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Design Talk: Designing a Better America with Deanna Van Buren

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Talk by Deanna Van Buren, architect and coordinator of the Designing Justice + Designing Spaces project. This talk is a part of Autodesk’s Design Night. Designing Justice+Designing Spaces facilitates the design of more restorative and healing criminal-justice environments through community engagement in jails and prisons. An alternative to the current punitive-justice system—the United States has the world’s highest prison population—restorative justice seeks to rehabilitate by holding offenders accountable for their actions while helping them understand their victims’ experience. Designing from the Inside Out workshops invite incarcerated people, students, and professionals to envision new types of justice environments using a toolkit of interviews, diagrams, visual diaries, models, collages, and drawings.

Screen Design: "Radio Active Guard House"

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Four panel screen on wheels. At left a green panel with bunny head cut out and topped by red dome with red poles on either side is attached, at right, to metal screen with red rectangle in middle. The metal screen is attached at right to two sides of guard house: one is blue with glass panel in middle; other is yellow with window in middle. In left and right margins, graphite diagrams of assembly details.

Design for Snap-Together Lounge Chair

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Design for plastic, snap-together lounge chair for Union Carbide. At center left, rear perspective shows armless, lounge-style chair supported by frame consisting of slender rods and fortified by stretchers with buttresses. Parabolic seat comprised of horizontal elements. At lower right, diagram possibly for another design (1988-101-1534) describing how “poly” element inserts into frame; upper right detail of seat surface possibly for the same. Stapled to additional designs.

Screen Design: "Radio Active Guard House," Reverse Side

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Four panel screen on wheels. Two left panels form a gray and brown guard house with red roof, which is attached at right to black metal gate with red "danger" sign. This panel is attached at right to black panel with bunny head and stepped cut outs topped by red dome with red poles on either side. Small assembly diagrams in left, upper and lower margins.

Les Plans (The Designs), plate 100, in Elements d'Orfevrerie (Elements of Goldsmithing), Second Part

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Diagram of designs in outline of all metalwork.

Design for a Bed in the Polish Style

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Canopy bed seen from the end with upholstered footboard with an oval panel at center. Canopy dome is decorated with three clusters of feathers. Hangings are caught at either side with rosettes. At left and at right diagram of construction of bed. Scale below: 4 pied.

Chair designs

Archives of American Art
Diagram : 1 p. : handwritten, ill. ; 28 x 22 cm.

Bailey Boiler Meter - 1914

National Museum of American History
Ervin G. Bailey of Boston invented the type of meter shown here for the purpose of allowing hand-fired boilers to be efficiently and properly fired. His design allowed the simultaneous recording of airflow and steam flow in the boiler as a function of time. The efficient and economical operation of a boiler requires that a particular relationship be maintained between the amount of air being supplied for combustion and the amount of steam being produced. The meter shown, Serial Number 75, was one of the first that Bailey produced commercially.

The meter has a 12 inch chart face which is driven by clockwork. Three pens record data as the chart revolves. The red pen indicates steam flow while the inner blue pen indicates airflow. When the two are close together the boiler is operating at its highest efficiency regardless of the rate of steam generation. The outer blue pen indicates resistance to the flow of combustion air through the fuel bed and can indicate problems with the depth of the fuel on the fire grate and other issues. If the boiler operator keeps that pen within the shaded area on the outer edge of the chart, conditions are satisfactory.

Bailey's design for the boiler meter consists of a complex system of bells suspended over a liquid. The steam and combustion air enter under these bells and cause them to rise and fall as the pressures change. An interconnected system of rods and levers operate the recording pens. His United Stated Patent Number 1,257,965 of March 5, 1918 for a "Relation-Indicator" provides a detailed description of the design. Diagrams showing the complete design of the patent can be found in the patent document online at the United States Patent and Trademark Office website, /

Bailey formed the Bailey Meter Company in 1916. The company was quite successful, becoming Bailey Controls and then Elsag Bailey Process Automation until in 1998 it was merged into ABB.

Aircraft design data. Navy Department, Bureau of Construction and Repair

Smithsonian Libraries
At head of title: Confidential.


"First issued in 1918 as blue-printed notes."--Preface to volume 1, page v.

