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Ch'uan Miao Hill People of Western China ca. 1936

Human Studies Film Archives
Title supplied by Archives staff (unpublished work)--archival collection Cataloging supported by Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee Footage shot in southwestern China while Graham was curator of the West China Union Museum of Archeology, Art, and Ethnology at Chengtu. Film documents various customs of the Ch'uan Miao hill people (more commonly known as the Ch'uang Meo) in the villages of Chou Chia Keo and Wang Wu Chai near the borders of Szechwan, Kweichow, and Yunnan provinces. Documentation includes: children and adults in a Miao yard; a (shaman) conducting a ceremony to exercise demons; a (priest) conducting part of a funeral ceremony accompanied by an assistant playing a (six-tubed wind instrument); a trek to a Miao village led by Graham and two legions of school children; Graham's medical associates, W.R. Morse and Gordon Agnew, taking anthropometric measurements and making dental observations of villagers; group shots of Miao women and girls; a village do nun using divining sticks and performing an exorcism; and a funeral ceremony for one of the village women which involves sacrifice of a water buffalo and procession of the coffin. Footage forms part of the U.S. National Museum Division of Ethnology, Manuscript and Pamphlet File, National Anthropological Archives.

Roxie Laybourne and Doug Deedrick with Microscope

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
With Smithsonian Secretary Alexander Wetmore's encouragement, Laybourne accepted a short-term appointment in 1944 in the Bird Division at the National Museum of Natural History, working with taxidermist Watson Perrygo and curator Herbert Friedmann. Known as the "Feather Lady," Laybourne pioneered the field of forensic ornithology at the Smithsonian Institution by studying the detailed microscopic structure of plumaceous (downy) feather barbules and creating a technique of identifying species of birds from fragmentary feather samples. Her methods revolutionized aviation safety by creating a technique of identifying birds involved in aircraft bird strikes. That work led to the development of the first laboratory in the world dedicated solely to feather identification. The methods she developed are now routinely applied to studies of prey remains, evidence from criminal cases, and anthropological artifacts.

For more images of Roxie Laybourne, see SIA2009-2205, SIA2010-0575, SIA2010-0580, SIA2010-0639, SIA2014-07398, SIA2014-07403, SIA2014-07404, SIA2014-07405, SIA2014-07406, SIA2014-07407, SIA2014-07411, SIA2014-07413, SIA2014-07417, SIA2014-07421, SIA2014-07431, SIA2014-07434, SIA2014-07441, SIA2014-07442, and SIA2014-07448.

Doug Deedrick (left) and Roxie Laybourne (right) behind a counter in the Bird Division of the National Museum of Natural History. Roxie is looking through a microscope of a feather which she is manipulating with forceps. Doug Deedrick leans forward to look at the slide on the microscope.

Zulay Frente al Siglo XXI 1989

Human Studies Film Archives
title from credits (published work)--archival collection

Supplementary materials: audio tapes, still photographs, production files, correspondence, promotional materials and press clippings.

Archives also holds English language version released under the title Zulay Facing the 21st Century.

Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research supported processing and the National Film Preservation Foundation and the Smithsonian Latino Center supported preservation of the Jorge Preloran Film Collection.

Cataloging supported by Smithsonian Institution Women's Committee

Donated by Jorge Preloran in 2007.

Edited ethnographic film, co-directed by Jorge Preloran, Mabel Preloran (an Argentine anthropologist) and Zulay Saravino (an indigenous Otavaleña of Equador) was filmed over a span of 8 years. The film is based on a dialogue between these two women as they discuss similar acculturation challenges they experienced while adapting to life in the United States. the dialogue raises universal questions on transculturation and the decisions that are faced on identity, education, economic advancement and emotional ties. The film also introduces us to the world of the indigenous Otavalo who forge an enduring cultural identity for themselves.

SI Officials at East Door to SI Building

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
This is an oversize photograph.

Smithsonian Institution officials at the East Front entrance of the Smithsonian Institution Building, the "Castle," on January 11, 1915. First row (front) left to right: Charles Doolittle Walcott (Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1927), Richard Rathbun (Assistant Secretary), George Perkins Merrill (Head Curator of Geology), Frank Baker (Superintendent, National Zoological Park), William Henry Holmes (Head Curator of Anthropology), and Harry W. Dorsey (Chief Clerk).

