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The Evolution of Technology in United States Popular Music

This collection will explore how new technological inventions have shaped the way people listen to popular music in the United States throughout history. We will discusses the theme "Music and Technology", that has been covered in class. The collection will include images, articles, and videos about new inventions that shaped the way Americans listened to popular music. We will cover inventions going all the way back to the phonograph in 1877, to the Apple iPod in 2001. This collection would most likely be intended for high school and college students. #MUS109-2019

Resource Citation:

Starr, L., & Waterman, C. (2009). American Popular Music; from Minstrelsy to MP3 Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. Popular Music, 28(1), 124-125. doi:10.1017/s0261143008001694Compact_Discs_(CDs)






Sam Colombo

Rock Music & Its Influence on Identity

This collection puts together different resources that portray the impact rock music had on society. Rock music influenced the lives of the youth through lyrics, image, and performance. This teen-oriented music was written about women, sex, and social reform. The influence from artists and their songs caused the youth to change not only their values, morals, or what was sexually appropriate, but also even their style. The phrase "sex, drugs and rock 'n' roll" didn't come from nothing. #MUS109-2019

Works Cited:

Starr, Larry, and Christopher Waterman. American Popular Music. 5th ed., Oxford University Press, 2010.

Nekola, Anna. “ 'More than Just a Music': Conservative Christian Anti-Rock Discourse and the U.S. Culture Wars.” Jstor,

Images/Videos Used:

NRRArchives. “Chuck Berry ‘Sweet Little Sixteen.’” YouTube, YouTube, 25 Nov. 2012,

ForbiddenInGermany4. “Elvis Presley - Hound Dog (1956) HD 0815007.” YouTube, YouTube, 26 Dec. 2010,

Channel, Smithsonian. “How Teenagers Ran the Rock 'n' Roll Era.” YouTube, YouTube, 7 July 2017,

“The Beatles.” Discogs,

“1960's Fashion.” Pinterest,

"Naomi Wesstein." Wellesley Center for Women , Web. 30 Jun 2019. .

Michaela Peck

Streaming In Today's Society

This collection will address the ever evolving streaming in the music industry.  Exploring the different platforms for streaming, why they are so popular, and the multiple versions of each platform.  There will be videos, pictures, and some articles explaining the power and influence these platforms have. This collection discusses some of the major streaming devices and platforms like iPod's, MP3 players, Soptify, SoudCloud, YouTube, and provides videos of the evolution of streaming and portable devices.  


Amy Leach

Critical Listening of Country Music- The Evolution of Popular Country Music

The purpose of this collection is to analyze and appreciate the evolution of American country music, starting pre-1950 up to the modern day. Included are mostly audio links/videos and lyric videos with written information to guide your listening. There are a few links to articles that go more in depth about some specific artists and songs. In addition, there are links to lyrics and images of the artists to help guide the listening, analyze the words to the music, and put a face to the song.  


Article/Text References:

Adams, N. (2000, April 24). 'I'm So Lonesome I Could Cry'. Retrieved June 15, 2019, from  

Chilton, M. (2018, October 10). How Taylor Swift's Debut Album Set Her Apart From The Rest.  Retrieved from

Dixie Chicks. (2002, August 28). Retrieved June 30, 2019, from  

Hemphill, P. (2015). The Nashville Sound: Bright Lights and Country Music. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. Retrieved June 15, 2019, from

Hoppe, G. (2017). Icon and Identity: Dolly Parton's Hillbilly Appeal. Southern Culture, 51-52. Retrieved June 29, 2019, from


Kacey Musgraves Chart History. (n.d.). Retrieved June 30, 2019, from          

Price, D. E. (1998). With MCA Comeback, Country Is The Word For Newton-John. Billboard, 110(16). Retrieved June 25, 2019, from


Starr, L. and Christopher Waterman. American Popular Music. 5th edition

Content References:

Adams, N. (2000, April 24). 'I'm So Lonesome I Could Cry'. Retrieved June 15, 2019, from

Braddock, B., Toby, K. (2009, June 16). Toby Keith- I Wanna Talk About Me [Audio Video (youtube)]. Youtube.

Charles, R. (2018). Ray Charles NPR Audio [NRP Audio External Learning Tool]. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Danver, J. (2013, April 5). John Denver- Take Me Home, Country Roads [Audio Video (youtube)]. Youtube. The Essential John Denver. 