Also available online.


NASMRB copy of volume 1 (39088002203966) has ink stamp: John J. Ide Collection, R 52 1964. With Ide's autograph on a printed receipt inserted at the front: Copy no. 6.

NASMRB copy of volume 2 (39088004400800) has ink stamps : (on back paste-down endpaper) Gift of Major E. E. Aldrin; (on receipt inserted at front of volume) E. E. Aldrin; copy no. 78; McCook Field Library, Airplane Engineering Department, McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio.

NASMRB copy has the original gilt-stamped black cloth bindings. Each volume has triple-punched holes through the left side of its text-block, and the leaves tied together with a black cloth string.

Diesel Engine Indicator, De Juhasz Design – ca 1938

National Museum of American History
This diesel engine indicator was based on U.S. Patent Number 2,040,082 issued to Kalman John De Juhasz of State College, Pennsylvania on May 12, 1936. An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine. Engine indicators were originally developed for use on steam engines, and Mr. De Juhasz's design is one of many adaptations of steam engine indicator designs for use on diesel engines.

The device consists of a piston within a cylinder as shown on the right in the image. This cylinder is connected to a port in a cylinder of the engine under test, and the indicator's piston rises and falls as the pressure within the engine changes. A spring at the top of the cylinder provides a return force when the pressure in the engine decreases. A stylus is connected via a linkage to the moving piston so that it also rises and falls with pressure changes and records the pressure on a revolving drum with a paper card wrapped around it. This drum is seen to the left of the image. A cord is wrapped around the base of the drum and led via the pulley on the left to be attached to the engine under test so that it causes the drum to turn one revolution each stroke of the engine. A spring on the inside of the drum returns the recording paper to its starting point as the cord is relaxed. The result is a pressure-volume diagram of the engine while in operation, and engineers can measure and adjust the engine's properties under real time varying load conditions.

De Juhasz claimed his design improved over others due to his addition of cooling fins to the piston cylinder, reduction of mass of the piston and stylus, the use of light weight materials such as Bakelite, and a built in lubricator. He was an Assistant Professor of Engineering at Pennsylvania State College and Chief Engineer of a company manufacturing engine indicators.

The indicator is constructed of steel and Bakelite. Diagrams showing the complete design of the patent that it is based upon can be found in the patent document online at the United States Patent and Trademark Office website, /

Bibliothèque de France, Paris: Diagrams and Section

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Schematic section of the French National Library complex facing southeast below with informational diagrams relating to the project above. These diagrams from left to right include the site location in the city of Paris; the urban relationship; the plan and its relationship to public access; the program parts; the public circulation and stack system, and a geometric analysis of the complex.

Model for the "Devil's Coffin" Diagram Relating to Computing the Volume of a Parallelepiped, Ross Solid