Middle row, left to right are: Charles Greeley Abbot (Director, Astrophysical Observatory), Leonard C. Gunnell (Assistant in Charge, International Catalogue of Scientific Literature), James G. Traylor (Appointment Clerk), Washington I. Adams (Disbursing Agent), Leonhard Steineger (Head Curator of Biology), and Paul Brockett (Assistant Librarian). Back row, left to right are: James H. Hill (Property Clerk), C. Walton Shoemaker (Chief Clerk, International Exchanges), A. Howard Clark (Editor), and Frederick W. Hodge (Ethnologist-in-Charge, Bureau of American Ethnology).

Random records of a lifetime, 1846-1931 [actually 1932] volume III, part I-II, Yellowstone explorations, 1872-1878

Smithsonian Libraries
Devised title.

Binder's title: Random records.

Typewritten manuscript.

Also available online.

Related materials can be found in Smithsonian Institution Archives RU007084, William Henry Holmes Papers, 1870-1931.

William Henry Holmes (1846-1933) was an anthropologist, archaeologist, artist, and geologist, who spent much of his career affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution. He studied art under Theodore Kauffman, and went on to work as a scientific illustrator with Smithsonian staff. In 1872, he was appointed artist-topographer to the United States survey of the territories under Ferdinand V. Hayden, and in 1874 was appointed assistant geologist. He went on to work with the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE), until returning to the Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum (USNM). Holmes eventually became head curator of the Smithsonian Institution's Department of Anthropology and Director of the National Gallery of Art.

AAPGRB copy also available on microfilm: MFM 1200 AAPGMAIN.

Elecresource

This is the third of sixteen volumes compiled in 1931 or 1932 by William Henry Holmes to document his life and work. The volume contains original correspondences, documents, ephemera, watercolors, and photographs throughout. The volume is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on his time in Yellowstone National Park while working as an artist for the the survey of the territories, directed by F. V. Hayden, during 1872. The volume begins with a table of contents highlighting descriptions of locations, stories about travels and the people with whom Holmes worked. Includes multiple photographs in the field, with notes regarding locations and individuals photographed, and drawings of wildlife ("snow" rabbit). Contains segments from his original field notes describing daily work, observations of wildlife, and routes traveled. The second part focuses on Holmes' time as a geologist with the survey of Yellowstone in 1878. Part two begins with a list of locations and topics (e.g. interpretation of canyon geology) covered. Includes segments of daily journal entries and numerous photographs and watercolors of locations. Volume also includes images of Yellowstone from 1870 and 1920.

Cut Glass Bowl

National Museum of American History
From its founding in 1846, the Smithsonian Institution was assumed to be the keeper of the national collections, although the "United States National Museum" did not emerge as a formal entity until 1858. Natural history and anthropology artifacts were the focus of the Museum's earliest collecting efforts, but by the late 19th century the Museum was collecting household goods, manufactured for the American and European market, that demonstrated technological and artistic advances in a wide range of industries. Between 1885 and 1920, American glass companies played an important role in building the new collections by donating examples of their currently fashionable glassware.

T. G. Hawkes & Company of Corning, New York, donated examples of their work to the Museum in 1917 and 1918, showcasing their rich or brilliant-cut glass. This bowl, donated by the firm in 1917, is cut and engraved, but also mounted in sterling silver—a newly fashionable style at the time.

Boy's vest

National Museum of the American Indian

Film Studies of Traditional Tibetan Life and Culture: Ladakh, India 7/21/1978 (3pm)

Human Studies Film Archives
title derived from name of project (unpublished work)--archival collection field notes and logs Slide photographs shot in Mathoo Monastery, Mathoo Village, Ladakh, India. Numbers 1-4 woman with baby in shawl strapped to her back walking through courtyard with painted columns; 6-8 group of woman walking through courtyard with painted columns; 10 old woman walking through courtyard; 11 inside (main prayer room), boy monks sitting in line between wood columns with backs to older monks; 12 monks sitting behind wooden tables, two of them helping another who is leaning forward; 13 lap of monk infront of wooden table with bowl on it, boy monk in shadows in background; 14-16 boy playing (horn) 17-19 boy looking at camera holding the kangling; 20-21 two boy monks, one helping the other play the kangling; 22-23 boys making handgestures looking to front of dukang; 25 boy monk playing kangling as the other looks away; 26 boy monks watching front of dukang, one holding a kangling; 28 boy monks lined upand sitting on the floor; 29 boy monk playing a drum; 30 boy monk holding kangling looking up, other boy monk playing drum; 31-32 two women infront of rakes, one with peyrak one with tall hat; 33-34 the two women talking to each other and joined by man in red shirt with straw hat; 35 woman in tall hat behind man in red shirt with straw hat; 36 two women, one with a tall hat, other one with a peyrak

