Women’s Right to Vote
Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
2020 marks the 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment.
The suffrage movement of the mid-nineteenth century, recognized today as the first wave of “feminism,” continues to influence and inspire the ongoing struggle for women’s rights. Many of the methods and strategies of our early pioneers serve not only as inspiration, but, as a model for effective communication that is still relevant today.
“Man was given an eye for an ear.”
— Marshall McLuhan, The Medium is the Massage
The pioneers of the suffrage understood the power of the visual message. Their use of color, branded collateral, such as badges, banners, ribbons, and the promotion of their political messages, through the traditional means of posters and postcards, drew attention and created a precedent for protesting copied around the world by other political movements, including today.
These pioneering women used simple language and ‘conversations’ in an attempt to educate people about the injustices of the legal system. These messages were often hand generated in a vernacular manner. The poster, in particular, proved informative, accessible, and an effective medium for the dramatization of a specific point of view.
This collection serves as a brief visual research of language and methods of communication of the suffrage. Through a formal and conceptual investigation of hierarchy and composition using the timely messages of the suffrage, students will explore the process and historical method of poster making, the letterpress printing process.
Students will explore the vocabulary of the Women’s Voting Rights Movement through a series of typographic letterpressed permutations. Students will identify and explore themes that are different, as well as those that have remained the same for any disenfranchised individuals in the United States.
Each student is to choose one of the quotes provided in the presentation or find a relevant quote of the time. This will serve as the content for the typographic studies. Depending on the students’ concept for the poster, additional research and text may be required.
PHASE 1: Typographic Interpretations
Design a poster representing one of the historic statements of the suffrage. Your poster can remind people of the amendment’s original purpose and importance and/or raise awareness about a particular issue related to the amendment. There are plenty of high profile issues in the news now that directly relate this amendment. Your audience is college students.
“ All typefaces serve fundamentally the same purpose: to communicate. The purpose behind the communication –
for example, to inform, to entertain, or to persuade – is expressed, in part, by the typeface chosen. As the
communication objectives change, so might the typeface.” – Willi Kunz
Typographic Process and Checklist
1 review content – reading/understanding.
2 search for inherent structure/patterns/rhythms within the text.
3 develop preliminary plans for hierarchical structures.
4 sketches – create quick but meaningful “road maps” of your thoughts.
5 develop concepts of “center and support” configurations.
6 construct preliminary, secondary & tertiary alignments.
7 form constellations that house sub-thoughts within the text (grouping info.).
8 consider/reconsider overall composition while thinking about “activating the edge.”
9 play against the viewer’s expectations.
10 legibility (clarity and efficiency in reading) vs. readability (pleasure and interest in reading)– Willi Kunz
PHASE 2: Type & Image Interpretations
+ Integrate text + image using the four methods described in the book Type, Image, Message by Skolos + Wedell
+ Recognize the design opportunities that come with using type as an image
Type, Image, Message by Skolos + Wedell
Separation, Fusion, Fragmentation & Inversion
Separation – when the type & image operate independently. Reinforce messages. Type spaces & image spaces.
Fusion – when the type and image blend to form a unit. Type & image connected by perspective—blend 2 plus things that aren’t usually associated. Conceptually connected. Political or poetic statement. Metaphor
Fragmentation – when the type & image disturb or disrupt each other. Torn, divided, uneven, disparate. Scale, color, complication. Unpredictable, random, animated, energized message.
Inversion – form of fusion when type & image trade places & the type takes on pictorial properties or the image takes on type qualities. Harmonious. Type as photo, or hyper-realistic. Letters as frames for images.
• Two 14 by 17 inch letterpressed posters. One typographic solution. One type and image solution.
• Printed in 2- 3 color
• Quote selected must be included (but does not need to be the primary read)
Assistant Professor | Art Department | Pace University-NYC
One of the oldest handbuilding techniques is coil building. Although coil pots are common, they can be very unique.
