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“Why is The Moon Always Shining”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song "Why Is the Moon Always Shining (When I Want to Love My Girl)" was written and composed by Mary E. Flynn, Stephen St. John and Frank Davis. The music was published by the Schenectady Music Publication Company of Schenectady, New York in 1922. The cover contains an illustration of a couple in a blue night canoodling under the moonlight of a winking moon. The cover also features a photograph of the Zita Orchestra on the bottom right, who “featured” the song in Albany, New York.

“Why Dost Thou Not Love Me?”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the English version of the song, “Why Dost Thou Not Love Me?” was created by A. W. Tams and the music was revised and arranged by Louis Raymond. The sheet music was first published by William A. Pond and Co. in 1900. The music appeared as a supplement to New York Herald, on June 14, 1903. The cover features an illustration of a man who has dismounted from his horse and cast down his hat and riding crop. His arms are outstretched towards a spectral vision of his lady love in a tree.

“White Christmas”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “White Christmas” from the film Holiday Inn. Irving Berlin wrote and composed the song, and Irving Berlin Inc. published this sheet music in 1942. The cover has several different still photographs from the film, which starred Bing Crosby, Fred Astaire, Marjorie Reynolds, and Virginia Dale.

“Whistling Rufus”

National Museum of American History
The sheet music for the song “Whistling Rufus” was written and composed by Kerry Mills and published by F. A. Mills of New York, New York in 1899. The cover depicts whistling Rufus playing a guitar, and the lyrics call him “A great musician with a high position/ was whistling Rufus, the one-band man.” The cover shows well-dressed African-Americans dancing in the background, and Rufus seems to be playing at one of the cakewalks that would soon became famous across America.

“Whispering”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Whispering.” The lyrics were written by Malvin Schonberger and the music was composed by John Schonberger. The music was published by Sherman, Clay & Co of San Francisco, California in 1920. The cover features an illustration of a man and a woman, with the woman fanning herself and the man leaning in to whisper something in her ear.

“Where the Honey Suckles Grow”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song “Where the Honey Suckles Grow” was written and composed by Arthur S. Josselyn and published by Otto Sutro of Baltimore, Maryland in 1884. The song was published “to Messrs. Primrose and West, of Thatcher, Primrose, and West’s Minstrels.” George Primrose and William West were originally a blackface song and dance team before turning into owners of a high-class minstrel troupe. George Thatcher was a troupe member who eventually became a partner and later had his own troupe.

“Where the Bamboo Babies Grow”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Where the Bamboo Babies Grow.” The song’s lyrics were written by Lew Brown and the music was composed by Walter Donaldson. The sheet music was published by Shapiro, Bernstein & Co. of New York, New York in 1922. The blue and grey cover features an illustration of an enthusiastic sailor, with an inset image of two women wearing floral wreaths on their head standing in tall bamboo. The illustration is signed “Wohlman.”

“Where My Caravan Has Rested”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Where My Caravan Has Rested.” Edward Teschemacher wrote the lyrics to the song and Hermann Löhr composed the music. Chappell & Company Ltd. published this sheet music in 1913.

“Where Do We Go from Here”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Where Do We Go from Here,” which was written and composed by Howard Johnson and Percy Wenrich. The song was published by Leo Feist Inc. of New York, New York in 1917. The colorful cover features an illustration of a soldier ripping through a page, while the action of World War I occurs behind him, and there is an inset photograph of the singer Al Herman on the lower left of the cover.

“When the Sunshine in Your Heart Turns Night Time Into Day”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song "When the Sunshine in Your Heart Turns Night-Time into Day" was written by Arthur Longbrake and composed by A. Jackson Peabody. The music was published by the Jos. Morris Co. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1906. The cover is plain white with black text.

“When the Angelus Is Ringing”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “When the Angelus Is Ringing” that was written and composed by Joe Young and Bert Grant. The Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Company of New York City published this sheet music in 1914. The cover features an illustration of a man and woman sitting on a wicker bench on a veranda overlooking a sunset. There is an inset photograph of Clifton Lyons on the lower left of the cover, who would have featured and performed the song during vaudeville shows.

“When We Get There”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “When We Get There.” The song’s lyrics were written by Billy Frish and Leo Fagan, and the music was composed by Alex Marr. The sheet music was published by the Joe Morris Music Company in 1917. There is an illustration of several battleships and smaller boats filled with men crossing an ocean on the left side of the cover, and an illustration of soldiers marching in file on the right side of the cover. There is a central photograph of the performing duo of Curtis and Rubell on the cover, and the illustration is signed “Starmer.”

“When I Marry You”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “When I Marry You” that had lyrics written by Alfred Bryan and music composed by Albert Gumble. Jerome H. Remick & Company of New York City published the sheet music in 1908. The cover features a central illustration of a hooded woman, and illustrator André De Takacs signed the cover “De Takacs.” There is an inset photograph of Cheridah Simpson in the lower right of the cover, who would have featured the song in her performances.

