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Found 6,965 Collections


AP Psychology: Health and Stress

Marin Layne Williams

AP Human Geography

The images in this collection were inspired by the curriculum standards for AP Human Geography. 

Marin Layne Williams

AP Art History Curriculum Framework: Focus on "Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings"

This educational resource is designed especially for teachers and students in Advanced Placement (AP) Art History courses. It focuses on an artwork from the Freer|Sackler collection, Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings; one of the 250 works that are featured in the AP Art History curriculum. In particular, this artwork is in Content Area 8 - South, East, and Southeast Asia.

The AP Art History curriculum stresses the investigation of four key areas for each artwork: Form, Function, Content, and Context. This resource will touch on all four areas and can be adapted for use.

Tags: Album, AP, Art History, emperor, India, Jahangir, manuscript, Mughal dynasty, Muslim, portrait, Project Zero, See/Think/Wonder

Background Note to Teachers

India's Mughal emperors, who reigned over a vast and wealthy empire that extended over most of the South Asian subcontinent between the 16th and 19th centuries, were passionate about lavish manuscripts and paintings. Between 1556 and 1657, the greatest Mughal patrons—the emperors Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan—formed grand workshops that brought together and nurtured India's leading painters, calligraphers and illuminators. This resource focuses on just one of the paintings created for Jahangir, but the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery form one of the world's most important repositories of Mughal and Persian painting. To search our collection, refer to

Related Standards

  • C3 D2.His.1.6-8 - Analyze connections among events and developments in broader historical contexts.
  • C3 D2.His.2.6-8 - Classify series of historical events and developments as examples of change and/or continuity.
  • C3 D2.His.14.6-8 - Explain multiple causes and effects of events and developments in the past.
  • C3 D2.His.15.6-8 - Evaluate the relative influence of various causes of events and developments in the past.
  • CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.7 - Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
  • NAEA | Anchor Standard 7 - Perceive and analyze artistic work.
  • NAEA | Anchor Standard 8 - Interpret intent and meaning in artistic work.
  • NAEA | Anchor Standard 11 - Relate artistic ideas and works with societal, cultural and historical context to deepen understanding.
  • NCHS WH Era 6 | Standard 1B - The student understands the encounters between Europeans and peoples of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.
  • NCHS WH Era 6 | Standard 3C - The student understands the rise of the Safavid and Mughal empires.
  • NCHS WH Era 6 | Standard 6A - The student understands major global trends from 1450 to 1770.
  • NCSS 1 : Culture - Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of culture and cultural diversity.
  • NCSS 2 : Time, Continuity, and Change - Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of the past and its legacy.
  • NCSS 3 : People, Places, and Environments - Social studies programs should include experiences that provide for the study of people, places, and environments.


This collection has been compiled from materials available on the Freer|Sackler website. In addition, these resources have been especially useful:

Milo Cleveland Beach, The Imperial Image: Paintings for the Mughal Court. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2012.

Print and online materials related to "Worlds within Worlds: Imperial Paintings from India and Iran," an exhibition held at the Freer|Sackler from July 28 through Sept. 16, 2012.

Freer and Sackler Galleries

Antisemitism Through the Ages

In recent years, antisemitism is thought to be a relatively new phenomenon. However, its roots are found much deeper in history: back to Roman times.  The collection is based chronologically to follow Antisemitism from its source leading through the 21st century A.D. My expectation is that these collections will serve as a means to deepen the understanding of Antisemitism found within the Christian culture.

In the first century B.C.E. Cicero (Lawyer, writer and orator) wrote his Pro L. Flacco in defense of his client L. Valerius Flaccus. In defending his client (the governor of Asia), who was accused of embezzlement as well as corruption, Cicero accuses the Jews as the foundations for the conspiracies against his client. Cicero claims that Jews are the "variance" and go directly against the pietas (family, gods and state) Roman culture embraced. Cicero further back up his claim by stating that Roman gods don't even care for them or else the Jews city of Jerusalem would not have been conquered by the Romans and made tribute. In his work Pro L. Flacco he coined the phrase "barbara superstitio." The insult was meant to directly oppose the meaning of pietas; to oppose Rome itself.  It wasn't until a century later, when Rome laid siege to Judea, that his anti-Jewish beliefs would take root. 

