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Found 654 Collections

 

Terracotta Warriors & Figures: Object Analysis

In this activity, students will use visual evidence to try guess the roles of figures found in the elaborate tomb complex of China's First Emperor, Qin Shihuang (259 – 210 BCE), and analyze what they may reveal about his values, how he saw himself, and how he saw his world.  

Objects found in Emperor Qin Shihuang’s elaborate tomb complex, which covers a total area of 17.6 square miles and contains over 7,000 terracotta figures, make up the majority of surviving objects from this significant period in Chinese history. They are some of the best archaeological evidence researchers have for understanding the spiritual beliefs, military practices, and values of the ruler responsible for unifying China for the first time in its history. 

Authors of this collection are the Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum Site Museum, the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, and the Smithsonian’s Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Keywords: archaeology, archaeologist, ancient history, artifact, afterlife, funerary practices, burial, death, spiritual beliefs, military, soldier, sculpture, chinese, world, asia, asian, xi'an, empire, cross-cultural comparison, terra cotta, qin shi huang, shihuangdi, shi huang di, earthenware, ceramics, pottery, terracotta army

Emperor Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army
16
 

Textiles of the 18th century

In the 18th century, Americans began consuming unnecessary things. For example, people would buy plates with exquisite arts not because they genuinely need, but to put on display for others see. This conspicuous consumption is apparent more so among the higher class than the lower level mostly because they must prioritize and differentiate true necessities. Colonists shift from using homemade to premium fabric, without knowing quilts and coverlets became a unifying factor American society.

During the early colonial period, colonists imported linen and wool as a token from home. As the desire for textiles increased the, now colonists switched from wool to cotton because of the more accessible access. There are two types quilts: homemade and commercial. People began to stray away from quilts made of old clothes to purchase premium pieces of cloths. These premium fabrics had scenes of our past presidents, such as The Victory of Washington and The Apotheosis of Franklin. Another design people used for quilts and coverlets during this time was block printing.  Block printing is when you stamp ink on to a regular piece of fabric repeatedly to create a uniform pattern.

Angeney Metelus
11
 

The Arrival of the Americans and the end of Edo Japan - Post Assessment Activity

This collection serves to end the unit on Edo Japan and retake the discussion of how the period fits within the greater scene of world history. In our class, seclusion and openness of countries is an common through line, and so the arrival of the Americans effectively ending the Sakoku period is an important historical milestone. The main goal of this collection is to lead students into this dialectical reflection of how these two countries interacted and what this meant for a Japan that had consciously shut down most trade relations.  The opening lesson on Edo Japan puts in doubt how closed the country really was; this last lesson highlights how Edo Japan had evolved since the edict of 1635, and how it had to open its ports and face the conjunctions of the 19th century's international scene. 

This collection also brings into light reactions on both sides of the American arrival. Images and archives from both Japanese, as well as American witnesses, allow students to understand the motivations coming from East, as well as the West. 


Lesson plan (2 hours) 

1. Provide the students with the resources "4c United States-Japan Treaty single." "Black Ships and Samurai," "Founding Fragments - Commodore Perry," and "Matthew Calbraith Perry." Allow students time to browse at least two topics from the website and play the video "Founding Fragments - Commodore Perry" for the entire class. 

2. Using all the resources in Step 1, lead class through the visible thinking routine "True for who?" While completing this routine, highlight how each country struggles to defend their views. 

At the end of this unit, students have a fairly strong understanding of Japanese national interests. For this reason, the teacher can help provide information of the U.S.'s international stance during the 19th century. While the U.S. plays a background role in our curriculum, we do a quick mention of the Manifest Destiny and the Monroe Doctrine, as ways in which the students’ own country emulate cycles of international openness or seclusion. Following this through line, it is necessary to stress the arrival of Commodore Perry to Japan as a thematic intersection. The moment marks both the end of Edo period for Japan, and the United States’ efforts to expand their field of influence.

3. Allow students time to read further into the "Black Ships and Samurai" website. Students can also conduct quick research on the arrival of the Americans in 1853, and Japanese-American relations previous to this date.

4. Provide students a copy of Commodore Perry and President Fillmore's letter to the Emperor of Japan. Use resource "Letters of the Commodore Perry and President Fillmore to the Emperor of Japan (1852-1853)"  Do a close reading of the letters and highlight the main passages. 