[Digital image]. (2018, December 24). Retrieved June 29, 2019, from

Frey, G., & Browne, J. (2011, November 22). The Eagles Perform "Take It Easy" [Audio Video (youtube)]. Youtube- Rock & Roll Hall of Fame.

Gibson, D., & Charles, R. (2008, January 25). I Can't Stop Loving You [Audio Video (youtube)]. Youtube.

H. H., H. C., & Cline, P. (2007, October 3). Patsy Cline- I Fall To Pieces [Audio Video (youtube)].

Hyman, D., Tobias, C., & Land, K.D. (2015, January 20). Shadowland [Audio Video (youtube)]. Youtube.

King, P., & Stewart, R. (2015, July 23). Patti Page- Tennessee Waltz [Audio Video (youtube)].

Lindsey, H., Rose, L., & Swift,T. (2009, April 13)). Fearless- Taylor Swift [Audio Video (youtube)].

Mann, B., Weil, C., & Parton, D. (2016, June 10). Dolly Parton- Here You Come Again [Audio Video (youtube)]. Youtube.

Miller, J. D., & Wells, K. (2010, June 12). Kitty Wells- It Wasn't God Who Made Honky Tonk Angels [Video (youtube)]. The Original Sound of Country 1952.

Nelson, W. (2011, September 16). Willie Nelson- Me and Paul. Youtube

Rostill, J., & Newton-John, O. (2012, August 25). Olivia Newton John- "If You Love Me, Let Me Know" [Audio Video (youtube)]. Youtube.

Sommers, John Martin, & Denver, J. (2016, December 9). John Denver- Thank God I'm  A Country Boy [Video (youtube)]. Youtube. 

Williams, H., & Charles, R. (2008, January 25). Ray Charles- Your Cheatin' Heart [Audio Video (youtube)]. Youtube.

Williams, H. (2009, December 24). Hank Williams- Cold Cold Heart [Audio Video (youtube)]. Mercury Records.

Mackenna Ward

Hip-Hop Origins: East Coast VS West Coast

As the new generation rave about the consistency of Drake and the unique style of the Migos, and certainly the lyrical prowess of Kendrick Lamar, it is important to dive back into the rich history of Hip-Hop and learn from the originators. This collection is utilizing the American Popular Music Theme Centers and Peripheries to show the foundation of Hip-Hop build what became the East Coast. As we all know, Hip-Hop is a competitive genre, represented by lyricist who will do anything to hold the #1 spot. Due to the overwhelming influence of the East Coast RAP, a gritty, violent, lyrical style infused with street gang life gave birth to gangsta rap in Cali and better known as the West Coast RAP. Viewers will enjoy the origins, the East Coast and West Coast Rappers, and the greatest battle of all time. 




Alysse, Bianca. “Eric B. & Rakim Talk Favorite Hip-Hop Duos, Rise of Mumble Rap & Their New Ice Cream Flavor.” Billboard, 22 Aug. 2018,

Alysse, Bianca. “Eric B. & Rakim Talk Favorite Hip-Hop Duos, Rise of Mumble Rap & Their New Ice Cream Flavor.” Billboard, 22 Aug. 2018,

Alysse, Bianca. “Eric B. & Rakim Talk Favorite Hip-Hop Duos, Rise of Mumble Rap & Their New Ice Cream Flavor.” Billboard, 22 Aug. 2018,

Area, Lil Kim. “Lil' Kim - Get Money Ft. Notorious B.I.G (HD, Uncensored Lyrics).” YouTube, YouTube, 25 Dec. 2017,

B.I.G., The Notorious. “The Notorious B.I.G. - Juicy (Official Music Video).” YouTube, YouTube, 6 Sept. 2011,

B.I.G., The Notorious. “The Notorious B.I.G. - One More Chance (Official Music Video).” YouTube, YouTube, 6 Sept. 2011,

Batey, Angus, and Angus Batey. “Forget 'Straight Outta Compton' – This Is The Real Story Of NWA.” NME, NME, 4 Oct. 2016,

Big, Notorious. “The Notorious B.I.G. - Who Shot Ya?” YouTube, YouTube, 18 Mar. 2009,

DeathRowChannel. “2Pac - ‘2 Of Amerikaz Most Wanted.’” YouTube, YouTube, 13 Nov. 2009,


Ekpo, Ime. “Hip-Hop Legend Big Daddy Kane to Receive the Key to Brooklyn.” The Source, 22 June 2018,