Nearly a hundred years after Cicero first wrote his poisonous anti-Jewish work did Judea rebel against Rome. Emperor Vespasian's son Titus, constructed an army that brutally attacked the city of Jerusalem. There are several explicit records that denote Titus' relentless starvation of Jews, burning of synagogues (while Jews remained inside), outright slaughter of Jews (approximately 600,000 to 1.1 million Jews), and the remainder were sold into slavery. The sacking of Judea was extremely important to the Romans, because it signified their dominance. In celebration of this monumental event, the Arch of Titus was created to depict the sacking of Judea. In the relief, the menorah that Titus took from the Second Temple is displayed as the focus of the sculpture. 

During the time of the rebellion, Tacitus constructed his Historiae (70 C.E.) where he demonized Jews for their sacrilegious views of Roman gods. Tacitus created the four pillars that formed the anti-Semitic beliefs. He stated that Jews were affluent, perverted, "out-breeding," and sacrilegious. The way in which Tacitus illuminated the Jews caused the creation of a "mythology". This anti-Jewish mythology deemed Jews as tempting people from their families, religions, and patriotism (all pietas of Roman culture) as a way of destroying all who were not Jewish.  

In addition to the Arch of Titus, commemorative coins were also issued as part of the celebration. The coins depict a Roman soldier hovering over a Jewish woman. The anti-Jewish propaganda (the Arch and the coins, among others) allowed this perpetual violence to become palatable among Romans. 

In light of the growing anti-Semitic violence, Titus Flavius Josephus, a Jewish scholar during the 1st century A.D., wrote his work Contra Apionem , where he attempted to combat the anti-Jewish propaganda being spewed by the Romans. Much of Josephus argument was founded on past rebellions by Jews (like that in Egypt) and combating agitated Greek philosophers (regarding the spread of Judaism). 

In the following century after the conquest of Rome, Jews revolted to take back Judea. Just as the Romans created commemorative coins, so did the Jews. The rebellion was led by Simon Bar Kokhba. However, the Jews took Roman coins and filled them down before being over-struck with their own rebellious images. 

Our journey of Antisemitism during the Medieval period starts with the First Crusade in 1095 through 1099. During the First Crusade Christians attacked the Jew's sacred city, Jerusalem, taking the city as theirs. The First Crusade began to recall (if it ever went away) the Roman pillars against Jews. Until the year 1100 Jews were indistinguishable from Christians in artwork. In the early 1100's Jews were given pointed hats to differentiate them in paintings. 

The hatred of Jews began to rise in England with the mutilated dead body of William of Norwich in 1144. The crazy rumors surrounding his mutilation formed the myth known as Blood Libel. The myth of the blood libel was seen as the slaughter of young Christian children, where Jews used their blood for religious rites. Not long after, starting in 1150, Jews were demonized in art as well. 

The fear of Jews ran rampant throughout Europe. Christians even began to publicly display their hatred on the churches themselves. In 1240, the construction of Notre Dame included statues of Synogoga and Ecclesia, latin for Synagogue and Church. The two women represented more than just the names, they also represented the Christians view on the Jewish religion. Synogoga is depicted as wearing a helmet that covers her eyes (for her inability to "see" the truth), slouching, holding a broken spear (represent the death of Christ; blaming Jews for Christ's death), and the Torah (which she is barely hanging on to). In contrast, Ecclesia is standing straight with a crown (assuming the Christians are now the ones with the royal blood line), a cross staff, as well as a grail or chalice. The grail or chalice is perhaps in representation of the Holy Grail, the vessel believed to catch the blood of Christ during his Crucifixion. 

In 1267 two church councils order Jews to wear the pointed hats (as they did in paintings). Around the same time Jews were beginning to be depicted with abnormally large noses as well as with beards. This change of style is easily noted in the illuminated manuscript produced in 1275, called "Jesus before Caiaphas," Jesus (although a Jew) is not pictured with the Jewish nose as the four other men in the illumination are. Also note the two men in the front with the pointed hats. 

Churches continued the theme of degradation of Jews in their facades. However, in 1305 they reached an all time low, the Judensau was born. The Judensau is the depiction of Jews suckling a pig. According to Jewish law, pigs are considered to be unclean (not for consumption) and furthers the insult, comparing Jews to swine and claiming they are dirty and unclean peoples. 