5. Present the remaining images and complete a visible thinking routine "Parts/People/Interactions." Allow students to cite the letters in Step 4, as well as the images in this collection. At the end of this lesson, students are able to compare, as well as to question each country’s discourse of seclusion or non-intervention.

Denise Rodriguez
12
 

The Art of American Industry

This collection explores the growth of American industry as seen through the lens of artistic production throughout the twentieth century. It can be paired with a multi-day lesson plan on American industrialization in a Social Studies, History, or Economics context. Students can begin to explore and understand the layered narratives and consequences involved within the rapid chances in mechanized American life. The lesson would begin with students examining the first row of resources to become acclimated to expansive impact of American industry. Students would then be able to use the Connect/Extend/Challenge thinking routine to examine how these fluctuations profoundly reformed societal, familial, and personal relationships. By considering multiple perspectives and outcomes, participants can begin to better identify their connection to broader industrial trends today. 

#SAAMteach

Evan Binkley
33
 

The Bikini Atoll and Operation Crossroads: Unveiling Stories

In this activity, students will analyze photographs documenting the exodus of Bikini islanders from Bikini Atoll prior to Operation Crossroads, a pair of nuclear weapons tests and the first detonations of nuclear devices since the bombing of Nagasaki. These photographs were taken by Carl Mydans and were published in the LIFE Magazine article, "Atomic Bomb Island," on March 25, 1946.

Using two Project Zero Global Thinking Routines - "Unveiling Stories" and "The 3 Ys" - students will analyze the stories these photographs communicate about the experiences of the Bikini islanders and America's perspective on military advancement after WWII. They will also consider the perspectives presented by these photographs, in multiple contexts from the personal to the global. Additional resources (primary sources and the original article) and information on using this collection in the classroom can by found by clicking Read More ».

Keywords: atomic testing, atomic bomb, operation crossroads, bikini islands, bikini atoll, rongerik, able test, baker test, nuclear bomb, photojournalism, inquiry strategy, global competence, global competency, 1940s, 40s, 1950s, 50s, 1960s, 60s


Tess Porter
17
 

The Bikini Atoll and Operation Crossroads: Unveiling Stories

In this activity, students will analyze photographs documenting the exodus of Bikini islanders from Bikini Atoll prior to Operation Crossroads, a pair of nuclear weapons tests and the first detonations of nuclear devices since the bombing of Nagasaki. These photographs were taken by Carl Mydans and were published in the LIFE Magazine article, "Atomic Bomb Island," on March 25, 1946.

Using two Project Zero Global Thinking Routines - "Unveiling Stories" and "The 3 Ys" - students will analyze the stories these photographs communicate about the experiences of the Bikini islanders and America's perspective on military advancement after WWII. They will also consider the perspectives presented by these photographs, in multiple contexts from the personal to the global. Additional resources (primary sources and the original article) and information on using this collection in the classroom can by found by clicking Read More ».

Keywords: atomic testing, atomic bomb, operation crossroads, bikini islands, bikini atoll, rongerik, able test, baker test, nuclear bomb, photojournalism, inquiry strategy, global competence, global competency, 1940s, 40s, 1950s, 50s, 1960s, 60s


Renea Reichenbach
15
 

The Bracero Program: Constructing a Narrative

This assignment asks students to look at evidence and develop a narrative. Developed by UC Berkeley History-Social Science Project. 

Filiberto Chavez
9
 

The Bracero Program: Constructing a Narrative

This assignment asks students to look at evidence and develop a narrative. Developed by UC Berkeley History-Social Science Project. 

Rubina Pantoja
9
 

The California Gold Rush: A Journey to the Goldfields

James Marshall's famous discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in Colma forever changed the landscape, economy and culture of California due to the mass migrations of 300,000 people. Rumors of gold's discovery spread quickly, and was confirmed by President Polk in an address to Congress. The news spread to countries around the world.

The journey to California was long and dangerous. The three major routes were: around Cape Horn by ship (six to eight months), the Isthmus of Panama (two to three months), and the Overland trail (three to five months). By ship, dangers included: ship wrecks, lack of food and water, seasickness and disease. Ships that survived the long journeys arrived to the ports of San Francisco, where migrants had to continue their journey to the Sierra Nevada foothills.  

