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Found 445 Collections

 

People, Place, & Time: American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages 2019

This collection serves as a companion to the presentation People, Place, and Time: How Art Reflects Culture - Smithsonian Collections given at the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) 2019 Annual Convention and World Languages Expo on November 23, 2019.  Targeted to language educators, this presentation explores how museum resources, Global Thinking Routines, and the Sustainable Development Goals can help students understand how art reflects culture, increase their language proficiency, and develop global competence and 21st century skills.  The presentation shares three case-study collections designed for the Spanish-language classroom: Night of the Dead by Alan CraneCaja De Memoria Viva II: Constancia Colón de  Clemente by Adrián Román, and Méndez v. Westminster 1947 

This collection includes presentation slides, links to the three case-study collections, museum resources, Project Zero thinking routines, examples of student work, and more. 

Presenters: Marcela Velikovsky (Bullis School), Tess Porter (Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access), and Vicky Masson (Norwood School).

#Arago #Rafael Lopez #Spanish / English #Mexican-American #California #Latino Civil Rights #Empathy #Desegregation #Critical thinking #Curiosity #Stamps #LatinoHAC 

Vicky Masson
38
 

People, Place, and Time: How Art Reflects Culture - Collection 2 - Méndez v. Westminster 1947 - National Postal Museum

In this collection, designed for a Spanish-speaking classroom, students will explore how art reflects culture while studying Méndez v. Westminster 1947, a groundbreaking WWII-era legal case in which a group of Hispanic parents in California successfully sued to end segregation in their schools. The collection includes a teacher's guide in English and suggested authentic resources both in Spanish and English to be adapted by teachers of multiple disciplines. 

Students will investigate how the Méndez v. Westminster 1947 case helped pave the way to desegregation in schools in the United States. Among other activities, students will follow the script for the re-enactment of this case. Students will take action and contribute in their inner circle, their community/country, and/or the world by designing a stamp on a past or present global issue (social, environmental, or cultural), from Latin America or Spain, that matters to them.

This collection is one of three that explore “People, Place, and Time: How Art Reflects Culture.” Products, practices and perspectives displayed in Latinx art, show how our place and history (past) influence who we are (present) and who we want to be (future) in geographical, social, economic, and/or historical contexts. In the three collections, Latin American works of art illustrate how culture shapes the way we see the world, others, and ourselves, and they also raise awareness about Latinx diversity.

The three collections were created by Marcela Velikovsky (Bullis School) and Vicky Masson (Christ Episcopal School) as part of the  2018 Smithsonian Virtual Teacher Curricula Creation Opportunity with the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access (SCLDA), and thanks to the Smithsonian Latino Center's Latino Initiative Pool funds. The three collections highlight Latino history, art and culture, and use Harvard Project Zero Thinking Routines and Global Thinking Routines strategies.

The Smithsonian Learning Lab collections provide an opportunity to invigorate the World Language (Foreign Language) curriculum as it allows to effectively integrate online museum resources (authentic resources) towards a 21st century curriculum. They facilitate student-centered activities within a variety of themes such as, family and communities, personal and public identities, social values and customs, holidays and celebrations, immigration, ethnic groups, Hispanic Heritage,  image and stereotypes, inequality and discrimination, global issues, religious practices, etc. They also provide the opportunity to analyze art, read portraiture, and investigate art media.

These collections also consider ACTFL standards (Communication, Connections, Comparisons, Communities and Culture), Asia Society Global Competence skills, the Sustainable Development Goals (Global Goals), Teaching Tolerance Social Justice standards, the Framework for Developing Global and Cultural Competencies to Advance Equity, Excellence and Economic competitiveness, and Participate Global Competencies.

#Arago #Rafael Lopez #Spanish / English #Mexican-American #California #Latino Civil Rights #Empathy #Desegregation #Critical thinking #Curiosity #Stamps #LatinoHAC #BecauseOfHerStory

Marcela Velikovsky
62
 

Conflict, Identity, and Place in American Art (2019)

This collection contains a selection of artworks related to the themes of conflict, identity, and place.  Teachers can use these artworks for a variety of purposes; here, we use them as a catalyst for discussion, with an extended version of Project Zero's See, Think, Wonder thinking routine.  In small groups or as a classroom, have students select one artwork they find meaningful or interesting and discuss the following:

  1. Why did you pick this artwork?  
  2. What do you see?  Name specific aspects of the artwork you notice.
  3. What do you think about what you see?
  4. What does this artwork make you wonder
  5. Optional: How might the artwork connect to the themes of conflict, identity, and place?