As the style of art transitioned into the High Renaissance style, the depictions of Jews became further demonized. A late Renaissance painting by Albrecht Durer called "Christ Among the Doctors" notes this demonetization. The Jews are easily noticeable by their horrid appearance.  

The persecution of Jews continued across the continent. In Bildchronik of Diebold Schiling illuminated manuscript page, Jews are wearing the pointy hats as well as yellow identifying badges on their clothing while being burned alive at the stakes. One of the many reasons that this hatred was so easily accessible was the invention of the printing press. In a printing from 1596 we can see the reproduction of Martin Luther's 1543 Judensau article, which he pinned on his church door in Wittenberg, Germany. 

Throughout this period Jews were forced to leave their homes due to expulsions from lands like that of the Spanish Inquisition led by King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella.  In 1807 Napoleon Bonaparte emancipated the Jews in his Great Sanhedrin. In protecting the Jews, Napoleon received much backlash, including the Russian Orthodox Church claiming Napoleon to be the “Antichrist” as well as an outright “Enemy of God.”

In 1843 Karl Marx published his work “On the Jewish Question.” The book has received mixed criticisms on whether it is truly an antisemitic piece of literature, especially considering he was of Jewish linage. It appears however, that many critics believe that Marx’s perceptions of Jews economic role largely fulfill the antisemitic pillars.

Richard Wagner in his 1850 publication “Das Judenthum in der Musik,” which translates to “Jewishness in Music” in German, attacks both Jews and Jewish composers (particularly Giacomo Meyerbeer and Felix Mendelssohn). He wrote his work under a pseudonym in order to prevent personal Jewish inquiry.

In an issue of “Sound Money” published in 1896, a antisemitic political cartoon shows Uncle Sam being crucified akin to Jesus. There are two men on the outside stabbing Uncle Same, they are supposed to be members of Wall St. The cartoonist gives them the large Jewish noses as well as labeling them as pirates. Indicating that Jews have control of the US’s money and are stealing it. In addition, they are stabbing Uncle Sam with “Single Gold Standard” and wetting Uncle Sam’s lips with poisonous “Debt” on the sponge of “Interest on Bonds.”  The two men on the inside flanking Uncle Same represent James G. Blaine as the “Republicanism” and Grover Cleveland as “Democracy” in which they are seen pick pocketing Uncle Sam.

Throughout Europe pogroms were taking place. Pogroms were violent acts against Jews that often ended in massacre or persecution. One such Pogrom was that in Kiev, Ukraine in 1919.  During the pogrom many Jews were raped, murdered or affected by looting. The picture is of four Jewish victims at an Alexander Hospital. In total 1,326 pogroms took place in Ukraine; some 30,000-70,000 Jews were murdered.

Meanwhile accusations of the medieval belief of blood libels were still prominent throughout even the early 20th century.

In the 1920s Henry Ford published his article “The Ford International Weekly” were most weeks (91 issues) had some antisemitic statement. Eventually these antisemitic statements grew into its own publication of “The International Jew: The World’s Foremost Problem” published in 1920, comprised of 4 volumes.

As you can see, the world was riddled with antisemitism by the time of the 1920s, including the United States. Although Hitler is thought of as the reason behind the Holocaust, he clearly wasn’t lacking in supporters. It was merely a matter of how far these people were (who shared his antisemitic beliefs) willing to go. In 1925 Hitler wrote his “Mein Kampf” meaning “My Struggles” in German. In this work he outlined his antisemitic beliefs as well as his intentions.

Ten years after Hitler’s publication of “Mein Kampf,” Nazi Germany passed the antisemitic laws known as the “Nuremburg Laws” in 1935.  The laws largely dealt with protecting both German blood as well as honour. People were classified by their blood status, depending on your Jewish percentage of blood was the way in which you were approved to obtain Reich citizenship or not. If you were considered to be racially defiled (certain percentage of Jewish blood) you were first sent to prison and later sent to concentration camps.

Directly proceeding Kristallnacht or the Night of Broken Glass on November 9-10, 1938, started the six-year long genocide known as the Holocaust, 1938-1945. I have included several pictures that evoke strong emotions of Jews inside the concentration camps. I have tried however to abstain from using the more graphic and dead riddled photos. I felt that one picture was not merely enough to demonstrate the torture and the injustice Jews received during this time. I wish I could say that after 6 million Jews died that History could finally end its antisemitic beliefs and achieve peace. However, that is not the case.