Hip-Hop, Seven. “2Pac - Hit 'Em Up (Dirty) (Official Video) HD.” YouTube, YouTube, 28 Mar. 2013,

JustinTinsley. “All Eyez on VIBE Magazine's 1996 Death Row Cover.” The Undefeated, The Undefeated, 21 Apr. 2017,

MacInnes, Paul. “Ice T Helps Pioneer Gangsta Rap on the West Coast with His Rapcore Single Body Rock/ Killers.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 12 June 2011,

Ortiz, Edwin. “28 Photos That Defined the '90s Bad Boy Era.” Complex, Complex, 20 Oct. 2016,

Richards, Chris. “As a Rap Phenom, LL Cool J Needed Love; as a Rap Legend, He's Finally Getting It.” Reading Eagle, 4 Jan. 2018,

Shook, Darylese. “'Lowriders' Is High on Family Drama but Low on Riding.” Daily Titan, 15 May 2017,

Smith, Camilo Hannibal. “Houston b-Girls Ericka Martinez and Lucia Rodriguez Break the Breakdance Mold.” Houston Chronicle, 22 Feb. 2019,

Starr, Larry, and Christopher Alan Waterman. American Popular Music: from Minstrelsy to MP3. 5th ed., Oxford University Press, 2018.

Tosiello, Pete. “An Honest Evaluation of LL Cool J's Entire Career.” Vulture, Vulture, 17 Dec. 2018,

Video, UPROXX. “Dr. Dre Ft. Snoop Doggy Dogg - Nuthin' But A G Thang (Dirty) HD.” YouTube, YouTube, 31 May 2009,

“Wall Art.” Pixels,

Williams, Brennan, and Brennan Williams. “Slick Rick Praises The First-Ever Global Hip-Hop Day.” HuffPost, HuffPost, 5 June 2017,


The Evolution of Music Technology

The theme of this collection is music and technology and specifically the evolution of music technology. This collection will address the different ways in which popular music in America has been dispersed/listened to over the course of time. This collection will include images, videos and audio. 



Barnicle, S. (1997). Music Technology. Music Educators Journal,84(3), 9-9. Retrieved from

Herzog, K. (2019, February 15). 24 Inventions That Changed Music. Retrieved from
Starr, L., & Waterman, C. (2009). American Popular Music; from Minstrelsy to MP3 Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. xii 498 pp [Abstract]. Popular Music,28(1), 124-125. doi:10.1017/s0261143008001694
Timeline of music technology. (2019, February 24). Retrieved from

Content Sources

"Microphone." (2019). Microphone. Retrieved from
Invention. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Sommerfeld, K. (2018, November 28). History of the Cassette Tape. Retrieved from
Take a Quick Trip Through The History of Sheet Music - A Fun Infographic. (2016, September 09). Retrieved from
Us, H. Q. (n.d.). History of the Radio:. Retrieved from

Amanda Leslie


This collection is about the moon, a little brother of the earth, reflecting the light from the sun and lighting up the night.

Mark Wang

Breaking Barriers: The Locomotive

This collection includes objects and resources related to transportation in the 19th century. The locomotive train broke barriers on transportation in the early 1800s. Travel was suddenly much faster than it used to be - the trip from New York to Boston, which by carriage would have been a day and a half, with the train was now less than a day. This allowed for easier travel not only of people, but of supplies such as food and raw goods, which helped in turn spur industry in the 19th century. Additional resources on this topic can be found by visiting the National Museum of American History's online exhibitions at and History Explorer at

Each National History Day collection from the National Museum of American History includes selected resources to support NHD projects under the 2020 theme - Breaking Barriers. This collection is by no means comprehensive, but should be used as a place of inspiration for new projects or source of additional information for ones already in the works. For grades 9-12.

#NHD2020 #NHD

National Museum of American History

Breaking Barriers: Navajo Code Talkers (NHD @ National Museum of American History)

This collection includes objects and resources related to the Navajo Code Talkers who served in World War Two. Navajo Code Talkers challenged racist stereotypes and used their unique cultural heritage to fortify the American war effort. Additional resources can be found by visiting the National Museum of American History's online exhibitions at and History Explorer at

Each National History Day collection from the National Museum of American History includes selected resources to support NHD projects under the 2020 theme - Breaking Barriers. #NHD2020. This collection is by no means comprehensive, but should be used as a place of inspiration for new projects or source of additional information for ones already in the works. 