At Rutgers University-Newark and within the Graphic Design Program, we offer two courses that focus on community-based (the Design Consortium) and research-oriented (Visual Means) activities. These classes are part of a larger initiative, and art incubator called Express Newark, where community and the university interact, collaborate and co-create.
In addition to the DC and VM courses, we offer an advanced design studio course that focuses on unique design applications through the use of the letterpress printing process, also located at Express Newark. This coming spring, I will be teaching the letterpress course, and in the following fall, I will teach the Visual Means course. Within both classes, I will be looking to develop different ways of visualizing gun violence.
Gun violence is one of the most critical and complex issues we currently face in the United States. Rutgers University has recently created the New Jersey’s Center on Gun Violence. The center’s mission looks to “conduct interdisciplinary research on the causes, consequences, and solutions to gun-related violence while respecting the rights of legal, safe gun ownership and use.” Within the Visual Means course, I plan to work with researchers from this center on developing ways of visualizing the complicated and overwhelming data disconnect between research and public understanding of gun rights, safety, and violence.
What I plan to do with this Learning Lab is to use it as a repository of images, concepts, facts, texts, and web-based information. In the coming months, I will develop a pedagogical approach that weaves together methods of research, visualization, and implementation into various applications of visual communication and graphic form. The Learning Lab will grow as our knowledge about this subject increases and while documenting our process of research, visualization, and implementation.
Step 1 - Learning Lab
We will use the Learning Lab as a repository for our impressions and image collections that show the different ways in which guns have been woven into the mythology of America and seen in our collective culture. Using different lenses such as art, film, photography, sculpture, advertising, satirical cartoons, comics, pop culture, propaganda, and protest, my students and I will attempt to take apart and reconstruct our understanding of the many issues surrounding this divisive topic.
Visualization and typographic experimentation
Step 2 - Weather Report
Dan Friedman, American, 1945–1995
While teaching at Yale University, Dan Friedman developed a teaching method that is still used in many schools today—the Weather Report. Through a series of detailed parameters, students will be asked to create different permutations that experiment with various interpretations and hierarchies. As students advance through this assignment, the limitations are slowly lifted, and students begin to generate solutions that are more and more expressive, dynamic, and experimental. Using this method, students will experiment with various hierarchies and typographic solutions—setting the stage for the letterpress printing process.
Step 3 - Letterpress process
Working with content generated from our research, relevant information, thought-provoking content, quotes, or statistics, students will explore various methods of experimenting with typographic structure and syntax. Using the Learning Lab, students will be exposed to the dynamic work of the Futurists, Constructivists, the Bauhaus, late Modernists, and the explosive typography of the New Wave designers.
Designers would include:
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Italian, 1876–1944
The Futurists were known (amongst other things) for the emotive and expressive typography.
El Lissitzky, Russian, 1890–1941
Russian Constructivism who experimented with developing a universal language based on simple shapes and reductive color.
Ladislav Sutnar, Czechoslovakian, 1897–1976
Sutnar’s visual communication often explains complex information and concepts unambiguously and with a spartan efficiency. The Constructivist brought great structure and organization to their typographic messages through minimal means in an attempt to generate a universal visual vocabulary.
Herbert Bayer, Austrian, 1900–1985
Jan Tschichold, German, 1902–1974
Max Bill, German, 1908–1994
At the Bauhaus and through its influences, designers brought together various conceptual approaches to the organization and implementation of articulate typographic applications.
Alvin Lustig, American, 1915–1955
American designer Alvin Lustig (along with Paul Rand, Bradbury Thompson, Lester Beall, Ladislav Sutnar, and others) was instrumental in developing a mature, Modern approach inspired by Europe to American graphic design and typography.
Wolfgang Weingart, German, 1941–
Teaches at the Basel School of Design and separating himself from some of Late Modernist’s more restrictive characteristics while redefining for himself an expressive typographic approach through experimentation and practice.
April Greiman, American, 1948–
Inspired by Armin Hofmann and Wolfgang Weingart and her experiences in Europe at the Basel School of Design, Greiman brought a fresh and unique perspective to graphic design within the United States.
