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Found 374 Collections

 

The Iñupiaq People and Their Culture

By Beverly Faye Hugo (Iñupiaq ), 2009

(This is shortened version of a longer essay from the Smithsonian book Living Our Cultures, Sharing Our Heritage: The First Peoples of Alaska.)


Sea, Land, Rivers

There’s ice and snow, the ocean and darkness – darkness in the winter and twenty-four hours of daylight in the summer. Barrow was originally called Utqiaġvik (meaning, “the place where ukpik, the snowy owl, nests”). That’s where my people, the Iñupiat, have survived and lived, and I am doing as they have done. On the Arctic coast you can see vast distances in all directions, out over the ocean and across the land. The country is very flat, with thousands of ponds and lakes, stretching all the way to the Brooks Range in the south. It is often windy, and there are no natural windbreaks, no trees, only shrubs. Beautiful flowers grow during the brief summer season. The ocean is our garden, where we hunt the sea mammals that sustain us. Throughout the year some seasonal activity is going on. We are whaling in the spring and fall, when the bowheads migrate past Barrow, going out for seals and walrus, fishing, or hunting on the land for caribou, geese, and ducks.

Whaling crews are made up of family members and relatives, and everyone takes part. The spring is an exciting time when the whole community is focused on the whales, hoping to catch one. The number we are permitted to take each year is set by the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission and the International Whaling Commission. Whaling is not for the faint of heart. It can be dangerous and takes an incredible amount of effort – getting ready, waiting for the whales, striking and pulling and towing them. But the men go out and do it because they want to feed the community. Everyone has to work hard throughout the whaling season. People who aren’t able to go out on the ice help in other ways, such as buying supplies and gas or preparing food. You have to make clothing for them; they need warm parkas, boots, and snow pants.

We believe that a whale gives itself to a captain and crew who are worthy people, who have integrity – that is the gift of the whale. Caring for whales, even after you’ve caught them, is important. After a whale is caught and divided up, everyone can glean meat from the bones. Each gets his share, even those who don’t belong to a crew. No one is left out.

We are really noticing the effects of global warming. The shorefast ice is much thinner in spring than it used to be, and in a strong wind it will sometimes break away. If you are out on the ice, you have to be extremely conscious of changes in the wind and current so that you will not be carried off on a broken floe. We are concerned as well about the effects of offshore drilling and seismic testing by the oil companies. They try to work with the community to avoid problems, but those activities could frighten the whales and be detrimental to hunting.

 

Community and Family

Iñupiaq residents of Barrow, Wales, Point Hope, Wainwright, and other coastal communities, are the Taġiuqmiut, “people of the salt.” People who live in the interior are the Nunamiut, “people of the land.” The Nunamiut used to be nomadic, moving from camp to camp with their dog teams, hunting and fishing to take care of their families. They packed light and lived in skin tents, tracking the caribou and mountain sheep. My husband, Patrick Hugo, was one of them. For the first six years of his life his family traveled like that, but when the government built a school at Anaktuvuk Pass in 1959 they settled there.

 My parents, Charlie and Mary Edwardson, were my foremost educators. They taught me my life skills and language. When I came to awareness as a young child, all the people who took care of me spoke Iñupiaq, so that was my first language. Our father would trap and hunt. We never went hungry and had the best furs for our parkas. Our mother was a fine seamstress, and we learned to sew by helping her. My mother and grandmother taught us to how to care for a family and to do things in a spirit of cooperation and harmony.

I was a child during the Bureau of Indian Affairs era, when we were punished for speaking Iñupiaq in school. My first day in class was the saddest one of my young life. I had to learn English, and that was important, but my own language is something that I value dearly and have always guarded. It is a gift from my parents and ancestors, and I want to pass it on to my children and grandchildren and anyone who wants to learn.

 

Ceremony and Celebration

Nalukataq (blanket toss) is a time of celebration when spring whaling has been successful. It is a kind of all-day picnic. People visit with friends and family at the windbreaks that the crews set up by tipping the whale boats onto their sides. At noon they serve niġliq (goose) soup, dinner rolls, and tea. At around 3:00 P.M. we have mikigaq,made of fermented whale meat, tongue, and skin. At 5:00 they serve frozen maktak (whale skin and blubber) and quaq (raw frozen fish). It’s wonderful to enjoy these foods, to talk, and catch up with everyone at the end of the busy whaling season.