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection contains artwork selected by Phoebe Hillemann, Teacher Institutes Educator at the Smithsonian American Art Museum, featured in the 2019 Smithsonian American Art Museum Summer Institute for Teachers, "Teaching the Humanities through Art."  

These artworks serve as foundational museum resources in lesson concepts that are accessible by searching the Smithsonian Learning Lab with the hashtag: #SAAMTeach.

Ashley Naranjo
40
 

Making the Old New: Rethinking Monuments and Memorials

In this collection, students will work with images, videos, and texts related to Marta Minujín's "Parthenon of Books" to create a series of questions that a creator must ask and answer before designing a memorial or monument. #LearnWithTR

Nicole Clark
8
 

People, Place, and Time: How Art Reflects Culture - Night of the Dead by Alan Crane

In this collection, designed for a Spanish-speaking classroom, students will explore how art reflects culture when analyzing “Night of the Dead” by Alan Crane. The collection includes a teacher's guide in English and suggested authentic resources both in Spanish and English to be adapted by teachers of multiple disciplines. 

Students will investigate how the Day of the Dead is celebrated by Latin Americans and compare it to their own celebrations. Next, students  will create an interactive presentation using Flipgrid and write a monologue to reflect their learning from the point of view of one of the persons in the artwork. 

This collection is one of three that explore “People, Place, and Time: How Art Reflects Culture.” Products, practices and perspectives displayed in Latinx art, show how our place and history (past) influence who we are (present) and who we want to be (future) in geographical, social, economic, and/or historical contexts. In the three collections, Latin American works of art illustrate how culture shapes the way we see the world, others, and ourselves, and they also raise awareness about Latinx diversity.

The three collections were created by Marcela Velikovsky (Bullis School) and Vicky Masson (Christ Episcopal School) as part of the  2018 Smithsonian Virtual Teacher Curricula Creation Opportunity with the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access (SCLDA), and thanks to the Smithsonian Latino Center's Latino Initiative Pool funds. The three collections highlight Latino history, art, and culture, and use Harvard Project Zero Thinking Routines and Global Thinking Routines strategies.

The Smithsonian Learning Lab collections provide an opportunity to invigorate the World Language (Foreign Language) curriculum as it allows to effectively integrate online museum resources (authentic resources) towards a 21st century curriculum. They facilitate student-centered activities within a variety of themes such as, family and communities, personal and public identities, social values and customs, holidays and celebrations, immigration, ethnic groups, Hispanic Heritage,  image and stereotypes, inequality and discrimination, global issues, religious practices, etc. They also provide the opportunity to analyze art, read portraiture, and investigate art media.

These collections also consider ACTFL standards (Communication, Connections, Comparisons, Communities and Culture), Asia Society Global Competence skills, the Sustainable Development Goals (Global Goals), Teaching Tolerance Social Justice standards, the Framework for Developing Global and Cultural Competencies to Advance Equity, Excellence and Economic competitiveness, and Participate Global Competencies.

#National Portrait Gallery #Spanish #Global awareness #Empathy #Global connections #Global-mindedness #Curiosity #Cross-cultural skills #Day of the Dead #Worldview #LatinoHAC


Vicky Masson
47
 

Domingo Ulloa's

This teaching collection helps students to look closely and think critically by examining Domigo Ulloa's painting, Braceros, and historical documentation related to the bracero program, a series of short-term labor contracts from 1942-1964 in which an estimated two million Mexican men came to the US to work on farms and roads. The collection prompts students to consider the program from a variety of perspectives, including individual, collective, social, economic, and political.  

Included here are the painting, a bilingual video with Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM) curator E. Carmen Ramos, four suggested Thinking Routines - "See, Think, Wonder," "Step In, Step Out, Step Back," "The 3 Y's," and "Think, Feel, Care" - from Harvard's Project Zero Artful Thinking and Global Thinking materials, supporting digital content from the National Museum of American History, and a blogpost from SAAM of two DC student's written responses to the prompt, "What Domingo Ulloa's Braceros Means to Me." 

For use in Social Studies, Spanish, English, and American History classes

#LatinoHAC #EthnicStudies

This collection supports Unit 1: Intersectionality of Economics, Politics, and Policy, of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part B course.

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center. 