National Museum of American History
This wooden model is one in a series illustrating the volume of solids designed by William Wallace Ross, a school superintendent and mathematics teacher in Fremont, Ohio. The incomplete unpainted wooden model has two pieces. One is a cube, the second is part of a parallelepiped with one square face the same size as the cube. A paper label pasted to a square side of both pieces of the model reads: DEVIL’S COFFIN (/) Phillips & Fisher, p. 305 Van Velzer & Shutts, p. 300 (/) Wentworth, p. 303 Wells, p. 278. This is a reference to four American geometry textbooks published between 1894 and 1899. In the course of the 19th century, American geometry textbooks came to be more than reproductions of British works. By the 1890s, several texts discussing solid geometry used a figure demonstrating the volume of a parallelepiped that apparently arose in the United States. In this construction, the volume of an arbitrary parallelepiped is first compared to one constructed having the same altitude and rectangular bases equal in area to those of the original solid. This figure is then compared to a third parallelepiped, this with the same altitude and six rectangular sides. John Farrar, following A.-M. Legendre, proposed such a construction in his Elements of Geometry . By the 1890s, the figure had taken a rather different form. Perhaps because it was difficult imagine from a two dimensional drawing, it was known as “the devil’s coffin.” Ross’s model of the construction had three parts, a parallelepiped with six sides in the shape of equilateral parallelograms, a parallelepiped with two square sides and four rhombic sides, and a cube. The parallelepipeds are dissected. The two models in the Smithsonian collections are the cube and one piece of one of the parallelepipeds. This model is not mentioned in Ross’s original manual for his surface forms and solids. The texts referred were published several times, but show the devil’s coffin construction on the pages indicated on the model on editions published between 1894 and 1899. Hence the date of about 1900 assigned to the model. References: A.-M. Legendre, Éléments de géométrie, avec des notes, Paris: Didot, 1794, pp. 178–184, Plate 8. John Farrar, Elements of geometry, by A. M. Legrendre. Translated from the French for the use of the students at the University at Cambridge, New England, Boston : Hilliard and Metcalf printers, 1819, pp. 134–139, plates IX and X. Thomas Heath, ed., The Thirteen Books of Euclid’s Elements, vol. 3, Book XI, propositions 29 and 30, especially the commentary on Proposition 30, New York: Dover, 1956, esp. pp. 333–336. Andrew Wheeler Phillips and Irving Fisher, Elements of Geometry New York: American Book Company, 1896, p. 305–306. C. A. Van Velzer and George C. Shutts, Plane and Solid Geometry Suggestive Method Madison, WI: Tracy Gibbs, 1894, p. 300. Webster Wells, The Elements of Geometry, rev. ed., Boston: Leach, Shewell and Sanborn, 1894, p. 278. George A. Wentworth, Plane and Solid Geometry, rev. ed., Boston: Ginn, 1899, p. 303.


Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Creped cotton scarf with an abstract geometric design resembling a diagram of a computer chip. In black and white; one side is the negative image of the other.

Designs for Flatware: España Soup/Dessert Spoon

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Photostat of silhouette of spoon; top and side view; diagrams of measurements; notations lower right and throughout.

Designing Media: David Fanning

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
One of 31 video segments featured in 'Designing Media', the new book, DVD and website by Bill Moggridge. More info on 'Designing Media' available at A self-taught filmmaker from South Africa, David came to the United States in 1973 and began producing and directing local and national documentaries for KOCE, a public television station in California. In 1977 he joined WGBH Boston, America's most prolific public broadcasting organization, to start the international documentary series World. He has been executive producer of Frontline since its first season in 1983. In 2007, after 24 seasons and more than 485 films, Frontline remains America's only regularly scheduled investigative documentary series on television. The series has won all of the major awards for broadcast journalism, including the Gold Baton (the highest duPont-Columbia Award) in 1990, 1996, and 2002, for its "total contribution to the world of exceptional television." David is happiest thinking through how best to edit complex narratives, sketching diagrams of how information fits together. He revels in deeply involved reporting of difficult subjects, in trying to explain topics by taking his audiences on journeys and adventures, and in going out into the world with all his senses alert.

Remembering Massimo Vignelli, the Innovator Who Streamlined Design and Changed the Industry Forever

Smithsonian Magazine

From the moment Massimo Vignelli started his career in Italy in the mid-1950s, he forged a rigorous philosophy that transformed the international language of design for print, products, and environments. Over the decades, debates about design’s cultural function bubbled and boiled around him. Confronting the upheavals of Pop, post-modernism, deconstruction, and the digital age, Massimo didn’t change his methodology so much as polish it into an ever sharper, more refined instrument. His ability to stay modern in a post-modern world sealed his reputation as one of the great designers of our time. As his career advanced, Massimo’s work and ideas became more relevant, not less. He remains a towering and untarnished design hero, not only to his peers and to the generation who started their own careers in his offices in the 1960s, 70s, and 80s, but to designers just entering the field now, who view the elegant man in the modernist menswear with almost mystical reverence.

Drawings for Design Vignelli clothing line, 1990. (Massimo Vignelli)

Massimo Vignelli’s career is inseparable from that of his equally gifted wife, Lella Vignelli. The couple married in 1957 and opened their first firm together in Milan in 1960. While both were trained as architects, Lella continued to focus on three-dimensional design, while Massimo focused on graphics. Together, they could move across disciplines with astonishing grace. In 1964 the Vignellis left Italy for New York City, where Massimo co-founded Unimark International. Specializing in corporate identity—a field encompassing print, signage, interiors, and wayfinding—Unimark quickly expanded to become one of the world’s largest design firms. In its early years, Unimark required employees to wear white lab coats—an idea hatched by Massimo, who had a keen interest in enhancing the dignity of design professionals. In 1992, Massimo and Lella would launch their own functional clothing line (Design Vignelli), which offered a universal solution to the problem of men’s and women’s fashion, with its extra parts and ever-changing silhouettes. Although the Vignellis’ priest-like garbs didn’t find a broad market, they became part of the couples’ signature personal style.