Kivgik, the Messenger Feast, was held in the qargi (ceremonial house). The umialgich (whaling captains) in one community sent messengers to the leaders of another, inviting them and their families to come for days of feasting, dances, and gift giving. They exchanged great quantities of valuable things – piles of furs, sealskins filled with oil, weapons, boats, and sleds. That took place until the early years of the twentieth century, when Presbyterian missionaries suppressed our traditional ceremonies, and many of the communal qargich in the villages were closed down.

 In 1988, Mayor George Ahmaogak Sr. thought it was important to revitalize some of the traditions from before the Christian era, and Kivgik was started again. Today it is held in the high school gymnasium. People come to Barrow from many different communities to take part in the dancing and maġgalak, the exchange of gifts. You give presents to people who may have helped you or to those whom you want to honor.  Kivgiq brings us together as one people, just as it did in the time of our ancestors.

Tags: Iñupiaq, Inupiaq, Alaska Native, Indigenous, Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska

Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska
20
 

The Irish Experience in Pittsburgh

Created for the AIU3 workshop on 3/17/17, this topical collection includes images from Historic Pittsburgh (http://digital.library.pitt.edu/images/pittsburgh/), the Smithsonian Collection, the records of the Ancient Order of Hibernians in the Detre Library and Archives, Heinz History Center, and additional web resources. This large group of documents is intended to be shaped and whittled into useful collections for individual classrooms. Teachers might consider linking the documents to themes like:

•Immigration

•Push and Pull factors

•Growth of social networks

•Assimilation

•Nativism

•Contributions (Political, Cultural, Military, Philanthropy)

•Industry in Western PA

•Labor Movement


To make this collection your own, copy it and then use the edit feature to add and remove documents as well as contribute any annotations that might help your students.

Kate Harris
29
 

The Impact of Color in Paintings

This collection includes paintings of similar subjects  (women) presented in both black and white and in color. The objective of this project is for students to recognize and think about the impact of color on their interpretations.  Identify responses to color and think about it as one of the artist's tools for conveying meaning.

 

Tags: Elizabeth McCausland; Childe Hassam; Antonia de Banuelos; Angel Rodriguez-Diaz; William H. Johnson

Samantha Castaneda
6
 

The Hexagon and Honey Bee in Design and Engineering

Exploring the hexagon in design and engineering, using the honey bee as a model.

Pamela Schembri
39
 

The Global Implications of HIV/AIDS - An Interdisciplinary Exploration

This collection includes several images that could be used as starting points for students to engage in a dialogue about the complexities of HIV/AIDS. I would very much encourage students to be given choice when exploring a topic from an interdisciplinary approach, but often it can be helpful to provide a starting point.  Works of art can be used, as there are opportunities for students to engage in conversations in pairs or small/large groups about multifaceted issues such as this.  A painting or photograph can provide a low-risk way of beginning a discussion about challenging topics. 

Students should feel free to use other areas of knowledge beyond what I have included such as Geography and History or more detailed topics such as stigma or virology.  Data from the local Department of Health could also be used in addition to or in place of the Gapminder HIV Chart. To see a sample exploration that could be used in place of a much larger interdisciplinary exploration, please see the collection titled "The Global Implications of HIV/AIDS."

Emily Veres
18
 

The Fight to End Apartheid

This is a topical collection of resources related to the fight to end apartheid. Teachers and students can use this collection to explore strategies used to fight against apartheid as well as famous leaders in the fight. Strategies include economic sanctions, boycotts, and divestment, raising awareness through artists and musicians, nonviolent protest, armed resistance, and external political pressures on the South African government. This is a work-in-progress based on the digitized materials within the Smithsonian Learning Lab's collection--it is not meant to be wholly definitive or authoritative. Think of it as a starting point for further inquiry!

Possible student activities include:

-researching one strategy of resistance and/or one well-known leader in depth.

-drawing comparisons between political organizations and movements like the ANC, PAC, Black Consciousness Movement, and United Democratic Front.

-creating a timeline of resistance to apartheid.

-debating the use of armed resistance and "sabotage."

-interviewing adults who may remember the end of apartheid.

-drawing comparisons between the civil rights movement in the United States and the anti-apartheid movement.