“When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth”

Smithsonian Insider

A banner declares “When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth” in the visitor center featured in the film Jurassic Park. One of the highest-grossing movies of all […]

The post “When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth” appeared first on Smithsonian Insider.

“When Day Is Done”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “When Day Is Done” that had lyrics written by Buddy G. DeSylva and music composed by Dr. Robert Katscher. The sheet music was published by Harms Incorporated in New York, New York in 1924. The plain white cover features a black text for the title and credits.

“Whatever the Hue of Your Eyes”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Whatever the Hue of Your Eyes” that was written by Harry B. Smith and composed by William Marion Cook. The sheet music was published by Joseph W. Stern & Company in 1900. The cover features an illustration of a woman riding a donkey across sand with pyramids in the background, and an inset photo of Virginia Earle. The song came from the show “The Casino Girl,” which starred Virginia Earle.

“What's the Matter with Father”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “What's the Matter with Father,” that was written and composed by Harry Williams and Egbert Van Alstyne. Jerome H. Remick & Company of New York, New York published this sheet music in 1910. The blue cover has an illustration of a smiling older man, signed by “Starmer” in the lower right. There is a small inset photograph of Williams and Van Alstyne below the illustration, with a larger inset photograph of an unidentified actress on the right of the cover.

“What Are You Going to Do to Help the Boys”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “What Are You Going to Do to Help the Boys.”The song’s lyrics were written by Gus Kahn and the music was composed by Egbert Van Alstyne. The sheet music was published by Jerome H. Remick & Co. of New York City in 1918. The blue cover features a large question mark in the center with an illustration of Uncle Sam inside, looking down at a pile of war bonds. The song says that if you are too young or too old to fight in the war, “the least you can do is buy a Liberty Bond or two.”

“Werner’s Musical Recitations”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music of “Werner’s Musical Recitations” was a collection of songs by various artists that was published by Werner Publishing of New York, New York in 1900. Publishers would often sell these compilations of sheet music after the music’s first publication as a discount option for consumers.

“Weary River”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “Weary River” that was written by Grant Clarke and composed by Louis Silvers. The music was published by Irving Berlin, Inc. of New York City in 1929. The orange cover had an inset photograph of Richard Barthelmess. Barthelmess performed the song “Weary River” in a movie of the same name, using Vitaphone technology to record the sound for the film.

“Weak Lensing” Helps Astronomers Map the Mass of the Universe

Smithsonian Magazine

In ordinary visible light, this cluster of galaxies doesn’t look like much. There are bigger clusters with larger and more dramatic-looking galaxies in them. But there’s more to this image than galaxies, even in visible light. The gravity from the cluster magnifies and distorts light passing near it, and mapping that distortion reveals something about a substance ordinarily hidden from us: dark matter.

This collection of galaxies is famously called the “Bullet Cluster,” and the dark matter inside it was detected through a method called “weak gravitational lensing.” By tracking distortions in light as it passes through the cluster, astronomers can create a sort of topographical map of the mass in the cluster, where the “hills” are places of strong gravity and “valleys” are places of weak gravity. The reason dark matter—the mysterious substance that makes up most of the mass in the universe—is so hard to study is because it doesn’t emit or absorb light. But it does have gravity, and thus it shows up in a topographical map of this kind.

The Bullet Cluster is one of the best places to see the effects of dark matter, but it’s only one object. Much of the real power of weak gravitational lensing involves looking at thousands or millions of galaxies covering large patches of the sky.

To do that, we need big telescopes capable of mapping the cosmos in detail. One of these is the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which is under construction in Chile, and should begin operations in 2022 and run until 2032. It’s an ambitious project that will ultimately create a topographical map of the universe.

“[LSST] is going to observe roughly half of the sky over a ten-year period,” says LSST deputy director Beth Willman. The observatory has “a broad range of science goals, from dark energy and weak [gravitational] lensing, to studying the solar system, to studying the Milky Way, to studying how the night sky changes with time.”

Artist’s rendering of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, currently under construction in Chile (Michael Mullen Design, LSST Corporation)

To study the structure of the universe, astronomers employ two basic strategies: going deep, and going wide. The Hubble Space Telescope, for example, is good at going deep: its design lets it look for some of the faintest galaxies in the cosmos. LSST, on the other hand, will go wide.

“The size of the telescope itself isn't remarkable,” says Willman. LSST will be 27 feet in diameter, which puts it in the middle range of existing telescopes. “The unique part of LSST's instrumentation is the field of view of [its] camera that's going to be put on it, which is roughly 40 times the size of the full moon.” By contrast, a normal telescope the same size as LSST would view a patch of the sky less than one-quarter of the moon’s size.

In other words, LSST will combine the kind of big-picture image of the sky you’d get by using a normal digital camera, with the depth of vision provided by a big telescope. The combination will be breathtaking, and it’s all due to the telescope’s unique design.

LSST will employ three large mirrors, where most other large telescopes use two mirrors. (It’s impossible to make lenses as large as astronomers need, so most observatories use mirrors, which can technically be built to any size.) Those mirrors are designed to focus as much light as possible onto the camera, which will be a whopping 63 inches across, with 3.2 billion pixels.