National Museum of American History


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Cat's Cradle (Kurt Vonnegut)

Annette Spahr

Conflict, Identity, and Place in American Art (2019)

This collection contains a selection of artworks related to the themes of conflict, identity, and place.  Teachers can use these artworks for a variety of purposes; here, we use them as a catalyst for discussion, with an extended version of Project Zero's See, Think, Wonder thinking routine.  In small groups or as a classroom, have students select one artwork they find meaningful or interesting and discuss the following:

  1. Why did you pick this artwork?  
  2. What do you see?  Name specific aspects of the artwork you notice.
  3. What do you think about what you see?
  4. What does this artwork make you wonder
  5. Optional: How might the artwork connect to the themes of conflict, identity, and place?

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection contains artwork selected by Phoebe Hillemann, Teacher Institutes Educator at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, featured in the 2019 Smithsonian American Art Museum Summer Institute for Teachers, "Teaching the Humanities through Art."  

These artworks serve as foundational museum resources in lesson concepts that are accessible by searching the Smithsonian Learning Lab with the hashtag: #SAAMTeach.

Ashley Naranjo

World Architecture


Shannon S

Teaching The Great Gatsby with Informational Texts


This collection complements teaching The Great Gatsby using the lens of economics. Informational texts provide foundation for questions like: why should we care about economic inequality?

Cristi Marchetti



Cristi Marchetti

A Right to the City

These items are housed in the Smithsonian Anacostia Community Museum and appear in the exhibit A Right to the City curated by Samir Meghelli.

"The history of Washington neighborhoods reveals the struggles of DC residents to control—or even participate in—decisions affecting where and how they live. Prior to passage of Home Rule in the 1970s, Congressmen, private developers, appointed members of the local government, and even sitting Presidents decided the course of the city’s development, often with little or no input from residents.  

In the mid-twentieth century, massive federal “urban renewal” projects, school desegregation, and major highways, both proposed and built, spurred civic engagement, protest, alternative proposals for development, and a push for self-government. By 1968, “White man’s roads through black man’s homes” became a rallying cry, pointing to the racism that afflicted the urban and suburban planning of the era.  

A Right to the City highlights episodes in the history of six neighborhoods across the city, telling the story of how ordinary Washingtonians have helped shape and reshape their neighborhoods in extraordinary ways: through the fight for quality public education, for healthy and green communities, for equitable development and transit, and for a genuinely democratic approach to city planning."

Kathy Carroll

MYSELF and My World: A Trip in My Community

Talk with Me!

Having conversations with young children contributes to their thinking and language development. All conversations are good, but research shows that the quality of words children hear matters more than the quantity. Further, what’s best is an exchange; in other words, talk with children, not at them.

The Talk with Me Toolkits give parents and caregivers thematically organized high-quality, authentic materials to make children their conversational partners in discussions that matter.  These collections feature captivating real-world photographs as well as intriguing paintings and other artworks to observe and discuss. Hands-on activities and books complete each collection. Simple instructions appear right in the collections, so you can jump right in. See what interests your child and get started. There’s a lot to talk about!

To read more, see, from the Harvard Graduate School of Education’s Usable Knowledge site, The Brain-Changing Power of Conversation.

Talk With Me Toolkit

Exploring identity - Japan and the Western culture

Using "See, Think, Wonder" and "Parts, Perspective, me", this collection explores how cultural shock influences the way artists see themselves or are perceived by others. The careful analysis of 100 Pounds of Rice by the artist Saeri Kiritani provides an opportunity for students to reflect on the similarities and differences with the novel Fear and Trembling by the Belgian author Amelie Nothomb. It also invites students to reflect on their own cultural identity.

Time- 1 or 2 class periods with optional homework and extension activities

Guiding Questions:

  • How do art and literature shape our understanding of cultures?
  • What kind of knowledge about a literary text and about art do we gain when we compare and contrast them?
  • How does language in art and literature represent cultural distinctions and identities?


In Fear and trembling, Amélie, who is the main character of this autobiographical novel, shares her struggles as a foreign employee in a big Japanese corporation where she is confronted with Japanese protocols and habits that are culturally new to her. In her story, Japanese culture is exposed through a foreign perspective. The aim of the collection is to bring a different perspective to our study, these of a Japanese women living in the US, in order to build a better intercultural understanding of the Japanese culture.