-choose 1-3 events and make a case for them as turning points in the fight against apartheid. What makes these events so significant?

tags: apartheid, South Africa, Mandela, Tutu, Huddleston, Soweto, townships, Sharpeville, Defiance Campaign, Biko

Kate Harris
28
 

The Fall of Rome

#TeachingInquiry 

Josh Walker
8
 

The Corona's Cooling Power

The National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) is the first museum on the National Mall to be recognized as a LEED Gold building due to its construction using renewable energy sources and locally-sourced building materials. LEED or Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certifications are granted to buildings and other structures  that meet global standards in areas such as water use, energy efficiency, and use of sustainable materials. To minimize energy use, the architects and engineers designed the building to allow lots of natural light inside of the museum. The Corona, the ornamental bronze-colored metal lattice that covers the museum like a crown covers a head, helps to keep the museum cool by allowing some sunlight inside, but by blocking the rest. As a result, the museum uses less electricity for lights and air conditioning. 

But how does it work? Have your students complete the following experiment to find out!

National Museum of African American History and Culture
15
 

The Concept of God in Hinduism

This topical collection is meant to serve as a starting point to explore the concept of god in Hinduism. Students can review the images in the collection for clues to help them answer questions like:

-How are gods portrayed in relation to other gods, people, or animals?

-Do there seem to be one god or many gods? Do they seem to be male or female?

-What common symbols or poses are present? What do you think they mean?

-What kinds of powers do the god figures seem to have? In what ways are they like human beings and in what ways are they different?

The final resource in this collection is a video that gives insight into the Hindu concept of god. After exploring this collection, encourage students to choose one aspect of Hinduism that they would like to research further.

tags: India, religion, Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, trimurti, Ganesh, avatar

Kate Harris
18
 

The Civil War

Examine artifacts from 1861-1865 and use them to help prepare your own scrapbook of the time period.

msyorio
162
 

The California Gold Rush: A Journey to the Goldfields

James Marshall's famous discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in Colma forever changed the landscape, economy and culture of California due to the mass migrations of 300,000 people. Rumors of gold's discovery spread quickly, and was confirmed by President Polk in an address to Congress. The news spread to countries around the world.

The journey to California was long and dangerous. The three major routes were: around Cape Horn by ship (six to eight months), the Isthmus of Panama (two to three months), and the Overland trail (three to five months). By ship, dangers included: ship wrecks, lack of food and water, seasickness and disease. Ships that survived the long journeys arrived to the ports of San Francisco, where migrants had to continue their journey to the Sierra Nevada foothills.  

Traveling 2,000 miles on the Overland Trail by foot and wagon exposed travelers to other dangers such as misinformed trails, and a lack of food and water. Travelers were exposed to inclimate weather while crossing deadly rivers, deserts, and high mountain passes. Only the very basic necessities including food, water, wagons, stock, hunting tools, blacksmithing tools, clothing, blankets, sewing kits, medical supplies would be taken for the journey.   

On the Overland Trail, many miners joined companies. These companies were made up of people with various skills; such as, carpentry, medicine, navigation, hunting, blacksmithing and wheelwrights. The likelihood of surviving these long and dangerous journeys increased significantly for those individuals who joined companies. If a company survived the journey to California on the Overland Trail, the company also had a higher likelihood of success in gold mining. Individuals within the company could stake multiple gold mining claims and the gold would then be divided among the people of the company. During the gold rush, individuals were only allowed to own one claim.  


columbiastatehistoricpark
16
 

The 1960s--A Decade Collection

This is a topical collection about American life and politics in the 1960s. Resources in this collection might be helpful to students and teachers working on projects about the decade. It is not meant to be completely comprehensive, but rather includes highlights of the Smithsonian's collection spanning art, popular culture, social trends, leadership, and technology.

Teachers and students might copy and adapt this collection to suit their needs; highlighting a specific aspect of life in the 1960s and adding annotations and additional resources.

tags: Sixties, Kennedy, Camelot, civil rights, Vietnam, politics, decade

Kate Harris
97
 

The 1960s--A Decade Collection

This is a topical collection about American life and politics in the 1960s. Resources in this collection might be helpful to students and teachers working on projects about the decade. It is not meant to be completely comprehensive, but rather includes highlights of the Smithsonian's collection spanning art, popular culture, social trends, leadership, and technology.

Teachers and students might copy and adapt this collection to suit their needs; highlighting a specific aspect of life in the 1960s and adding annotations and additional resources.

tags: Sixties, Kennedy, Camelot, civil rights, Vietnam, politics, decade

Susan Ogilvie
97
 

The 1960s--A Decade Collection

This is a topical collection about American life and politics in the 1960s. Resources in this collection might be helpful to students and teachers working on projects about the decade. It is not meant to be completely comprehensive, but rather includes highlights of the Smithsonian's collection spanning art, popular culture, social trends, leadership, and technology.