Bruce Licher, American, 1958–
American typographer and letterpress designer that works within the traditions of letterpress printing while pushing the edges of typography, unique form, and graphic design applications.
Professor Ned Drew
Graphic Design Faculty
Founding Director of The Design Consortium & XPress | Center for Typography initiatives at Express Newark
This is a collection of images that represent the different aspects, issues, events, and people of the Industrial Age (1870-1910), including urbanization, immigration, working conditions, growth of industries, and technological innovations.
Introductory Activity: Print image cards for small group collaboration. Students will sort images into three categories:
- Representational Art (realistic imagery)
- Abstract Art (recognizable imagery that does not reflect actual appearance)
- Nonrepresentational Art (does not represent a depiction of the physical appearance of people or objects)
Formal Analysis Activity:
Choose a few images to compare and contrast: How did the artist use line, shape, color, balance, repetition, or overall composition to convey
- The illusion of movement or rhythm
- Visual tension
- A mood or feeling
This lesson would be taught at the end of the dark romantic literature unit. After exploring the traits of the era, students will be tasked with writing their own haunting story to mimic the authors we've read. They will use Fritz Eichenberg's"Dream of Reason" and a see-think-wonder activity as their starting point and inspiration.
This collection supports the free Smithsonian Science How webcast, "What's a Lichen? How a Smithsonian Scientist Studies a Unique Symbiosis," scheduled to air on November 14, 2019. Manu is a scientist at the Smithsonian who studies lichens, a lichenologist. She collects lichens from all over the world, depositing them into the U.S. National Herbarium, which is located at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. Manu identifies the lichens she collects with observations of how the lichen looks, their DNA data and where they were found.
Lichens are a symbiotic relationship between algae and fungus. They have been on earth for millions of years, living on rocks, trees, and soil in all different habitats on all seven continents. Even though lichens are all around us, scientists are still learning about what they are, where they live, and how many different species of lichens there are.
Fungus is any group of spore-producing organisms feeding on organic matter, and include molds, yeast, mushrooms, and toadstools. Algae is a simple, non-flowering plant. Algae contain chlorophyll and produce sugar through photosynthesis, like other plants, but do not have true stems, roots, leaves, or vascular tissue like most other plants. Lichenization is a fungal lifestyle, and therefore the name of lichen is the name of the fungus component.
When you look at a lichen, what you’re looking at is the “house” that the fungus and algae grow together. Scientists call this house a “thallus.” When algae and fungus come together to form this house, we see a lichen. This partnership is called a symbiotic relationship, because it helps both the fungus and algae survive. Research has shown that lichens are not a natural biological group, meaning they do not all come from a single common ancestor, in other words, lichens have many origins. Currently there are almost 20,000 species of lichenized fungi known.
In this symbiotic relationship, the fungus and algae benefit from being associated with each other. The fungus provides the house, its shelter (the thallus). This shelter helps the algae survive in habitats where it would otherwise be exposed to the elements and possibly could not survive. The algae provide food for the fungus, in the form of sugar. The sugar is a byproduct of photosynthesis that occurs within the algae.
Lichens are very important for the environment. They are an important food source for many animals, provide nest materials for birds, and provide habitat and material for biomimicry for insects and other organisms.
Lichens are also important for humans by providing natural dyes, perfumes, litmus paper, and even food. Humans even use lichens as bio-indicators, organisms that help humans monitor the health of the environment. Some species of lichens are sensitive to environmental pollution, so their presence or absence can help us understand more about the health of the environment, like air quality.
Lichens produce over one thousand different chemical compounds, most of them unique to lichens. These compounds include acids and pigments. Some chemicals may even fluoresce under UV light, making them important components for lichen identification.
Lichens have DNA, which is used to identify lichen and compare relationships amongst and within species. DNA analysis has been an important tool for lichenologists in identifying and understanding the biodiversity of lichens.