Prior knowledge:

Students have read the novel Fear and Trembling and analysed the way Western and Japanese cultures are perceived by the different characters. They have explored how the autobiographical novel offers insights on the Japanese workplace culture and reflected on its limitations (a single story embedded in fiction). This teaching unit can be done without the comparative component of literature. It can also be adapted to any other literary work that explores the topic of identity. 

Day 1:

Step 1: Have them do "See, Think, Wonder"individually with 100 Pounds of Rice by Saeri Kiritani. Do not show the caption to students yet. The "See, Think, Wonder" routine is good to help students pay attention to details and unveil the artist's choices. It also encourages them to initiate a first interpretation.

Step 2: Debrief as a whole group- Discuss the self portrait of  Saeri Kiritani. 

Step 3: Show the Saeri Kiritani 's youtube video

Once students have discussed the sculpture, show them the video and ask them to take notes on the new information the artist provides.

Next, go back and look at the sculpture and see how their understanding has shifted from their initial interpretation.

Step 4: Read the caption

Have students read the caption and answer the questions of the Design Thinking routine "Parts, Perspectives, Me". The routine encourages students to consider the various viewpoints of an object, its users, and stakeholders, and reflect on their own connections and involvement with it. It helps them connect with the perspectives taken in the novel as they are complementary, yet different. It also lead them to reflect on their own identity and prepares them for possible extensions to the activity. 

Step 5: Debrief the questions as a group

Day 2 or Homework

Step 6: Have them write an individual synthesis:

  • What did I learn about Saeri Kiritani self-portrait? Fear and trembling? Me?
  • How do Saeri Kiritani and Amelie Nothomb express how they experience cultural differences?
  • What are the similarity and differences between them? How does it impact your understanding?

Step 7: Debrief in pair or small group, then as a whole group


Creative project: 

Step 1 - Once they have completed these activities, ask them:

  • What material or fabric would better represent who you are? Why?
  • What part of you would better represent who you are? Why?

Step 2 - Debrief in group - reflect on the idea of cultural stereotypes: what role do cultural stereotypes play in the construction of self-identity? To what extent do cultural stereotypes limit or facilitate self-identification? Identification of others?

Step 3 - Have them sculpt their self-representation with the material of their choice.

Step 4 - Exhibition and presentation of the creative process.

Anne Leflot

How Does Daily Life Inform the Creation of Music?

The National Association for Music Education Connect #11 standard asks students to consider how the experiences of a composer might be heard in a composition. In other words: How can music, without lyrics, be autobiographical? A famous example is Beethoven's Symphony No. 6, or Pastoral. Beethoven drew inspiration from long walks in the countryside. In the Pastoral, he sought to describe that inspiration, and even titled the movements as if they were chapters in a book: 1) Cheerful Feelings on Arrival in the Countryside,” 2) “Scene by the Brook,” 3) Merry Gathering of Country Folk,” 4) Thunder, Storm,” and 5) Shepherd’s Song After the Storm.” You can hear all by following the links.  The movements are represented below by five Smithsonian artworks. Students might match the pictures to the movements, or might choose their own pictures on this site. For info on these, click the pictures or the text box to the right of the rightmost picture.

Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access

Women of Japan

Time- 2 class periods


Using the Project Zero Design Thinking routines  "Parts, People, Interaction", this activity provides an understanding of the system of gender power at stake in the representation of Chapter 34 of Tales of Genji - Kashiwagi catches sight of the third Princess.  It then looks at a modernization of the illustrations and offers a reflection on what the new feminine contemporary perspective brings to the interpretation of the Third princess story. 

In exploring the representations of the tales of Genji, students have the opportunity to discover tales that have become a standard for Japanese culture. They look at the first known literature piece written by a woman, who shares a rare and intimate perspective of a woman on a world governed by men.  Students compare the representation of the tales from the XVIth century with one from the XXth century to identify in what ways they have been interpreted.

Day 1:

Step 1: Have students sketch The tale of Genji, chapter 34; Kashiwagi catches sight of the third Princess

Step 2: Debrief as a whole group

Discuss what the students have noticed.  Do not show the caption to the students yet. The observational drawing is good to help students pay attention to details and unveil the artist's choices. It also encourages them to initiate a first interpretation.

Step 3: Parts, People, Interaction

Once students have discussed the painting, guide them through the routine "Parts, People, Interaction". 