Teachers and students might copy and adapt this collection to suit their needs; highlighting a specific aspect of life in the 1960s and adding annotations and additional resources.

tags: Sixties, Kennedy, Camelot, civil rights, Vietnam, politics, decade

Lisa Mcclinchie
103
 

The 1950s--A Decade Collection

This is a topical collection about American life and politics in the 1950s. Resources in this collection might be helpful to students and teachers working on projects about the decade. It is not meant to be completely comprehensive, but rather includes highlights of the Smithsonian's collection spanning art, popular culture, social trends, leadership, and technology.

Teachers and students might copy and adapt this collection to suit their needs; highlighting a specific aspect of life in the 1950s and adding annotations and additional resources.

Kate Harris
80
 

Textiles embroidered with plants

Examples of embroidery depicting plants. Supports primary grade stichery lesson.

Jean-Marie Galing
7
 

Textiles

For primary grade weaving lessons

Jean-Marie Galing
14
 

Ted Kennedy: 1980 Democratic Primary Campagin

Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (1932-2009) was an American politician and lawyer who served as a United States Senator from Massachusetts. Kennedy finally decided to seek the Democratic nomination in the 1980 Presidential Election by launching an unusual, insurgent campaign against the incumbent Carter, a member of his own party. On the penultimate day, Kennedy conceded the nomination and called for a more liberal party platform in what many saw as the best speech of his career.

Tags: politics, campaign, election, vote, Kennedy, 1980, Democrat, president, candidate, primary, primaries, Democratic Party, Ted Kennedy

sheishistoric
9
 

Teaching Critical Thinking through Art with the National Gallery of Art

The resources in this collection are pulled directly from the National Gallery of Art’s online course Teaching Critical Thinking through Art. Based on the popular Art Around the Corner professional development program for teachers in Washington, D.C., this five-unit online course provides everything you need to begin creating a culture of critical thinking and collaboration for any classroom, subject, or level. You do not need an art background or museum access to successfully integrate the course materials into your teaching. Your willingness to experiment with new teaching practices is all that is required.

Find demonstrations, lesson plans, and videos here on the edX platform! Now in English, Español, Français, and 简体中文

Jessica Metzger
21
 

Taking a Stand: African American Civil Rights Movement

This collection brings together photographs, objects, films, articles and more - pinpoint milestones in the African American Civil Rights Movement. Section topics include: Brown vs. Board; Freedom Rides; the Selma to Montgomery March; and additional figures and events in the African American Civil Rights Movement. Each section is introduced with a standalone text tile that summarizes the resources held within the section.

By no means is this collection comprehensive; instead, it provides a launching point for further research.


Carolyn Hilyard
22
 

Symbols

Jean-Marie Galing
15
 

Sustainable Textiles

Sustainability is about using techniques that allow for continual reuse of resources. Why might textile designers want to reuse scraps or reclaim waste fibers? What other things that get thrown away could be reused as part of a woven textile? 

ART MAKING CHALLENGE: Incorporate something recyclable in a hand-woven textile.  Consider color, texture, and how well it will perform for a particular purpose.  Would you combine the recycled items with traditional yarns or just use re recycled items? Which method is likely to get the results you want?

Jean-Marie Galing
10
 

Students' 4th Amendment Rights in Public Schools

This collection explores students' 4th Amendment rights in public schools by examining four landmark Supreme Court cases on the issue: New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985), Safford Unified School District v. Redding (2009), Vernonia School District v. Acton (1995), and Board of Education v. Earls (2002). It asks students to think about the following overarching question: Has the Supreme Court maintained the right balance between school safety and students' privacy rights? The collection also includes differing perspectives on the issue as well as current events. 

Megan Griffin-Shelley
18
 

Social Justice: Opening Panel Resources

This collection previews the opening panel of the 2017 Montgomery College / Smithsonian Institution Fellowship seminar series, Social Justice: America's Unfinished Story of Struggle, Strife, and Sacrifice. Four Smithsonian staff members will speak at this event: Igor Krupnik (Arctic Studies Center, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History), Lanae Spruce (National Museum of African American History and Culture), Ranald Woodaman (Smithsonian Latino Center), and E. Carmen Ramos (Smithsonian American Art Museum).

Each text annotation in this collection contains each speaker's presentation title, description, and bio. Following each text annotation are resources and questions chosen by the presenters for participants to consider before the panel itself.

#MCteach

Tess Porter
17
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