Traveling 2,000 miles on the Overland Trail by foot and wagon exposed travelers to other dangers such as misinformed trails, and a lack of food and water. Travelers were exposed to inclimate weather while crossing deadly rivers, deserts, and high mountain passes. Only the very basic necessities including food, water, wagons, stock, hunting tools, blacksmithing tools, clothing, blankets, sewing kits, medical supplies would be taken for the journey.   

On the Overland Trail, many miners joined companies. These companies were made up of people with various skills; such as, carpentry, medicine, navigation, hunting, blacksmithing and wheelwrights. The likelihood of surviving these long and dangerous journeys increased significantly for those individuals who joined companies. If a company survived the journey to California on the Overland Trail, the company also had a higher likelihood of success in gold mining. Individuals within the company could stake multiple gold mining claims and the gold would then be divided among the people of the company. During the gold rush, individuals were only allowed to own one claim.  


columbiastatehistoricpark
16
 

The Changing Image of American Classrooms

The artworks in this collection exemplify just how rapidly classrooms and their students have changed over the past century. What can we learn about the Civil Rights Movement and America's historical challenge of diversity? How might these works allow us to better understand ongoing societal issues in addition to the valuable roles teachers play? 

This Learning Lab collection is intended for a multi-day lesson plan for middle school students. A lesson based off of this collection could be begin with a discussion of the similarities and differences between schooling a century ago and classrooms today. Using a number of individual and group thinking routines, students could then begin to identify historical precedents of discrimination which have existed and/or continue to exist in the American educational system. A close reading of attached articles incorporated with additional thinking strategies would allow students to consider ongoing efforts of activism related to the classroom. 

#SAAMteach


Evan Binkley
36
 

The Chemistry of Spacesuit Materials

This collection explores the different textiles, along with their chemical compositions, used in the construction of Apollo-era spacesuits.

#MCteach

Virginia Miller
30
 

The Classical Origin of Iconic American Symbols

In this student activity, analyze how and why iconic symbols of America, such as the Capitol Building and the United States Seal, were inspired by Greek and Roman art and architecture.  

Explores the big ideas:

  • How were symbols of America influenced by those of Ancient Greece and Rome? 
  • What might this desire to associate America with historic, successful democracies say about early American hopes for their new nation?

Includes: architecture, a seal, portraiture, a video, a primary source letter, discussion questions, and an opportunity to learn more through the full digitized text of "The Ruins of Palmyra," a publication that heavily inspired early American neoclassical architecture.

Keywords: greece, symbolism, classic, classical

Tess Porter
12
 

The Classical Origin of Iconic American Symbols

In this student activity, analyze how and why iconic symbols of America, such as the Capitol Building and the United States Seal, were inspired by Greek and Roman art and architecture.  

Explores the big ideas:

  • How were symbols of America influenced by those of Ancient Greece and Rome? 
  • What might this desire to associate America with historic, successful democracies say about early American hopes for their new nation?

Includes: architecture, a seal, portraiture, a video, a primary source letter, discussion questions, and an opportunity to learn more through the full digitized text of "The Ruins of Palmyra," a publication that heavily inspired early American neoclassical architecture.

Keywords: greece, symbolism, classic, classical

Renee Voce
12
 

The Corona's Cooling Power

The National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) is the first museum on the National Mall to be recognized as a LEED Gold building due to its construction using renewable energy sources and locally-sourced building materials. LEED or Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certifications are granted to buildings and other structures  that meet global standards in areas such as water use, energy efficiency, and use of sustainable materials. To minimize energy use, the architects and engineers designed the building to allow lots of natural light inside of the museum. The Corona, the ornamental bronze-colored metal lattice that covers the museum like a crown covers a head, helps to keep the museum cool by allowing some sunlight inside, but by blocking the rest. As a result, the museum uses less electricity for lights and air conditioning. 

But how does it work? Have your students complete the following experiment to find out!

National Museum of African American History and Culture
15
 

The Electronic Superhighway: Perception of American Culture

Is American Culture always perceived in the same way by everyone or does it differ from person to person?