Sign up for the Smithsonian Science How webcast to introduce your students to Lichenologist Manuela Dal Forno! The program airs at 11am and 2pm on November 14, 2019. Sign up and view the program here: https://naturalhistory.si.edu/...
In this Collection, students will choose art to help generate a second piece of original flash fiction.
Flash fiction - which is limited to 750-1500 words - is uniquely useful to developing writers because it allows them to practice their writing skills over a number of shorter pieces. The artwork is of great purpose to creating Flash Fiction because it can provide a writer with three of the five essential elements - Setting, Situation, Sensory Detail - as identified by Katey Schultz of the Interlochen College of the Creative Arts. Another useful resource is found here.
The theme of TIME can be explored in art using key concepts throughout the semester or year. Explore various concepts related to the idea of TIME by playing the Connections Card Game. The mind maps made after playing the game can be used as a reference throughout the course.
- Download and print images on card stock (resource attached to this collection). Create multiple sets for small groups to play the game.
- Print Key Concept Cards (resource attached to this collection)
- Take turns choosing a card and connecting it to a key concept by placing it near an appropriate Concept Card.
- Defend choice with evidence in the image.
- After all cards have been played, students make inferences about how people experience, measure or represent time.
- Small groups collaborate to draw a mind map to illustrate their ideas.
- Present maps in a "Carousel Interview." One group member stays with the mind map to answer questions; other group members visit tables to explore mind maps and ask questions.
- Return to original group. Encapsulate overarching ideas and record them on your group's mind map.
Use this collection to help jumpstart your brainstorming process. As you examine how two designers went from brainstorm to final product, you'll practice three brainstorming strategies:
- Generating as many ideas as you can
- Keeping the flow going by saying "Yes, And..."
- Generating new ideas by combining 2 existing ideas
Students will survey the pieces in this collection and make connections between the pieces and the attached poems.
With a small group, they will read and explain their assigned poem. Then, they will select a work of art that they think BEST represents the poem from the five suggestions. In their presentation, they will explain the poem to the class, and they will explain their choice of artwork, specifically explaining what criteria they used to make their selection. Students complete the activity by selecting the best poetry/art pairing and explaining their reasoning with evidence from both pieces.
This is a collection of images that represent urbanization, immigration, working conditions, growth of industries, and technological innovations after the Civil War.
The Romans culture included a ton of art. Granted, most of their ideas came from the Greek culture that preceded them. A lot of their art is a play on a Greek original. They dabbled in architecture; building temples, tombs, etc. They built sculptures with materials such as copper and iron. They even had a few writers and poets. This particular collection focuses on the architecture, sculptures and paintings related to their culture. I chose this topic and these segments because I am extremely interested in seeing how art was when it was first coming to fruition, generations ago. It is fascinating to mentally compare it to the art forms we see today. #AHMCFall2019
This collection is intended to further educate viewers on the architecture and art in the Classical period using multiple resources as well as the Robert & DiYanni text, Arts and Culture, An Introduction to the Humanities (2012).
Throughout this collection readers will get a glimpse of the start of Classical architecture and how it came to be, how art lined the walls of these buildings and how art through architecture was developed. With that, readers will be able to engage and visualize today's architectural structures and how that culture influences today compared to those between the Medieval times to Modernism. They will also have the ability to recognize the true and inner beauty that lies in this architecture, amidst the chaos that regularly occurred there on a day to day basis. The truth will always remain beautiful even when it doesn't seem that way.
This collection is available for those wanting to see the beginnings of the classical art and it's influences from the medieval times up until modernism and will provide a better visual understanding that before the beauty of what architecture is today, there was once beauty at the start of it all and that remains throughout the years, just presented in different forms.
This collection is designed to support teachers and students exploring the 2020 National History Day theme: Breaking Barriers in History. Included in this collection is an overview of Reconstruction and three African American leaders aligned with the NHD theme.