Rubina Pantoja
10
 

Mexican Art & U.S. History: Carmen Lomas Garza

This collection will provide an opportunity for students to analyze artwork, read background information, and connect art with historical events. At the heart of this activity is artwork created by Latino artist Carmen Lomas Garza. These paintings reflect the experiences of Garza's family and Latino life in 1980s America. In addition to image analysis, teachers could extend an opportunity for students to identify and discuss connections between Garza's art and the Mexican American experience from the 1960s to the present. This collection includes:

  • A timeline of U.S.-Mexican American relations
  • Video/audio of Reagan signing the 1986 Immigration Reform Control Act
  • And an overview of immigration reform via ABC-CLIO (requires subscription). 

#ethnicstudies #LISDSS

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Connections #TEKS

  • 24A describe how the characteristics of and issues in U.S. history have been reflected in various genres of art, music, film, and literature;

Rubina Pantoja
24
 

Asian American Modernism

This collection is meant to build on two earlier collections, "Asian American Art: Emerging from the Shadows"  and "Asian American Artists and World War II" and to introduce the viewer to artists of Asian ancestry in America using Chang, Johnson & Karlstrom's text, Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970 (2008), the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco's exhibition catalog "Asian/American/Modern Art: Shifting Currents, 1900-1970" (2008),the vast resources of the Smithsonian Learning Lab, Project Zero's Global Thinking Routines and other resources.  This collection is part two of four that I have organized, chronologically, on Asian American Art.  The other three collections are "Asian American Art: Emerging from the Shadows",  "Asian American Artists and World War II" and "Asian American Contemporary Art".  It is my hope that these collections will serve as entry points to understanding the many contributions of Asian American artists in the U.S. from 1850 until the present time.

Visual art is a language that is socially and culturally constructed.  Socially constructed learning values diverse perspectives, engages with local and global experts, and employs inquiry, discovery and exploration to move students toward global citizenship.  Because the visual arts leverage the power of dialogue and debate to sharpen critical thinking, starting with the arts is a logical place to help students develop cultural intelligence.

Other purposes of these collections are to explore tangible and intangible cultural heritage; as well as jumpstart brave conversations about race, identity and immigration in the U.S. with teachers, tutors of English Language Learners and others who are interested in becoming cultural leaders in our public schools.

As Gordon H. Chang and Mark Dean Johnson state in the introduction of the exhibition catalog, "Asian/American/Modern Art: Shifting Currents, 1900-1970" (2008):

"Forty years ago there were no Asian Americans.  There were Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos, and others of Asian ancestry in the United States, but no 'Asian Americans,' as that term was coined only in 1968.  This population was commonly seen as foreign, alien, not of America.  Their lives and experiences were not generally accepted as part of the fabric of the country, even though Asians had begun settling here steadily in the mid-nineteenth century.

Then, in the late 1960s, as part of the upsurge in the self-assertion of marginalized communities,  'Asian America' emerged to challenge the stigma of perpetual foreignness.  'Asian American' was a claim of belonging, of rootedness, of pride and identity, and of history and community; it was also a recognition of distinctive cultural achievement"  (Chang, Johnson, 2008).

#APA2018

Rubina Pantoja
18
 

American Animal Conservation

DRAFT: What stories do the animals on the American Trail at the Smithsonian's National Zoo? Students will use the Project Zero Global Thinking Routine Unveiling Stories to uncover and consider the complexity around conservation. I asked students to consider more than just what is the initial stories. I wanted to know what they thought the human and world stories might be. With the success of these animals I wanted students to also consider what the new and untold stories that might remain. This thinking routine is a great way to explore the complicated stories of the gray wolf, bald eagle, beaver, brown pelican, California sea lion, common raven, North American river otter, and wood duck. #goglobal

Ellen Rogers
40
 

Mexican Art & U.S. History: Carmen Lomas Garza

This collection will provide an opportunity for students to analyze artwork, read background information, and connect art with historical events. At the heart of this activity is artwork created by Latino artist Carmen Lomas Garza. These paintings reflect the experiences of Garza's family and Latino life in 1980s America. In addition to image analysis, teachers could extend an opportunity for students to identify and discuss connections between Garza's art and the Mexican American experience from the 1960s to the present. This collection includes:

  • A timeline of U.S.-Mexican American relations
  • Video/audio of Reagan signing the 1986 Immigration Reform Control Act
  • And an overview of immigration reform via ABC-CLIO (requires subscription). 