Hatred still ruins in the veins of many people during the later half of the 20th and 21st centuries. Just over 10 years after the Holocaust officially ended, in 1958 an Atlanta, Georgia temple, Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Temple, was bombed. Luckily no one was injured, however the building received extensive damage.

Rumors surrounding the Holocaust’s legitimacy surfaced. In 1969 professor of History David Hoggan published “The Myth of the Six Million.” In his book, he denied that the Holocaust ever happened!

In Miami, Florida in 1988 yet another synagogue (Bet Shira Congregation) was attacked, this time however it was defiled with misdrawn swastikas. The defamation was completed by a group of local teenagers.

One year ago, in March 2018 in Paris, France, an elderly lady Mireille Knoll was murdered “…because she was Jewish.” She was not only stabbed but also burned. It is believed that as a child (9 years old) she was able to escape capture and deportation to Auschwitz.

Later last year in October, a temple, Tree of Life, in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania was attacked by an antisemitic gunman killing 11 people and injuring 7 more, 4 of which were police officers.  

By no means have I been able to provide a thorough account of all the hatred Jews receive and continue to receive daily. This project serves as a cultural understanding and in hopes that one day, the world will be able to eradicate its hatred. 

 #AHMC2019 #antisemitism #medieval #EcclesiaSynogoga #Judensau #JesusBeforeCaiaphas #ChristAmongDoctors #BildchronikofDieboldSchiling #PrintingpressJudensau #AntisemitismRomans #Cicero #ArchofTitus #BustofJosephus #RomanCommerorativeCoins #Tacitus #Barkokhbacoins #Holocaust #MeinKampf #HenryFord #KeivPogrom #Napoleon #Nuremburglaws

Jacquelyn Lopez

Antique and Vintage Hole Punches

The Scaglione Antique and Vintage Office Museum

This collection features American made hole punches manufactured between the years 1874 and 1945. It is one of the the most complete collections of antique and vintage paper perforators in the world. It is interesting to note that some of the machines in this collection have not been seen in over 100 years. With the exception of wood block cuttings use in the advertisement process, these machines may be the last of their kind.

Hole punches have been around since the early 1870’s therefore, we have a great selection of antique and vintage machines for review and examination. The development of punches really took off in the early 1900’s and improvements followed. Many machines produced today are based on designs dating  to 1912.

Today, we refer to this office machine as a hole punch. During the period dating from 1874 to the 1930's these machines were known as paper punch,  hole punchers, perforators, or paper perforators. There was no real standard for a machine that punched hole.

In 1882 James Shannon filed for a patent for his paper file. While the patent is for a complete paper file, his patent described the paper punch that was part of his invention. After reviewing the patent one is left wondering if he was at a loss as to what to call his hole punch. As a result his invention is overlooked by many and the credit for the invention of the hole punch has been credited to someone else. (enclosed as a pdf at the bottom of this page - The first paper hole punch)

Even now, some examples are proving to be more desirable to collectors and are harder to find. The Globe No. 4 produced by Globe-Wernicke is one such machine that has a following of not only the punch collector, but by collectors of the machine age. This machine appears to draw the most interest from individuals wanting an old paper hole punch for the desk or collection. Another example is the early examples of the Tengwell which had a nicely scrolled plate and was mounted on a beautiful oak base.

Variants hold their own interest to many collectors. You will find the same machine, such as the Improved Hummer,  was produced by different companies. Research has shown that many companies or their assets changed hands more than once during the century and that the machines were never improved upon or only minor changes were introduced, usually just parts on the machine or the manufacturers name.

When examining the early machines, it is easy to see these machines are historic. They were developed and manufactured during the mechanical revolution, Simple in design yet dependable.  These  19th century designs are what you would expect of the era and this is where the concept of paper punches began. 

Many paper hole punches have been lost to time, because of modernization, workmanship or better material. Examples such as the Boykin-Roper Speciality Company Hole Punch,  or the Sam’l C. Tatum’s Samson, Eclipse, and the No. 27 are just a few of those machines that were lost or discontinued. These machines were the work  of Walter Mendenhall, long time employee of the Tatum Company. Compared to the punches today, these machines are complex and curious. Their mechanisms were unique in design and never copied by any other manufacturer. 