Willman says, “Once it's put together and deployed onto the sky, it will be the largest camera being used for astronomical optical observations.”

While ordinary cameras are designed to recreate the colors and light levels that can be perceived by the human eye, LSST’s camera will “see” five colors. Some of those colors overlap those seen by the retinal cells in our eyes, but they also include light in the infrared and ultraviolet part of the spectrum.

After the Big Bang, the universe was a hot mess—of particles. Soon, that quagmire cooled and expanded to the point where the particles could begin attracting each other, sticking together to form the first stars and galaxies and forming a huge cosmic web. The junctions of which grew into large galaxy clusters, linked by long thin filaments, and separated by mostly-empty voids. At least that’s our best guess, according to computer simulations that show how dark matter should clump together under the pull of gravity.

Weak gravitational lensing turns out to be a really good way to test these simulations. Albert Einstein showed mathematically that gravity affects the path of light, pulling it slightly out of its straight-line motion. In 1919, British astronomer Arthur Eddington and his colleagues successfully measured this effect, in what was the first major triumph for Einstein’s theory of general relativity.

The amount light bends depends on the strength of the gravitational field it encounters, which is governed by the source’s mass, size and shape. In cosmic terms, the sun is small and low in mass, so it nudges light by only a small amount. But galaxies have billions and billions of stars, and galaxy clusters like the Bullet Cluster consist of hundreds or thousands of galaxies, along with plenty of hot plasma and extra dark matter holding them all together and the cumulative affect on light can be quite significant. (Fun fact: Einstein didn’t think lensing would actually be useful, since he only thought of it in terms of stars, not galaxies.)

A dark matter map, created by Japanese astronomers using weak lensing (Satoshi Miyazaki, et al.)

Strong gravitational lensing is produced by very massive objects that take up relatively little space; an object with the same mass but spread out over a larger volume will still deflect light, but not as dramatically. That’s weak gravitational lensing—usually just called “weak lensing”—in essence.

Every direction you look in the universe, you see lots of galaxies. The most distant galaxies may be too faint to see, but we still see some of their light filtering through as background light. When that light reaches a closer galaxy or galaxy cluster on its way to Earth, weak lensing will make that light a little brighter. This is a small effect (that’s why we say “weak”, after all), but astronomers can use it to map the mass in the universe.

The 100 billion or so galaxies in the observable universe provide a lot of opportunities for weak lensing, and that’s where observatories like LSST come in. Unlike most other observatories, LSST will survey large patches of the sky in a set pattern, rather than letting individual astronomers dictate where the telescope points. In this way it resembles the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the pioneering observatory that has been a boon to astronomers for nearly 20 years.

A major goal of projects like SDSS and LSST is a census of the galactic population. How many galaxies are out there, and how massive are they? Are they randomly scattered across the sky, or do they fall into patterns? Are the apparent voids real—that is, places with few or no galaxies at all?

The number and distribution of galaxies gives information about the biggest cosmic mysteries. For example, the same computer simulations that describe the cosmic web tell us we should be seeing more small galaxies than show up in our telescopes, and weak lensing can help us find them.

Additionally, mapping galaxies is one guide to dark energy, the name we give the accelerating expansion of the universe. If dark energy has been constant all the time, or if it has different strengths in different places and times, the cosmic web should reflect that. In other words, the topographical map from weak lensing may help us answer one of the biggest questions of all: just what is dark energy?

Finally, weak lensing could help us with the lowest-mass particles we know: neutrinos. These fast-moving particles don’t stick around in galaxies as they form, but they carry away energy and mass as they go. If they take away too much, galaxies don’t grow as big, so weak lensing surveys could help us figure out how much mass neutrinos have

Like SDSS, LSST will release its data to astronomers regardless of whether they’re members of the collaboration, enabling any interested scientist to use it in their research.

“Running the telescope in survey mode, and then getting those extensive high-level calibrated data products out to the entire scientific community are really gonna combine to make LSST be the most productive facility in the history of astronomy,” says Willman. “That's what I'm aiming for anyway.”

The power of astronomy is using interesting ideas—even ones we once thought wouldn’t be useful—in unexpected ways. Weak lensing gives us an indirect way to see invisible or very tiny things. For something called “weak,” weak lensing is a strong ally in our quest to understand the universe.

“We'll Meet Again”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music for the song “We’ll Meet Again” was written and composed by William T. Francis and published by Arthur W. Tams of New York, New York in 1900. This sheet music appeared as a musical supplement to the “Philadelphia Times” on Sunday, July 29, 1900. The cover features a lady in Grecian dress playing a lyre on a pinkish background.

“We'll Make Hay While the Sun Shines”

National Museum of American History
This sheet music is for the song “We'll Make Hay While the Sun Shines” from the film “Going Hollywood.”Arthur Freed wrote the lyrics to the song and Nacio Herb Brown composed the music. The sheet music was published by the Robbins Music Corporation of New York City in 1933. The purple cover has a central photograph of Marion Davies and Bing Crosby, who were the stars of the Metro Goldwyn Meyer film.
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