#ethnicstudies #LISDSS

Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Connections #TEKS

  • 24A describe how the characteristics of and issues in U.S. history have been reflected in various genres of art, music, film, and literature;

Angela King
24
 

U.S. History: Code Talkers

The following collection contains a possible lesson plan with ideas on how to use the resources.  The collection consists of information that identifies the bravery and contributions of Native American Code Talkers.  

#EthnicStudies

Rick Bleemel
12
 

Chinese immigration experience to Texas featuring Jim Eng's story

This collection includes resources about focusing on the story of Jim Eng (Ng San Wah) who immigrated to Texas when he was seven years old. Included are the various documents that he and his mom needed to immigrate and excerpts from his oral history are included.

Teachers and students may use this collection as a springboard for classroom discussions , such as those about immigration policy and/or discrimination. This collection is not comprehensive but rather provides a launching point for research and study. Documents are included to guide students through analysis activities of the documents, photos and oral history.

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center. 

Keywords: chinese exclusion act, 1882,

 #EthnicStudies

Melanie Schwebke
29
 

Facing Genocide: The US Response to the Holocaust

My aunt remembers sitting at the kitchen table as a child while her parents, my grandparents, read the Yiddish newspaper, Der Tag. Often one would start crying, saying, nishta ("gone"), "this one nishta; that one nishta," in response to the paper's lists of towns in Europe overrun by the Nazis. 

This collection examines the US response to the Holocaust, pairing historical documentation with four thinking routines from Harvard's Project Zero Global Thinking and Agency by Design materials - "Unveiling Stories," :Think, Feel, Care," "The 3 Y's," and "Circles of Action," - to prompt students to ask important questions about our individual and collective responsibility to humanity. 

Included here are photographs, documentation, and resources from the National Museum of American History and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), including a teaching resource and USHMM's online exhibition, Americans and the Holocaust, which examines "the motives, pressures, and fears that shaped Americans’ responses to Nazism, war, and genocide." Examined with thinking routines from Harvard's Project Zero Global Thinking and Agency by Design materials, students will explore complex and deeply troubling issues that continue to have relevance today. 

This collection complements chapter 14 ("World War II and America's Ethnic Problem") of Ronald Takaki's A Different Mirror for Young People: A History of Multicultural America, and supports Unit 1: Intersectionality of Economics, Politics, and Policy, and Unit 3: Local History and Current Issues, of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part B course. 

#EthnicStudies


Philippa Rappoport
19
 

Sugar Pine Point Heritage (grades 2-5)

Image analysis of these photos can reveal how community life in the Tahoe area has changed over time, and with it so has the environment. This exercise can help students to understand how our lives are different from those who lived here in the past, and how they are similar. Students will also be able to differentiate between things that happened long ago and things that happened recently. This can provoke thought and discussion about how events from the past still have an effect on the landscape today. Simply click the paperclip in each image to see the questions or prompts pertaining to the time period in which the photo was taken.

Lake Tahoe Interpretation
12
 

Digital Museum Resources for the High School Ethnic Studies Classroom (City of Austin Parks & Recreation)

This collection includes digital museum resources and replicable activities that will serve as a springboard for discussion during the Exploration of Ethnic Studies workshop at the  City of Austin Parks & Recreation Department on October 29-30, 2019. The collection models how digital museum resources can be leveraged to support critical thinking and deeper learning for high school Ethnic Studies curricula. The collection can be copied and adapted for use in your own classroom. 

This collection was co-created with Ashley Naranjo.  This program received Federal support from the Latino and Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pools, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center and the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.

#EthnicStudies


Philippa Rappoport
52
 

Digital Museum Resources for the High School Ethnic Studies Classroom (Irving Arts Center )

This collection includes digital museum resources and replicable activities that will serve as a springboard for discussion during the Exploration of Ethnic Studies workshop at the Irving Arts Center on October 16, 2019. The collection models how digital museum resources can be leveraged to support critical thinking and deeper learning for high school Ethnic Studies curricula. The collection can be copied and adapted for use in your own classroom. 

This program received Federal support from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center.

#EthnicStudies

Keywords: Ethnic Studies, Mexican American Studies, MAS

Philippa Rappoport
50
 

Brainstorming (11/5/19)

Use this collection to help jumpstart your brainstorming process. As you examine how two designers went from brainstorm to final product, you'll practice three brainstorming strategies: 

- Generating as many ideas as you can 

- Keeping the flow going by saying "Yes, And..."

- Generating new ideas by combining 2 existing ideas

#designthinking


Joel Knopf
22
 

Time

The theme of TIME can be explored in art using key concepts throughout the semester or year. Explore various concepts related to the idea of TIME by playing the Connections Card Game. The mind maps made after playing the game can be used as a reference throughout the course. 

