only brings them together, but bonds and teaches us that there is not only an endless amount of beauty but great depths that we can travel and transcend social barriers. Music and dance are two of the ways in which our human race has advanced forward, all while connecting to the very essence of our beings, and giving us fun, laughter, elevation, and meaning. I hope many people can enjoy this collection, particularly people from the ages of middle school and up. I hope it can supplement many types of learning and anyone else who may be interested in learning more about who we are and what makes us live and grow spiritually. 


Jessica Covert

DCPS Rocks and Minerals Cornerstone

Grade 4: Rocks and Minerals

Program Description: Students will become real life geologists and museum curators! The Cornerstone experience begins at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History with an interactive, hands-on learning experience in Q?rius jr.: a discovery room. While at the museum, students will learn what it means to be a geologist, and closely examine a chosen rock or mineral. Finally, students will have the opportunity to explore the Janet Annenberg Hooker Hall of Geology, Gems, & Minerals. Transferring their learning back to the classroom, these fourth grade geologists will create their very own rock/mineral museum display.

Nicole Webster

Investigating: Civil War Portraits

In this student activity, students will investigate nine portraits of people involved in the Civil War, both from the Union and the Confederacy. Through these portraits, students will gain an understanding of: experiences of people on both sides of the war; why these people are seen as historically significant; and how portraiture can communicate how a person wanted to be seen, or how others wanted them to be seen. Included with each portrait is a video that explains the historical significance of the person depicted.  Activity extension ideas can be found by clicking "Read More."

Big Ideas: 

  • Why are these people, and the developments they shaped, seen as historically significant? 
  • How does portraiture communicate how a person wanted to be seen, or how others wanted them to be seen?

Keywords: thomas stonewall jackson, william tecumseh sherman, john pelham, elmer e ellsworth, george armstrong custer, jefferson davis, abraham lincoln, clara barton

Tess Porter

Film Posters 1912-2020

An example of how the collection of film posters will look.

Kyle Hook
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