Curtis Scaglione

Antique and Vintage Fastener Collection

The Scaglione Antique and Vintage Office Museum

This collection features  paper fasteners manufactured between the years 1889 and 1955. It is one of the the most complete collections of antique and vintage paper fasteners in the world. It is interesting to note that some of the machines in this collection have not been seen in years. 

Paper fasteners have been around since the early 1850’s therefore, we have a great selection of antique and vintage machines for review and examination. The development of fasteners really took off in the early 1900’s and improvements followed. Many machines produced today are based on designs dating the early 1930's.

Today, we refer to this office machine as a stapler. But early paper fasteners included the Eyelet machine and pin fasteners.

Even now, some examples are proving to be more desirable to collectors and are harder to find. 

When examining the early machines, it is easy to see these machines are historic. They were developed and manufactured during the mechanical revolution, Simple in design yet dependable.  These  19th century and early 20th century designs are what you would expect of the era and this is where the concept of paper fasteners began. 

Curtis Scaglione

Antelope Valley Indian Museum

The Antelope Valley Indian Museum has been a public museum since 1932, but it has also been a homestead, a theater, a dude ranch, a Hollywood set, and an attraction. It is situated on 147 acres of desert parkland on the south side of Piute Butte in the Mojave Desert against a dramatic backdrop of Joshua trees and towering rock formations. The building’s unique architecture and creative engineering earned it a spot on the National Register of Historic Places, and the Native American Heritage Commission designated Piute Butte as a sacred landscape.

The Collection
The museum exhibits over 3,000 objects, including many rare and outstanding objects from the Antelope Valley, California coast, Great Basin, and the Southwest. An important four way trade route developed in the Antelope Valley at least 4,000 years ago. The trade routes went west and south to the California coast, north to the Central Valley, northeast to the Great Basin (the desert east of the Sierra Nevada Mountains), and east to the pueblos in what is now Arizona, New Mexico, and Mexico. The trade route expanded and enriched the material and social resources available to Antelope Valley residents, allowing large villages to develop near the valley’s springs.

History of H. Arden Edwards
Howard Arden Edwards, a self-taught artist, was fascinated with the scenery around the buttes in the Antelope Valley.  He homesteaded 160 acres on rocky Piute Butte and in 1928.  With his wife and teenage son, he began construction of what was to be a combination home and showcase for his extensive collection of American Indian culture.  A unique structure evolved: a Tudor Revival style building, decorated inside and out with American Indian designs and motifs, incorporating large granite boulders as an integral part of the building both inside and out. You actually climb upon these rocks as you go from picturesque Kachina Hall upstairs to California Hall. This unusual upper level housed Mr. Edwards' original "Antelope Valley Indian Research Museum."

History of Grace Oliver
Grace Wilcox Oliver, a onetime student of anthropology, discovered Edwards' property while hiking in the desert.  She felt it would be a perfect setting for a personal hideaway. She contacted the owner with an offer to buy the property.  Successful in these negotiations, she modified some features of the main building, added her own collections, and expanded the physical facilities on the property.  By this time she had decided to open the entire structure as The Antelope Valley Indian Museum.  Grace operated the museum intermittently through the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s and 1970s.

Becoming a State Park
Local support for the acquisition of the property by the State of California led Oliver to sell the land and donate the collection to State Parks in 1979. The museum has been designated as a Regional Indian Museum, emphasizing American Indian cultures of the Great Basin.

Lori Wear


ooga booga
Andrew Tai

Annalise Modrick Period 5: womens rights-abortion

Abortion is problem back then and will always be a problem. Abortion occurs when people have babies and they don't think there is any other option, usually they are teenagers. It occurs through human history because abortion will never go away, it will always be an option. Abortion has changed but not in the way everyone thinks. The only way it really changed was it is now much safer for the women. It has also be legalized nationwide.

annalise modrick

Annalisa Simonetti 1920s & 1930s artifacts

A collection of 1920s and 1930s artifacts to illustrate the importance of the two decades.

Annalisa Simonetti

Anna Wessels- 1920s & 1930s artifacts

the purpose of this project is to display the most important parts of the 1920s and the 1930s using artifacts from that era, as well as help us better understand the current laws that are in place. 

anna wessels

Anna May Wong x Sally Wen Mao

How can you be a changemaker in society? 