Teacher Preparation:

  • Download and print images on card stock (resource attached to this collection). Create multiple sets for small groups to play the game.
  • Print Key Concept Cards (resource attached to this collection)

Student Activity:

  • Take turns choosing a card and connecting it to a key concept by placing it near an appropriate Concept Card.
  • Defend choice with evidence in the image.
  • After all cards have been played, students make inferences about how people experience, measure or represent time.
  • Small groups collaborate to draw a mind map to illustrate their ideas.
  • Present maps in a "Carousel Interview." One group member stays with the mind map to answer questions; other group members visit tables to explore mind maps and ask questions.
  • Return to original group. Encapsulate overarching ideas and record them on your group's mind map.
Jean-Marie Galing
27
 

What's a Lichen? How a Smithsonian Scientist Studies a Unique Symbiosis

This collection supports the free Smithsonian Science How webcast, "What's a Lichen? How a Smithsonian Scientist Studies a Unique Symbiosis,"  scheduled to air on November 14, 2019. Manu is a scientist at the Smithsonian who studies lichens, a lichenologist. She collects lichens from all over the world, depositing them into the U.S. National Herbarium, which is located at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. Manu identifies the lichens she collects with observations of how the lichen looks, their DNA data and where they were found.

Lichens are a symbiotic relationship between algae and fungus. They have been on earth for millions of years, living on rocks, trees, and soil in all different habitats on all seven continents. Even though lichens are all around us, scientists are still learning about what they are, where they live, and how many different species of lichens there are.

Fungus is any group of spore-producing organisms feeding on organic matter, and include molds, yeast, mushrooms, and toadstools. Algae is a simple, non-flowering plant. Algae contain chlorophyll and produce sugar through photosynthesis, like other plants, but do not have true stems, roots, leaves, or vascular tissue like most other plants. Lichenization is a fungal lifestyle, and therefore the name of lichen is the name of the fungus component.

When you look at a lichen, what you’re looking at is the “house” that the fungus and algae grow together. Scientists call this house a “thallus.” When algae and fungus come together to form this house, we see a lichen. This partnership is called a symbiotic relationship, because it helps both the fungus and algae survive. Research has shown that lichens are not a natural biological group, meaning they do not all come from a single common ancestor, in other words, lichens have many origins. Currently there are almost 20,000 species of lichenized fungi known.

In this symbiotic relationship, the fungus and algae benefit from being associated with each other. The fungus provides the house, its shelter (the thallus). This shelter helps the algae survive in habitats where it would otherwise be exposed to the elements and possibly could not survive. The algae provide food for the fungus, in the form of sugar. The sugar is a byproduct of photosynthesis that occurs within the algae.

Lichens are very important for the environment. They are an important food source for many animals, provide nest materials for birds, and provide habitat and material for biomimicry for insects and other organisms.

Lichens are also important for humans by providing natural dyes, perfumes, litmus paper, and even food. Humans even use lichens as bio-indicators, organisms that help humans monitor the health of the environment. Some species of lichens are sensitive to environmental pollution, so their presence or absence can help us understand more about the health of the environment, like air quality. 

Lichens produce over one thousand different chemical compounds, most of them unique to lichens. These compounds include acids and pigments. Some chemicals may even fluoresce under UV light, making them important components for lichen identification.

Lichens have DNA, which is used to identify lichen and compare relationships amongst and within species. DNA analysis has been an important tool for lichenologists in identifying and understanding the biodiversity of lichens.


Sign up for the Smithsonian Science How webcast to introduce your students to Lichenologist Manuela Dal Forno! The program airs at 11am and 2pm on November 14, 2019. Sign up and view the program here: https://naturalhistory.si.edu/...

Maggy Benson
29
 

Representational, Abstract, or Nonrepresentational?

Introductory Activity: Print image cards for small group collaboration. Students will sort images into three categories:

  1. Representational Art (realistic imagery)
  2. Abstract Art (recognizable imagery that does not reflect actual appearance)
  3. Nonrepresentational Art (does not represent a depiction of the physical appearance of people or objects)

Formal Analysis Activity: 

Choose a few images to compare and contrast: How did the artist use line, shape, color, balance, repetition, or overall composition to convey

  1. The illusion of movement or rhythm
  2. Visual tension
  3. A mood or feeling


Jean-Marie Galing
25
 

Visualizing Guns Violence

At Rutgers University-Newark and within the Graphic Design Program, we offer two courses that focus on community-based (the Design Consortium) and research-oriented (Visual Means) activities. These classes are part of a larger initiative, and art incubator called Express Newark, where community and the university interact, collaborate and co-create.