Poster, "Designer's Saturday, 1973", 1973 Offset lithograph on white wove paper. (Collection Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum. Gift of Lella and Massimo Vignelli. 2009-42-2.)

Massimo left Unimark in 1971 to co-found Vignelli Associates with Lella. The Vignellis’ work shaped New York City in profound ways. Massimo designed numerous posters, journals, and books for architects and architectural associations—indeed, a certain era of New York architecture speaks the language of Vignelli, using forthright Helvetica, upright Bodoni, warm, approachable Century Expanded, and gridded layouts articulated with horizontal bars.

Massimo Vignelli, Poster, "A New Wave of Austrian Architecture", 1980 Offset color lithograph on paper. (Collection Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, 1991-69-83.)

Massimo’s modernist innovations sometimes provoked controversy. His 1972 subway diagram for New York City took inspiration from the abstracted transit guides that had been used for decades in London and Tokyo. Emphasizing relationships among subway lines, Massimo’s diagram eliminates extrinsic information and distorts the city’s built geography in favor of revealing connections. Vignelli’s new urban order infuriated some outspoken New Yorkers, and the MTA replaced the iconic map with clunkier, more conventional graphics in 1979. The wayfinding system he created for the New York subway (with Bob Noorda at Unimark) remains in use today. The simple sans serif numbers and letters enclosed in colored circles helped unify New York’s once competing train lines into a single network. The signs are seen and used by millions of people, generating an unforgettable signifier of the New York experience.

Massimo Vignelli, New York City Subway Map, 1972. (Metropolitan Transportation Authority)

Throughout his career, Massimo raged against typographic excess. In his view, a graphic designer should be able to solve nearly any communication problem with no more than five typefaces. (Later, he loosened his list to a dozen). The industrial revolution had unleashed an unholy cacaphony of fonts, made worse by the information overflow of the twentieth century. This typographic deluge yielded what Massimo called the “biggest visual pollution of all times” (Vignelli Canon). If everyone in the early 90s who called themselves a “desktop publisher” were a doctor, he complained, we would all be dead by now. (This might be true, if you think about it.) Massimo’s appearances in Gary Hustwit’s film Helvetica (2007) are among the movie’s most memorable moments. Chastising those who think that every thought or feeling warrants its own unique typeface, Massimo intoned that you don’t need letters that look or sound like a dog to represent the word “dog.” He liked to compare a great typeface to a musical instrument, which can be used to play any song in the hands of a skilled designer; Helvetica is “just like a piano, the more you play it, the more you learn how to play it and the better player you become."

Cooper-Hewitt bestowed the National Design Award for Lifetime Achievement on Massimo and Lella Vignelli in 2003. We are  proud to include many works by the Vignellis in our permanent collections and library. In 2012, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) established the Vignelli Center for Design Studies, which houses an extensive archive of the couple’s work and holds public exhibitions and programs. Massimo always believed in the value of design history. He was a supporter of museums and their role in education and preservation. He was a great friend to this museum. We will miss him with all our hearts.

Ellen Lupton is a senior curator of contemporary design at the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum in New York City, as well as the director of the Maryland Institute College of Art's Graphic Design MFA Program in Baltimore.

Parts, Perspectives, and Me: Project Zero Agency by Design Thinking Routine

SI Center for Learning and Digital Access
A Project Zero “Agency by Design” thinking routine for exploring the complexity of objects and systems. This routine encourages students to look closely at details to consider personal and external perspectives. After students identify an object system to consider, students answer: “What are its parts?”, “What perspectives can you look at it from?”, and “How are you involved?”