This topical collection honors the life of film icon Anna May Wong by pairing images from the Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery collections with poetry by celebrated contemporary poet Sally Wen Mao. Wong's film and television career spanned from 1919 to 1960, and included numerous star turns, transnational celebrity, and an array of firsts for an Asian American actress. It was also a career forged in the shadow of--and in defiance of--widespread xenophobia, leaving a legacy that takes on a new cast and consequence today, in an era of COVID-19 and virulent anti-Asian racism. 

After viewing this topical collection, visit to:

  • download a set of postcards that include portraits of Anna May Wong and Sally Wen Mao's poetry
  • watch a short video by Sally Wen Mao about her "patron saint," and
  • instructions for making your own postcards.
Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center

Anna May Wong

Movie Star

A complementary collection of extension activities is available here:

NPG Final Project July 2017


Anna Gorin - WWI Artifacts

The purpose of this project is to create a collection of artifacts dating back to the first world war to to showcase what we know about American involvement in the war.

Anna Gorin

Anita Adhami 1920s and 1930s Artifacts

This project is meant to capture the highest and the lowest points of the 20s and 30s. It's meant to show how the time really was and how life worked back then. It's meant to illustrate a vibrant image of the two decades. 

Anita Adhami

Animals in Nature

Look at each scene of animals in nature and think about what they could be doing. What do you see? What do you think is happening or is going to happen? What does it make you wonder?

Katie Grywczynski

Animals in Art

This collection is about animals art.
Galileo Galileo

Animals in Art

This three part collection is a curation of examples of the relationship between animals and art. Animals were around before the human race appeared and they will probably still be around when we are long gone. Animals have been involved in every civilization whether they are pets or predators. Some see animals as sacred beings- whether it be for religious purposes, or because they are a beloved pet. In modern society, actual animal bodies could be considered art as well. Mounting deer heads, making bear skin rugs, or taxidermy, These forms can also be seen as a way of representing an animal is sacred to them. 

I will be exploring animals in art from Egyptian to modern day in different forms including paintings and sculptures. 



Animals in Art

The topic of this collection is how animals have been represented in artworks from different cultures and different times.
Galileo Galilei


This collection connects with the Journeys reading series for kindergarten and is specific to the animals covered throughout the school year.

Christina Ratatori

Animal Welfare


Megan Jordan

Animal Vessels

Jean-Marie Galing

Animal Symbolism in Art and Culture - #AHMCFall2019 - Emily Heffernan (Curated Collection Parts 1, 2 and 3)

People of all ages and cultures have used animals in their art work, sculptures and even music. Do you remember how Taylor Swift incorporated snakes into her album artwork?  Even her merchandising used animals as a message demonstrating that Taylor may have been portrayed like a snake in the media but she is a strong fierce competitor in the music industry. No on could take that away from her,  she was turning a negative image into a positive outcome. 

 Snakes in Taylor Swifts Music  (Click the link if you want to check out her album).  

A little bit about me... I am an animal lover and growing up with pets in my life (we currently have a dog named Wally who just turned nine) it has always interested me to see how people focus on animals as a subject matter. Many cultures have used specific animals to represent their beliefs and incorporated the animals' characteristics.  (One example is that Asian cultures identify tigers with power or agility characteristics. 

For my first collection (Part 1) I will be looking at three explosive periods of civilization and examine art in various forms whether its cave paintings or mosaics.  My first piece  is going to focus specifically on animals as I figured each of the three collections can expand upon my interests, animals being one of them.  I think the potential audience my collection applies to is college student, high school students, art history majors and any one else  interested in animals and their significance through out time.


1. Earliest Culture - Paleolithic Period

The first two tiles will examine the Paleothic Period and why animals were so important and I will include a small except of what their beliefs are.

2. Egyptian Civilization 

The third and fourth tiles will talk about the Egyptian Culture and why cats were so symbolic in art.

3. Roman Civilization 

Lastly, the final fifth and sixth title will examine the animals statues explored in our  text book and  include a very interesting mosaic showing why crocodiles were so popular. 