In addition to the DC and VM courses, we offer an advanced design studio course that focuses on unique design applications through the use of the letterpress printing process, also located at Express Newark. This coming spring, I will be teaching the letterpress course, and in the following fall, I will teach the Visual Means course. Within both classes, I will be looking to develop different ways of visualizing gun violence.

Gun violence is one of the most critical and complex issues we currently face in the United States. Rutgers University has recently created the New Jersey’s Center on Gun Violence. The center’s mission looks to “conduct interdisciplinary research on the causes, consequences, and solutions to gun-related violence while respecting the rights of legal, safe gun ownership and use.” Within the Visual Means course, I plan to work with researchers from this center on developing ways of visualizing the complicated and overwhelming data disconnect between research and public understanding of gun rights, safety, and violence.

What I plan to do with this Learning Lab is to use it as a repository of images, concepts, facts, texts, and web-based information. In the coming months, I will develop a pedagogical approach that weaves together methods of research, visualization, and implementation into various applications of visual communication and graphic form. The Learning Lab will grow as our knowledge about this subject increases and while documenting our process of research, visualization, and implementation.

Research
Step 1 - Learning Lab
We will use the Learning Lab as a repository for our impressions and image collections that show the different ways in which guns have been woven into the mythology of America and seen in our collective culture. Using different lenses such as art, film, photography, sculpture, advertising, satirical cartoons, comics, pop culture, propaganda, and protest, my students and I will attempt to take apart and reconstruct our understanding of the many issues surrounding this divisive topic. 

Visualization and typographic experimentation
Step 2 - Weather Report
Dan Friedman, American, 1945–1995
While teaching at Yale University, Dan Friedman developed a teaching method that is still used in many schools today—the Weather Report. Through a series of detailed parameters, students will be asked to create different permutations that experiment with various interpretations and hierarchies. As students advance through this assignment, the limitations are slowly lifted, and students begin to generate solutions that are more and more expressive, dynamic, and experimental. Using this method, students will experiment with various hierarchies and typographic solutions—setting the stage for the letterpress printing process. 

Implementation 
Step 3 - Letterpress process 
Working with content generated from our research, relevant information, thought-provoking content, quotes, or statistics, students will explore various methods of experimenting with typographic structure and syntax. Using the Learning Lab, students will be exposed to the dynamic work of the Futurists, Constructivists, the Bauhaus, late Modernists, and the explosive typography of the New Wave designers.

Designers would include:

Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Italian, 1876–1944

The Futurists were known (amongst other things) for the emotive and expressive typography.

El Lissitzky, Russian, 1890–1941
Russian Constructivism who experimented with developing a universal language based on simple shapes and reductive color.

Ladislav Sutnar, Czechoslovakian, 1897–1976
Sutnar’s visual communication often explains complex information and concepts unambiguously and with a spartan efficiency. The Constructivist brought great structure and organization to their typographic messages through minimal means in an attempt to generate a universal visual vocabulary.

Herbert Bayer, Austrian, 1900–1985
Jan Tschichold, German, 1902–1974
Max Bill, German, 1908–1994
At the Bauhaus and through its influences, designers brought together various conceptual approaches to the organization and implementation of articulate typographic applications.

Alvin Lustig, American, 1915–1955
American designer Alvin Lustig (along with Paul Rand, Bradbury Thompson, Lester Beall, Ladislav Sutnar, and others) was instrumental in developing a mature, Modern approach inspired by Europe to American graphic design and typography.

Wolfgang Weingart, German, 1941–
Teaches at the Basel School of Design and separating himself from some of Late Modernist’s more restrictive characteristics while redefining for himself an expressive typographic approach through experimentation and practice.

April Greiman, American, 1948–
Inspired by Armin Hofmann and Wolfgang Weingart and her experiences in Europe at the Basel School of Design, Greiman brought a fresh and unique perspective to graphic design within the United States.

Bruce Licher, American, 1958–
American typographer and letterpress designer that works within the traditions of letterpress printing while pushing the edges of typography, unique form, and graphic design applications.