A routine for exploring the complexity of objects and systems

Choose an object or system and ask:

1. What are its parts? (What are its various pieces or components?)

2. What perspectives can you look at it from? (Different users, makers or different physical perspectives)

3. How are you involved? (What connections do you have? What assumptions, interests, or personal circumstances shape the way you see it?)

Purpose: What kind of thinking does this routine encourage?

The routine helps students explore complexity by encouraging them to look closely at the details of something, considering its various viewpoints, users, and stakeholders, and reflecting on their own connections and involvement with it.

Application: When and where can it be used?

This routine can be used to explore virtually any object or system. It works particularly well with objects that have many parts–and can be taken apart—as well systems that have various roles and users connected to them (e.g., systems involved in managing or providing resources, social systems, organizational systems, transportation systems, or governance systems).

Launch: What are some tips for starting and using this routine?

The three elements of this routine can be introduced all at once, but each of the steps encourages a different kind of thinking, so it is helpful to distinguish the steps from one another and to give each step time to unfold. For the “parts” step, give students plenty of time to look at or otherwise experience the topic in detail. If the object is physically present, students can sketch it or make a diagram. If appropriate, they can take it apart (taking things apart—from doorknobs to old household appliances to toys—is a particularly powerful way to look closely at the parts of something). For the “perspectives” step, encourage students to imagine different physical viewpoints if appropriate (e.g., by zooming in, zooming out, or taking a bird’s-eye view). Encourage them to think broadly about how different people interact with or are connected to the object or system: who is involved in making it, who is affected by it, who cares about it? When possible, encourage students to gather information about other perspectives, for example by interviewing people or doing research. For the “How are you involved?’’ step, encourage students to consider the different ways the object or system touches their lives or the lives of people they know. Encourage them to consider any feelings, assumptions, connections, beliefs, attitudes, or associations they have with it. As with the other routines that begin with the naming of parts, students can make their thinking visible by creating lists, sketches, and diagrams.

He Designed the Sydney Opera House...But Wasn't Even Invited to its Opening

Smithsonian Magazine

The Sydney Opera House’s curving, nested design, evocative of eggshells, bird wings or sails, has earned it a spot as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Since the vision of architect Jørn Utzon had a lot to do with the final work, it seems he would be toasted triumphantly at the opera house’s opening. But Utzon wasn’t invited and apparently never saw the finished project at all, reports Jamie Wiebe for Mental Floss

Utzon’s story is that of promise crippled by inexperience — or, depending on how the story is told, a city’s failure to support genius. He was an unknown, but legend has it that the diagram of his design was found in the rejection pile by Eero Saarinen, a renowned architect and designer who judged the Sydney's international design competition in 1956, writes Thomas De Monchaux in Architect Magazine

Utzon was likable, but had some habits that made working with him difficult, reports Elizabeth Farrelly for The Sydney Morning Herald. He took "long, idyllic holidays at crucial junctures," was reluctant to ask for help, didn’t have a plan for how to support the weight of his design before construction started and took on other projects while the opera house construction dragged on. 

On the flip side, the project faced delays and hefty opposition. Wiebe writes that a long-time critic of the project, Robert Askin, ended up as Premier of New South Wales, the state that contains Sydney. His Minister for Public Works, Davis Hughes, "questioned every decision, schedule, and cost, and eventually stopped paying Utzon." Utzon left in 1966 (actually, he climbed over a back wall after submitting his resignation to avoid the press). The government owed him $100,000, and the project ended up 1457 percent over budget

At the 1973 opening ceremony, Utzon’s name wasn’t even mentioned. He was banned from the Danish Architects Association, which insisted that the client is always right. He never returned to Australia.

Fortunately, things started to turn around at the end of Utzon’s life. He earned the Pritzker Architecture Prize for the design in 2003 and the opera house re-named the reception room the Utzon Room in 2004. Apparently, that’s how long it takes for a project's iconic importance to outshine resentment about its creator.

Smith's illustrated astronomy : designed for the use of the public or common schools in the United States ; illustrated with numerous original diagrams / by Asa Smith ..

Smithsonian Libraries
Printed illustrated paper cover.

Also available online.

Numerous clippings on astronomical subjects pasted inside front cover and on frontispiece.

Typed on Burndy bookplate: Gift of Robert Futterman.