#SAAMteach

Brooke Oxendine
10
 

The Emancipation Proclamation: Manuscripts of Freedom

The Smithsonian Institute holds several digitized manuscripts that outline the path to freedom for African Americans with the most central being the Emancipation Proclamation. On January 1, 1963, President Abraham Lincoln signed the Proclamation as a military act that freed slaves in the rebellion states. The document itself, however, succeeded the District of Columbia Emancipation Act (1962), which freed slaves in Washington, D.C. eight months prior, and proceeded the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the Juneteenth Proclamation. One hundred years later, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which specified social justice mandates not written in the aforementioned documents. The Act outlawed discrimination in the United States and legally instituted what the Emancipation Proclamation only proposed.

This collection chronicles the drafting of these five critical manuscripts and the events and ideologies that spurred subsequent legislation. Students will study digitized images of the Emancipation Proclamation and examine reasons that portions of the text necessitated legal amendments. The collection includes a student activity for teacher use.

Keywords: African American History, American History, NMAAHC, The District of Columbia Emancipation Act, Emancipation Proclamation, 13th Amendment, Juneteenth, Civil Rights Act of 1964

Le'Passion Darby
20
 

The French Revolution: An Examination into its Causes

Examine these sources to help you answer the essential question: How did conditions in France lead to the revolution of 1789?
Molly Long
3
 

The Global Implications of HIV/AIDS

This activity can be used on its own or as a starting point for an interdisciplinary exploration of the global implications of HIV/AIDS.

This collection includes a three-part activity that can be modified by choosing to spend more or less time considering other viewpoints on HIV/AIDS. It uses Project Zero Thinking Routines and several images that allow students to explore multiple perspectives on HIV/AIDS. I have also created a separate collection with more images that could be used as starting points for further conversation called “The Global Implications of HIV/AIDS - An Interdisciplinary Exploration.” 

The focus of this particular collection is to allow students to begin exploring at the individual level and then keep zooming out to the global level to engage with HIV/AIDS as a global issue.

Part I: The individual and Individuals within a Society

Using a work by Felix Gonzalez-Torres and the Project Zero Thinking Routine “See, Think, Wonder,” students can begin the conversation about the toll of HIV/AIDS on the individual level. Depending on student comments, this could also involve individuals within a society.  The video included here could be shown as a follow-up explanation or could simply be used to help the teacher and not shown to students. The images of the quilt panel and the poster could both be used with the Project Zero Thinking Routine “Circle of Viewpoints” to help further the society or systems approach. These images allow students to explore the political complexities and how this can directly impact individuals within a group. Again, the video included could be used to enhance teacher and/or student knowledge.

 

Part II: Engaging in conversations about Society and Global Issues

Students will use the Project Zero Thinking Routine “See, Think, Wonder” to explore the Gapminder HIV Chart graphic (axes have been removed). If the group of students you are working with have less experience with thinking routines in general or are less inclined to take risks in sharing out, skip to the original version of the Gapminder HIV Chart graphic instead. At either starting point, more information can be revealed as students pose thoughts and wonders about the data provided. The link to the TedTalk can help students better understand what the graph is showing and perhaps be another starting point for a dialogue on the complexities of HIV/AIDS.

 

Part III: Reflection

There is some reflection built into the “Circle of Viewpoints” Thinking Routine but it is worthwhile to also reflect at the end of the activity. I have provided the Project Zero “I used to think…But now I think” Thinking Routine slide but a teacher could also choose to return to the Wrap Up questions provided from the earlier “Circle of Viewpoints” Thinking Routine and revisit what the students had mentioned from Part II. 

Emily Veres
13
 

The Green Book: Traveling during Jim Crow

How did African Americans attempt to travel safely in the United States during the age of Jim Crow?

This Learning Lab investigates the question of African American travel during the age of Jim Crow, and how the Green Book assisted by providing African American a directory of welcoming hotels, motels, travel lodges, restaurants, gas stations, and other facilities as they journeyed throughout the United States. This Learning Lab employs the use of primary source analysis of NMAAHC and other Smithsonian unit objects and outside media clips to help answer this question.

Keywords:  NMAAHC, African American, Green, book, travel, Jim Crow, car, road, segregation, hotel, motel, gas station, restaurants, United States, primary source, #NMAAHCTeach

National Museum of African American History and Culture
25
 

The Gunboat Philadelphia

Through photographs, text, videos, interviews, a map & a 3D model, students can explore the history of the oldest surviving American naval vessel, the Gunboat Philadelphia, which is in the permanent collections of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. The Philadelphia (1776) played an important role during the Revolutionary War. The first five resources in this collection show the discovery and preservation of the sunken boat, while the last three offer more information on its historical significance.