Professor Ned Drew
Graphic Design Faculty
Rutgers University-Newark

Founding Director of The Design Consortium & XPress | Center for Typography initiatives at Express Newark

Co-Founder
BRED | a collaborative design lab
www.brednation.com
Instagram: bred_letterpress



 

 

Ned Drew
137
 

Lessons in the Language of the Suffrage

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

19th Amendment: 

Women’s Right to Vote

Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


__________________________________________________________________________________________________

2020 marks the 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment. 

The suffrage movement of the mid-nineteenth century, recognized today as the first wave of “feminism,” continues to influence and inspire the ongoing struggle for women’s rights. Many of the methods and strategies of our early pioneers serve not only as inspiration, but, as a model for effective communication that is still relevant today. 

“Man was given an eye for an ear.” 
  — Marshall McLuhan, The Medium is the Massage

The pioneers of the suffrage understood the power of the visual message. Their use of color, branded collateral, such as badges, banners, ribbons, and the promotion of their political messages, through the traditional means of posters and postcards, drew attention and created a precedent for protesting copied around the world by other political movements, including today. 

These pioneering women used simple language and ‘conversations’ in an attempt to educate people about the injustices of the legal system. These messages were often hand generated in a vernacular manner. The poster, in particular, proved informative, accessible, and an effective medium for the dramatization of a specific point of view. 

This collection serves as a brief visual research of language and methods of communication of the suffrage. Through a formal and conceptual investigation of hierarchy and composition using the timely messages of the suffrage, students will explore the process and historical method of poster making, the letterpress printing process. 


_________________________________________________________________________________________________

DESCRIPTION/PURPOSE: 

Students will explore the vocabulary of the Women’s Voting Rights Movement through a series of typographic letterpressed permutations. Students will identify and explore themes that are different, as well as those that have remained the same for any disenfranchised individuals in the United States. 

Each student is to choose one of the quotes provided in the presentation or find a relevant quote of the time. This will serve as the content for the typographic studies. Depending on the students’ concept for the poster, additional research and text may be required. 


_________________________________________________________________________________________________

PHASE 1: Typographic Interpretations

Design a poster representing one of the historic statements of the suffrage. Your poster can remind people of the amendment’s original purpose and importance and/or raise awareness about a particular issue related to the amendment. There are plenty of high profile issues in the news now that directly relate this amendment. Your audience is college students.

“ All typefaces serve fundamentally the same purpose: to communicate. The purpose behind the communication –
  for 
example, to inform, to entertain, or to persuade – is expressed, in part, by the typeface chosen. As the
  communication 
objectives change, so might the typeface.”   – Willi Kunz


Typographic Process and Checklist

1      review content – reading/understanding.

2      search for inherent structure/patterns/rhythms within the text.

3      develop preliminary plans for hierarchical structures.

4      sketches – create quick but meaningful “road maps” of your thoughts.

5      develop concepts of “center and support” configurations.  

6      construct preliminary, secondary & tertiary alignments.

7      form constellations that house sub-thoughts within the text (grouping info.).

8      consider/reconsider overall composition while thinking about “activating the edge.”

9      play against the viewer’s expectations.

10    legibility (clarity and efficiency in reading) vs. readability (pleasure and interest in reading)– Willi Kunz 


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PHASE 2: Type & Image Interpretations

Learning Objectives:

+ Integrate text + image using the four methods described in the book Type, Image, Message by Skolos + Wedell
+ Recognize the design opportunities that come with using type as an image


Type, Image, Message by Skolos + Wedell
Separation, Fusion, Fragmentation & Inversion

Separation – when the type & image operate independently. Reinforce messages. Type spaces & image spaces.

Fusion – when the type and image blend to form a unit. Type & image connected by perspective—blend 2 plus things that aren’t usually associated. Conceptually connected. Political or poetic statement. Metaphor

Fragmentation – when the type & image disturb or disrupt each other. Torn, divided, uneven, disparate. Scale, color, complication. Unpredictable, random, animated, energized message.

Inversion – form of fusion when type & image trade places & the type takes on pictorial properties or the image takes on type qualities. Harmonious. Type as photo, or hyper-realistic. Letters as frames for images.