3c Washington Dr. Carroll Chase diagrammatic chart

National Postal Museum
Diagramatic chart for the U. S. 1851-1861 3-cent George Washington Issue; identifies the various parts of the design.

This diagram is hand drawn by noted philatelic scholar Dr. Carroll Chase and donated by him in his volume of the

3c George Washington 1851 color and plate study.

Herbert Bayer, Master of the Universe

Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum
Image features a brochure with a diagram of the overall menstrual cycle on the front cover in pink, red, yellow, white, and black against a black background. White numbers representing days of the month are arranged in a circle, and different types of moons appear in white in the four corners. Please scroll down to read the blog post about this object.Herbert Bayer is known for his work as a student and teacher at the Bauhaus, the famous German art school that integrated art, design, and daily life. During Bayer’s formative years at the Bauhaus (1921–1928), he helped create the modern discipline of graphic design by using photography, type, and geometric systems to promote products and...

Film Ribbon

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Unfolded box, imprinted in black (recto), blue (sides), and white (verso). Entire page of recto is imprinted in green, pink, and blue, repeating in three rows of four logos each: IBM. Verso: imprinted in black, lower right quadrant: To remove used ribbon:/ 1 Pull Load Lever to Load position (against red stop)./ 2 Using both hands, grasp Ribbon Cartridge at front ends/ and lift straight up (see diagram); a space and then beneath: To install new ribbon:/ 1 Make sure the Load Lever is in Load Position./ 2 Drape uninked ribbon over the Guide Post and both/ Ribbon Guides/ 3 Position Ribbon Cartridge between Spring Clips, then press down on both ends of the Cartridge./ 4 Thread uninked ribbon through both Ribbon Guides./ 5 Turn knob on the Cartridge in the direction of arrow/ until inked portion of the ribbon is past the/ right Ribbon Guide./ 6 Move the Load Lever to Type position; imprinted in black around the diagram to the left starting in upper left corner and going clockwise: left Ribbon/ Guide/ right Ribbon/ Guide/ Spring Clip/ grasp ends/ then lift/ Load Lever/ Type/ Load/ Red Stop/ grasp ends/ then lift/ Spring Clip/ Guide/ Post; left side, imprinted in black on blue, written vertically: Open other end.

The first six books of the elements of Euclid, in which coloured diagrams and symbols are used instead of letters for the greater ease of learners by Oliver Byrne, surveyor of her Majesty's settlements in the Falkland Islands and author of numberous mathematical works

Smithsonian Libraries

Color title vignette illustrates Pythagora's Theorem

Presents Euclid's proofs using color pictures

Errata: page xxix

Text illustrated with geometric diagrams printed from woodblocks in red, blue, ochre, and black; four-line ornamental white woodcut initials on black criblé background, probably made for this edition by Mary Byfield, a Chiswick Press wood-engraver

Keynes, G. William Pickering, page 37, 65

McLean, R. Victorian book design and colour printing, page 53 (plate), 70

Printing and the mind of man (2nd edition), part 2, numbers 150

Also available online

Also available online.


SCDIRB copy (39088000863027) has bookplate: Burndy Library, gift of Bern Dibner

SCDIRB copy has pencilled inscription on 2nd front free endpaper: Frederick W. Roberton, on his fifteenth birthday, from his father, March 4, 1891

SCDIRB copy half bound in brown leathers, gilt rules on covers, title in gilt on spine, marbled endpapers

"Byrne ... considered that it might be easier to learn geometry if colors were substituted for the letters usually used to designate the angles and lines of geometric figures. Instead of referring to, say, 'angle ABC,' Byrne's text substituted a blue or yellow or red section equivalent to similarly colored sections in the theorem's main diagram."--Friedman

"Each proposition is set in Caslon italic, with a four line initial engraved on wood by Mary Byfield: the rest of the page is a unique riot of red, yellow and blue: on same pages letters and numbers only are printed in colour, sprinkled over the page like tiny wild flowers, demanding the most meticulous register: elsewhere, solid squares, triangles, and circles are printed in gaudy and theatrical colours, attaining a verve not seen again on book pages till the days of Dufy, Matisse and Derain."--McLean, Victorian book design and colour printing
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