These resources - including photographs, primary source documents, portraits, and articles - explore the efforts of Frederick Douglass, Hiram Revels, and Blance Bruce in overcoming social, political, and economic barriers throughout the era of Reconstruction following the Civil War. These men were influential African American leaders who exemplified what was possible for newly freed people in the United States and who continue to inspire African American leaders to this day. It also explores the violent backlash to these changes in the political and social spheres of the United States - most notably through the terrorist activity of the Ku Klux Klan.
By no means is this collection comprehensive; rather, it is intended to act as a starting point and provide inspiration for further research.
Dolores del Rio was a Mexican born film actress who stared in many Hollywood films beginning in the 1920's. She was one of the first Latin American movies stars in Hollywood and was renowned for her skill and beauty. She began her career in the silent films of the 1920's and 1930's and successfully adapted to the talking films of later decades. This collection asks the student to consider the significance of her role as an early icon of biculturalism and complete an exercise in perspective taking.
Information adapted from The New York Times obituary on Dolores del Rio, April 13, 1983. Retreived from https://www.nytimes.com/1983/04/13/obituaries/dolores-del-rio-77-is-dead-film-star-in-us-and-mexico.html
This collection includes resources about focusing on the story the Japanese rice farmers who immigrated to Texas in the early 1900's. Included are photos of the Japanese farmers in the rice fields and photos of families who owned the largest rice farms.
Teachers and students may use this collection as a springboard for classroom discussions , such as those about immigration policy and/or discrimination. This collection is not comprehensive but rather provides a launching point for research and study. Documents are included to guide students through analysis activities of the documents, photos and oral history.
This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.
Keywords: Japanese immigration,rice farming, sharecropping
Emma Tenayuca was just sixteen years old in 1932 when she joined a strike of women cigar makers. By 1937, when she was twenty-one Emma held a leadership role with the Workers Alliance of America, a group that sought to unite organizations of unemployed and industrial workers.
In January 1938, when pecan shellers in San Antonio walked out of their jobs, they looked to Emma for leadership. Their ranks swelled to between six and eight thousand strikers. Emma was arrested and released along with hundreds of others. Although she took a background role for the duration of the strike, she continued to write flyers and provide support behind the scenes.
Then a dispute over leadership arose between the Workers Alliance and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). Emma’s communist affiliations were used to discredit her.
Emma was supposed to meet with Communist Party members in the municipal auditorium in 1939 when a riot broke out. A crowd stormed the building, smashing windows and attacking participants. Emma managed to escape, but she never again led a major labor protest. Employers blacklisted her. As a result, Emma was unable to find work in San Antonio.
She moved to California in 1946, where she earned a college degree and stayed for many years. Returning to San Antonio in the late 1960's, she was amazed to find herself hailed as "some sort of heroine." She earned a master's degree in education at Our Lady of the Lake University and taught in San Antonio public schools until retiring in 1982. She died of Alzheimer's disease in 1999. People still remember her as La Pasionaria for her fierce defense of the working poor.
#ethnicstudies #NHD2020 #BecauseOfHerStory
This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.
The following collection contains a possible lesson plan with ideas on how to use the resources. The collection consists of information that identifies the bravery and contributions of Native American Code Talkers.
James Marshall's famous discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in Colma forever changed the landscape, economy and culture of California due to the mass migrations of 300,000 people. Rumors of gold's discovery spread quickly, and was confirmed by President Polk in an address to Congress. The news spread to countries around the world.
The journey to California was long and dangerous. The three major routes were: around Cape Horn by ship (six to eight months), the Isthmus of Panama (two to three months), and the Overland trail (three to five months). By ship, dangers included: ship wrecks, lack of food and water, seasickness and disease. Ships that survived the long journeys arrived to the ports of San Francisco, where migrants had to continue their journey to the Sierra Nevada foothills.
Traveling 2,000 miles on the Overland Trail by foot and wagon exposed travelers to other dangers such as misinformed trails, and a lack of food and water. Travelers were exposed to inclimate weather while crossing deadly rivers, deserts, and high mountain passes. Only the very basic necessities including food, water, wagons, stock, hunting tools, blacksmithing tools, clothing, blankets, sewing kits, medical supplies would be taken for the journey.