This could be used by students to consider what each type of media reveals. What information can you learn from the single resource? From the collection of media combined? What more context is needed?

Ashley Naranjo
8
 

The Harlem Renaissance

The Harlem Renaissance was a social and artistic movement of the 1920s that took place in the eclectic neighborhood of Harlem, New York. African-Americans, many of whom had migrated from the South to escape the harsh realities of racism and segregation, brought Harlem to life during this era with music, dance, poetry, film, education, literature, entrepreneurship, and social activism. This unprecedented revolution and its icons birthed knowledge and artistry that continues to impact American culture today. Such icons include Zora Neale Hurston, Mary McLeod Bethune, Madam C.J. Walker, Oscar Micheaux, Duke Ellington, W.E.B. DuBois, Langston Hughes, and Mahalia Jackson.

 The individual contributions of these “Harlemites” were so distinguished that the Citizen’s Stamp Advisory Committee (CSAG) of the United States Postal Service selected each to be commemorated on a United States Postage Stamp. These stamps have been digitized and are housed at the Smithsonian’s National Postal Museum.

The Harlem Renaissance Collection includes a video on each Harlem Renaissance icon and an activity that teachers can use in the classroom.

Keywords: NMAAHC, National Postal Museum, American History, African American History, Harlem Renaissance, Zora Neale Hurston, Mary McLeod Bethune, Madam C.J. Walker, Oscar Micheaux, Duke Ellington, W.E.B. DuBois, Langston Hughes, Mahalia Jackson

Le'Passion Darby
11
 

The Impact of the Civil War on Society

Students will explore these sources to spark inquiry and investigation about how the Civil War impacted American society. 

  • Students can complete the sorting activity to categorize the images. 
  • Students should select one source they find most intriguing and generate questions  about the source and its related topic by completing the quiz question. 
Tiferet Ani
30
 

The Important Depiction of Different Kinds of Men in the Revolutionary Era Through Paintings

The lives of many different men and their stories can be told and learned about through only an image. Paintings and drawings are very telling of a historical figure's history, whether i'ts through simplicity or complex work, studying an image that was produced by an artist can tell a learner a lot if they are willing to study the portrait. 

Throughout the time of the American Revolution, different men from all kinds of different backgrounds and walks of life made history for the things they did. Some of them are known for groundbreaking stories such as leading a battle to victory, and others are known for being on the wrong side of bygone times. Some are only known for small feats, but every single man has a story. When studying the lives of historical figures, it can be hard to picture that  story without putting a face to the name. You find yourself wondering what they wore, what they looked like, and how they held themselves. Knowing the likes of these things can really make each figure's historical stories that much richer, so to say. 

Although your everyday and modern camera didn't exist in the seventeen and eighteen-hundreds, artists did. Every painting and drawing of a man came along with a story, and each portrait let the world know who these men were. If a man had a portrait, he had a story. The paintings and drawings of these men are important pieces of history from the Revolutionary era, as they serve as the only glimpse of what some of the most historical figures in American history even looked like. The artists from these times tell a man's history through only an image on paper.

The following ten paintings and drawings are portraits of men from the times of the Revolution. Although artists that the pieces once belonged to are long gone, the history of each man still lies within the images that are within this collection. 

Joshua Brown
10
 

The Iñupiaq People and Their Culture

By Beverly Faye Hugo (Iñupiaq ), 2009

(This is shortened version of a longer essay from the Smithsonian book Living Our Cultures, Sharing Our Heritage: The First Peoples of Alaska.)


Sea, Land, Rivers

There’s ice and snow, the ocean and darkness – darkness in the winter and twenty-four hours of daylight in the summer. Barrow was originally called Utqiaġvik (meaning, “the place where ukpik, the snowy owl, nests”). That’s where my people, the Iñupiat, have survived and lived, and I am doing as they have done. On the Arctic coast you can see vast distances in all directions, out over the ocean and across the land. The country is very flat, with thousands of ponds and lakes, stretching all the way to the Brooks Range in the south. It is often windy, and there are no natural windbreaks, no trees, only shrubs. Beautiful flowers grow during the brief summer season. The ocean is our garden, where we hunt the sea mammals that sustain us. Throughout the year some seasonal activity is going on. We are whaling in the spring and fall, when the bowheads migrate past Barrow, going out for seals and walrus, fishing, or hunting on the land for caribou, geese, and ducks.