"This thinking routine helps students slow down and look closely at a system ( here the system of gender power.) In doing so, young people are able to situate objects within systems and recognize the various people who participate—either directly or indirectly—within a particular system. 

Students also notice that a change in one aspect of the system may have both intended and unintended effects on another aspect of the system. When considering the parts, people, and interactions within a system, young people begin to notice the multitude of subsystems within systems. 

This thinking routine helps stimulate curiosity, raises questions, surfaces areas for further inquiry, and introduces systems thinking." (PZ)

Step 4: Read the PDF "More about Chapter 34" and go back to the questions 

Have students read the caption, go back and look at the painting and ask them to take notes on how their understanding has shifted from their initial interpretation.

Step 5: Debrief the "Parts, People and Interaction" routine as a whole group:

During the discussion, here are some specific question students may want to address:  

  • What does the illustration of Chapter 34, Kashiwagi catches sight of the third Princess says about the system of power gender in place at the Japanese court in the XIth century? 
  • To what extent the architecture in the painting play a role in facilitating the superiority of men? 
  • How does the system in place impact relationship between men and women?

Day 2:

Step 1: "See, Think, Wonder" - The third princess with her pet cat, Yamato Maki, 1987

Have them do a quick "See, Think, Wonder" to encourages them to reactivate prior knowledge, pay attention to details and reflect on the effects of the modernization of the illustration of The tales of Genji though manga. Identify the audience and the context of the illustration.

Step 2: Read the caption as a group - notice what is important.

Step 3: "Layers"

This routine will encourage students to refine their first analysis of the illustration by looking at it through different angles (Aesthetic, Mechanical, Connections, Narrative, Dynamic). It will allow them to draw upon their prior knowledge and consider the impact of modernization of art on the public. 

Students can work in small group and cover between 3 and 5 of the categories.

Step 4: Each group of students present their learning to the class 

Anne Leflot

Harlem Renaissance: Style and Subject

This collection is meant to be used as an introductory activity to the novel Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston. Specifically, it focuses on the different styles employed by artist Aaron Douglas, most notably in his Scottsboro Boys portrait and in his 1925 self-portrait. In doing so, it asks students to consider when and why an artist who is more than capable of creating within the boundaries of classically beautiful art or writing might chose to create in this style at some times and at other times to create in more radical or avante-garde styles. It uses a Compare and Contrast looking technique before revealing to students that all four distinct pieces are created by the same artist. 

Ideally, teachers can end the unit by facilitating discussion of the social change Douglas aims for with his Scottsboro portrait and of the bridge that Hurston creates with her prose narrator before launching into the dialect of her characters that earned her such scorn from the African American community of her era.

This collection was created in conjunction with the National Portrait Gallery's 2019 Learning to Look Summer Teacher Institute.


Lindsay Van Loon

Gilded Age Industrialists v. The Founding Fathers Portrait Battle (and Analysis)


This collection/lesson is designed to compare and evaluate portraiture of Gilded Age Industrialists and of the Founding Fathers. Students will explore different mediums of portraiture and attempt to place these examples of artwork into the legacy that Gilded Age Industrialists hoped to create for themselves. This lesson plan involves close analysis of specific portraits of Andrew Carnegie, a sorting activity, a Google Doc graphic organizer to help students inquire information, and some overarching discussion and analysis questions to help foster class discourse. Each of the sources used in this collection are owned by the National Portrait Gallery, and many - as of 6/27/19 - are currently on display.  Some questions to consider as you and/or your students peruse this collection: What does it mean to have a legacy? How are portraiture and legacy connected or related to each other? Why, in an era when photography is en vogue, would an individual choose to have a painting done of them? What would you want a portrait of you to look like?

Lesson Overview: (See Collection or the link below for Full Google Doc Lesson Plan)

CLASS (SUBJECT & LEVEL): High School American History - for an 80 minute block


  • Students will closely analyze Gilded Age industrialist portraits in both painting and photograph formats, attempting to understand the legacy that these leaders were trying to create for themselves in the future.
  • Students will compare and contrast portrayals of Gilded Age industrialists and the Founding Fathers.
  • Students will argue different ideas about portraiture in U.S. History and reach their own conclusions.

CONTENT:  Gilded Age Industrialists, Founding Fathers, Portraits and Photos, Source Analysis

This collection was created in conjunction with the National Portrait Gallery's 2019 Learning to Look Summer Teacher Institute.


Tyler Hanson
5161-5184 of 5,999 Collections