On the Overland Trail, many miners joined companies. These companies were made up of people with various skills; such as, carpentry, medicine, navigation, hunting, blacksmithing and wheelwrights. The likelihood of surviving these long and dangerous journeys increased significantly for those individuals who joined companies. If a company survived the journey to California on the Overland Trail, the company also had a higher likelihood of success in gold mining. Individuals within the company could stake multiple gold mining claims and the gold would then be divided among the people of the company. During the gold rush, individuals were only allowed to own one claim.
This collection focuses on using primary resources from the Smithsonian Learning Lab to help students examine how activism is viewed in our country.
From the First Resource: Today, our nation honors the memory of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. He was a stoic leader during a tumultuous time in our nation's history who brought about significant positive change by pursuing civil rights for Americans of color. However, MLK's activism was not beloved by an entire nation during his lifetime. We can explore the sacrifices he made in his endless pursuit of civil rights, his mistreatment by the systems he spoke out against, and the patterns that have been applied to contemporary activists now.
This collection is meant to build on two earlier collections, "Asian American Art: Emerging from the Shadows" and "Asian American Artists and World War II" and to introduce the viewer to artists of Asian ancestry in America using Chang, Johnson & Karlstrom's text, Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970 (2008), the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco's exhibition catalog "Asian/American/Modern Art: Shifting Currents, 1900-1970" (2008),the vast resources of the Smithsonian Learning Lab, Project Zero's Global Thinking Routines and other resources. This collection is part two of four that I have organized, chronologically, on Asian American Art. The other three collections are "Asian American Art: Emerging from the Shadows", "Asian American Artists and World War II" and "Asian American Contemporary Art". It is my hope that these collections will serve as entry points to understanding the many contributions of Asian American artists in the U.S. from 1850 until the present time.
Visual art is a language that is socially and culturally constructed. Socially constructed learning values diverse perspectives, engages with local and global experts, and employs inquiry, discovery and exploration to move students toward global citizenship. Because the visual arts leverage the power of dialogue and debate to sharpen critical thinking, starting with the arts is a logical place to help students develop cultural intelligence.
Other purposes of these collections are to explore tangible and intangible cultural heritage; as well as jumpstart brave conversations about race, identity and immigration in the U.S. with teachers, tutors of English Language Learners and others who are interested in becoming cultural leaders in our public schools.
As Gordon H. Chang and Mark Dean Johnson state in the introduction of the exhibition catalog, "Asian/American/Modern Art: Shifting Currents, 1900-1970" (2008):
"Forty years ago there were no Asian Americans. There were Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos, and others of Asian ancestry in the United States, but no 'Asian Americans,' as that term was coined only in 1968. This population was commonly seen as foreign, alien, not of America. Their lives and experiences were not generally accepted as part of the fabric of the country, even though Asians had begun settling here steadily in the mid-nineteenth century.
Then, in the late 1960s, as part of the upsurge in the self-assertion of marginalized communities, 'Asian America' emerged to challenge the stigma of perpetual foreignness. 'Asian American' was a claim of belonging, of rootedness, of pride and identity, and of history and community; it was also a recognition of distinctive cultural achievement" (Chang, Johnson, 2008).
This collection will provide an opportunity for students to analyze artwork, read background information, and connect art with historical events. At the heart of this activity is artwork created by Latino artist Carmen Lomas Garza. These paintings reflect the experiences of Garza's family and Latino life in 1980s America. In addition to image analysis, teachers could extend an opportunity for students to identify and discuss connections between Garza's art and the Mexican American experience from the 1960s to the present. This collection includes:
- A timeline of U.S.-Mexican American relations
- Video/audio of Reagan signing the 1986 Immigration Reform Control Act
- And an overview of immigration reform via ABC-CLIO (requires subscription).
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Connections #TEKS
- 24A describe how the characteristics of and issues in U.S. history have been reflected in various genres of art, music, film, and literature;