Whaling crews are made up of family members and relatives, and everyone takes part. The spring is an exciting time when the whole community is focused on the whales, hoping to catch one. The number we are permitted to take each year is set by the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission and the International Whaling Commission. Whaling is not for the faint of heart. It can be dangerous and takes an incredible amount of effort – getting ready, waiting for the whales, striking and pulling and towing them. But the men go out and do it because they want to feed the community. Everyone has to work hard throughout the whaling season. People who aren’t able to go out on the ice help in other ways, such as buying supplies and gas or preparing food. You have to make clothing for them; they need warm parkas, boots, and snow pants.

We believe that a whale gives itself to a captain and crew who are worthy people, who have integrity – that is the gift of the whale. Caring for whales, even after you’ve caught them, is important. After a whale is caught and divided up, everyone can glean meat from the bones. Each gets his share, even those who don’t belong to a crew. No one is left out.

We are really noticing the effects of global warming. The shorefast ice is much thinner in spring than it used to be, and in a strong wind it will sometimes break away. If you are out on the ice, you have to be extremely conscious of changes in the wind and current so that you will not be carried off on a broken floe. We are concerned as well about the effects of offshore drilling and seismic testing by the oil companies. They try to work with the community to avoid problems, but those activities could frighten the whales and be detrimental to hunting.

 

Community and Family

Iñupiaq residents of Barrow, Wales, Point Hope, Wainwright, and other coastal communities, are the Taġiuqmiut, “people of the salt.” People who live in the interior are the Nunamiut, “people of the land.” The Nunamiut used to be nomadic, moving from camp to camp with their dog teams, hunting and fishing to take care of their families. They packed light and lived in skin tents, tracking the caribou and mountain sheep. My husband, Patrick Hugo, was one of them. For the first six years of his life his family traveled like that, but when the government built a school at Anaktuvuk Pass in 1959 they settled there.

 My parents, Charlie and Mary Edwardson, were my foremost educators. They taught me my life skills and language. When I came to awareness as a young child, all the people who took care of me spoke Iñupiaq, so that was my first language. Our father would trap and hunt. We never went hungry and had the best furs for our parkas. Our mother was a fine seamstress, and we learned to sew by helping her. My mother and grandmother taught us to how to care for a family and to do things in a spirit of cooperation and harmony.

I was a child during the Bureau of Indian Affairs era, when we were punished for speaking Iñupiaq in school. My first day in class was the saddest one of my young life. I had to learn English, and that was important, but my own language is something that I value dearly and have always guarded. It is a gift from my parents and ancestors, and I want to pass it on to my children and grandchildren and anyone who wants to learn.

 

Ceremony and Celebration

Nalukataq (blanket toss) is a time of celebration when spring whaling has been successful. It is a kind of all-day picnic. People visit with friends and family at the windbreaks that the crews set up by tipping the whale boats onto their sides. At noon they serve niġliq (goose) soup, dinner rolls, and tea. At around 3:00 P.M. we have mikigaq,made of fermented whale meat, tongue, and skin. At 5:00 they serve frozen maktak (whale skin and blubber) and quaq (raw frozen fish). It’s wonderful to enjoy these foods, to talk, and catch up with everyone at the end of the busy whaling season.

Kivgik, the Messenger Feast, was held in the qargi (ceremonial house). The umialgich (whaling captains) in one community sent messengers to the leaders of another, inviting them and their families to come for days of feasting, dances, and gift giving. They exchanged great quantities of valuable things – piles of furs, sealskins filled with oil, weapons, boats, and sleds. That took place until the early years of the twentieth century, when Presbyterian missionaries suppressed our traditional ceremonies, and many of the communal qargich in the villages were closed down.

 In 1988, Mayor George Ahmaogak Sr. thought it was important to revitalize some of the traditions from before the Christian era, and Kivgik was started again. Today it is held in the high school gymnasium. People come to Barrow from many different communities to take part in the dancing and maġgalak, the exchange of gifts. You give presents to people who may have helped you or to those whom you want to honor.  Kivgiq brings us together as one people, just as it did in the time of our ancestors.

Tags: Iñupiaq, Inupiaq, Alaska Native, Indigenous, Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska

Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center in Alaska
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