Work Cited:

Online Resources:

1. George, Alison. “Code Hidden in Stone Age Art May Be the Root of Human Writing.” New Scientist, 6 Nov. 2016,

2. Alsherif, A. (2014). [online] Available at: http://www.rockartscandinavia.... [Accessed 23 Sep. 2019].

3. Robin, et al. “10 Prehistoric Cave Paintings.” Touropia, 17 Nov. 2010,

4. Seawright, Caroline. “Animals and the Gods.” K4W Foundation, 26 Nov. 2012,

5. “In Ancient Egypt, Cats Were Mummified and Buried with Jewelry, and Harming a Cat Was an Offense That Could Be Punished with Death.” The Vintage News, 13 Feb. 2018,

6. Alsherif, A. (2014). [online] Available at: http://www.rockartscandinavia.... [Accessed 23 Sep. 2019].

7. Wilde, Robert. “A Brief History of the City of Rome.” ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo, 20 Feb. 2019,


Curated Collection PART 2 - Monday, October 14, 2019

For my section collection (Part 2) I will be looking at three exciting periods of civilization and examine art in various forms whether its oil paintings or mosaics.  My second piece  is going to focus specifically on  different types of animals that are depicted in vital periods and cultures.  Again, I think the potential audience my collection applies to is college students, high school students, art history majors and any one else  interested in animals and their importance throughout out time.

Animals on Top 40 Music Albums (Clink the link if you want to see examples of animals in song titles and album covers)


4. Early Christianity Civilization

Animals were a significant symbol through early Christianity. They impacted culture through tales of the Bible and also were depicted in mosaics, art forms and statutes.  I focused on two depictions of the "Good Shepard" and how lambs were  valued very highly through out civilization.

5. Early Middle Ages and the Romanesque Period

This is my favorite period because of the exotic and exquisite animals shown in art.  I really enjoyed this period because of The Unicorn Chronicles which I will explain in length on my title.  Beasts such as winged animals or lizards are discussed on my second title. Check it out! 

6. The Renaissance in Italy and Northern Europe

Lastly, my final two art forms show how dogs and peacocks (especially) are reflected in art.  Again, showing animals' significance through out our time.


Work Cited:

Online Resources:

8. “Good Shepherd.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Sept. 2019,,_Domitilla-Katakomben,_Der_gute_Hirte.jpg.

9. “Good Shepherd.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 30 Sept. 2019,

10. Web. <http://“The Hunt of the Unicorn.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 2 Oct. 2019,>.

11. "Animals in Medieval Art." The MET. The MET, 01 Sep 2000. Web. 14 Oct 2019.

12. Cain, A. (2019). Decoding Animals in Art History, From Immortal Peacocks to Lusty Rabbits. [online] Artsy. Available at: [Accessed 14 Oct. 2019].


Curated Collection PART 3 - Sunday, November 10, 2019

For my section collection (Part 3) I will be looking at three exciting periods of civilization and examine art in various forms whether its oil paintings or bronze sculptures. My third and FINAL piece is going to focus specifically on  different types of animals (mostly dogs) that are depicted in vital periods and cultures.  Again, I think the potential audience my collection applies to is college students, high school students, art history majors and any one else  interested in animals and their importance throughout out time. Thanks so much for a great semester!

(Click the link if you want to learn more about Jeff Koons's art work)


5. Eighteenth Century, Romanticism and Realism

This is my favorite period, because I got to talk about Watson and The Shark and discuss a bit about my Museum Paper, which this piece really made a splash through out history and continues to cause a discussion.

6. Impressionism, Early Twentieth Century

I really enjoyed this period as there was so many animals and artworks to chose from but I focused on discussing sculptures, which I found on a website  that you can buy today. I also chose two pieces, a pig and a dog as those are my favorite animals.

7. Mid-Twentieth Century and Later

For my last two titles, I am talking about two famous artists that are more current and have caused quite an impact in the 20th century.  I think everyone has seen Jeff Koons's  art work before, currently he has a piece at the Encore, the new casino in Everett.  


Work Cited:

Online Resources:

13. “Watson and the Shark.” Home,

14.  Damien Hirst - Away from the Flock from 1994. (n.d.). Retrieved from

15.  The Animals Art Has Always Loved.

16.  Stanska, ByZuzanna. “Jeff Koons And His Balloon Dogs.” - Art History Stories, 13 Feb. 2018,

17. “Early 20th Century French Bronze Pig Sculpture on Black Marble Base.” For Sale at 1stdibs,

18. “Early 20th Century French Patinated Bronze Dog Sculpture Signed T. Cartier.” For Sale at 1stdibs,

Emily Heffernan
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