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DELIVERABLES

• Two 14 by 17 inch letterpressed posters. One typographic solution. One type and image solution.
• Printed in 2- 3 color
• Quote selected must be included (but does not need to be the primary read)


__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Brenda McManus
Assistant Professor  | Art Department | Pace University-NYC   

Co-Founder
BRED | a collaborative design lab
www.brednation.com
Instagram: bred_letterpress


 

Brenda McManus
96
 

Stamp Design: Micro-Narratives

The postage stamp has a long and rich history within our visual culture. It is a carefully crafted micro-narrative, which often exhibits everyday representations or the spirit of a nation. A good micro-narrative can have a substantial impact in a quick timeframe. They often come from our shared culture – they are parts of stories we communicate, that mark our achievements, struggles, and understanding of our collective culture. They are concise and lead us quickly into making better sense of the world we are in and designing for. 

The postage stamp in its limited real estate, is a wonderful study of a carefully crafted micro-narrative. It can build a shared sense of national belonging amongst humans or a sense of tribalism through national identity. They are composed of three essential pieces of information in their design: subject, stamp value, and country of origin. The reference of the country provides context for the subject, which often reflects the country’s national and cultural identity.

This collection serves as a visual aid to expose and explore the design principles and techniques necessary to communicate a concise message within a restricted space. 

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CONSIDERATIONS: use of visual components in a formal, conceptual, and systematic method

TYPOGRAPHIC
The design and arrangement, or appearance of typeset matter.                            

+ Type as a system and vehicle for communication.                               

+ Type used as image, type as form, typographic color, typographic structure, typographic systems 
   and hierarchy, active white space as punctuation, tempo, and rhythm. 

IMAGE
A tangible or visible representation and/or a vivid or graphic representation or description.

+ Images used as a vehicle for communication and storytelling.   

+ Photographs, illustrations, and visual representations like icons, indexes, and symbols. Images
    used as type,  images used as form, images used as color, and images used as structure.                  

+ The Hierarchy of images, i.e. alpha, beta, infra.

FORM  
The shape and structure of something as distinguished from its material. Geometric and organic form, graphic simplification, patterns, textures, abstractions, reductions.    

+ Form used as type, form used as image, form used as color, and form used as structure. 

+ Form/counter investigations, navigation and direction, active white space. 

COLOR
A phenomenon of light or visual perception that enables one to differentiate otherwise identical objects. 

+ Color can be used in both a functional and symbolic role.

STRUCTURE
Something arranged in a definite pattern of organization. Grid systems, visual organizations, and compositions.     

+ Structure used as type, structure used as image, structure used as form, and structure used
   as color.

CONNECTIONS
Formal (syntax) and conceptual (semantics) connections.

CONTENT
Information to be communicated or “story being told.” Thematic cultural, social, and historical reflection. Conceptual story, metaphor, or message.  

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VOCABULARY

Semiotics - se.mi.ot.ics: a general philosophical theory of signs and symbols that deals primarily with their function in both artificially constructed and natural languages and comprises syntactic, semantics, and pragmatics.

• Semiotic theory is a branch of linguistics that has become a useful tool in two-dimensional design for understanding the relationships between the viewer/user, the form that conveys a message, and the message’s meaning.

Syntactics – syn.tac.tics: A branch of semiotics that deals with the formal relationship between signs or expressions in abstraction from their signification and their interpreters.

• Syntactic refers to the formal relationship among elements in a composition or among related forms. When analyzing a form for its syntactic qualities, you might ask yourself: Are all the parts of the form arranged to appear unified?

Semantics – se.man.tics: a branch of semiotics dealing with the relationship between signs and what they refer to and including theories of denotation, extension, naming, and truth: the meaning or relationship on meaning of a sign or set of signs.

• Semantic refers to the relationship between form and its meaning. When analyzing a form for semantic qualities, you should ask yourself: Does the form adequately reflect its meaning? Is the meaning singular or multiple, ambiguous or clear? Which of these is more desirable?

Pragmatics – prag.mat.ics: relating to matters of fact or practical affairs often to the exclusion of intellectual or artistic matters: Practical as opposed to idealistic.

• Pragmatic refers to the relationship between a form and its user. This aspect examines a sign when it is applied. When analyzing a form for its pragmatics, consider these questions: Is the form related to its context? Is it understandable in its context? 

• Excerpts from Introduction to Two-Dimensional Design: Understanding Form and Function by John Bowers, pg. 22 

______________________________________________________________________________
Brenda McManus
Assistant Professor  | Art Department | Pace University-NYC   

Co-Founder
BRED | a collaborative design lab
www.brednation.com
Instagram: bred_letterpress

Brenda McManus
82
 

The Electronic Superhighway: Perception of American Culture

Is American Culture always perceived in the same way by everyone or does it differ from person to person?

#SAAMteach

Brooke Oxendine
10
25-48 of 445 Collections