Roxie Laybourne and Doug Deedrick with Microscope

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
With Smithsonian Secretary Alexander Wetmore's encouragement, Laybourne accepted a short-term appointment in 1944 in the Bird Division at the National Museum of Natural History, working with taxidermist Watson Perrygo and curator Herbert Friedmann. Known as the "Feather Lady," Laybourne pioneered the field of forensic ornithology at the Smithsonian Institution by studying the detailed microscopic structure of plumaceous (downy) feather barbules and creating a technique of identifying species of birds from fragmentary feather samples. Her methods revolutionized aviation safety by creating a technique of identifying birds involved in aircraft bird strikes. That work led to the development of the first laboratory in the world dedicated solely to feather identification. The methods she developed are now routinely applied to studies of prey remains, evidence from criminal cases, and anthropological artifacts.

For more images of Roxie Laybourne, see SIA2009-2205, SIA2010-0575, SIA2010-0580, SIA2010-0639, SIA2014-07398, SIA2014-07403, SIA2014-07404, SIA2014-07405, SIA2014-07406, SIA2014-07407, SIA2014-07411, SIA2014-07413, SIA2014-07417, SIA2014-07421, SIA2014-07431, SIA2014-07434, SIA2014-07441, SIA2014-07442, and SIA2014-07448.

Doug Deedrick (left) and Roxie Laybourne (right) behind a counter in the Bird Division of the National Museum of Natural History. Roxie is looking through a microscope of a feather which she is manipulating with forceps. Doug Deedrick looks over toward her.

Arrow

National Museum of the American Indian

Apache Fiddle

National Museum of American History
This Apache Fiddle was made by Chesley Goseyun Wilson in Tuscon, Arizona in 1989. Honored with a National Heritage Fellowship Award in July 1989, Chesley Wilson crafted this instrument for presentation to the Smithsonian Institution. The tsii'edo'a'tl (Apache for "wood that sings") is

typically made from the agave plant and is also called ki'zh ki'zh di'hi (buzz buzz sound), which fairly describes its musical properties. It is used in social settings, especially for ceremonial and love songs.

Early documentation of the Apache fiddle is unclear. It may be aboriginal in design or modeled after European violins introduced through Spanish influence in the 19th century. While early examples (before 1920) are commonly ornamented with simple red and black geometric designs, more recent makers have incorporated more intricate and colorful decoration as seen in Chesley Wilson's work. An extensive collection of Apache fiddles is housed in the Smithsonian's Museum of Natural History (Department of Anthropology) and Museum of the American Indian.

10 lire St. Peter and Tomb of the Apostle single

National Postal Museum
The Vatican issued a set of thirteen stamps, including two special delivery stamps, on April 23, 1953, to commemorate St. Peter’s Basilica and various popes whose pontificates marked particular stages of Old and New St. Peter’s basilicas.

The black and green 10-lire value features a vignette of St. Peter, identified as “Sanctus Petrus” (Holy Peter) on the frame that encircles the vignette. The altar in front of St. Peter’s tomb is shown beneath the vignette. Poste Vaticane appears at the top of the stamp, and the postal value appears in the middle. An Italian inscription, Il Tomba Dell Apostolo (The Tomb of the Apostle) appears at the bottom of the stamp.

According to Catholic tradition, St. Peter the Apostle was martyred in Rome, ca. 65-67, adjacent to the Circus of Nero and buried nearby among graves on Vatican Hill, outside the city walls. In the 330s, Old St. Peter’s Basilica was erected directly over the mid-second century marker of St. Peter’s tomb. The necropolis was excavated 1939-1949, and further archaeological work and analysis of tomb inscriptions continued from 1953-1968. Various inscriptions and graffiti on the surrounding walls helped identify the tomb. In 1968, After a lengthy anthropological and archeological investigation, Pope Paul VI declared that the bones of St. Peter had been located and verified.

Corrado Mezzana designed the stamp, which V. Nicastro engraved.. A total of 450,000 sets were printed by the recess process at the Italian State Printing Works in Rome. The stamp contains the Crossed Keys of St. Peter watermark. It measures 3 x 4 cm and is perforated 13 1/2 x 13 1/2.

References:

Catalogo Enciclopedico Italiano, 2007/2008,”Citta del Vaticano,” Rome: ASCAT, 2006.

“Vatikanstaat,” in Michel Europa Katalog, band 3, Südeuropa, Unterschleißheim, Germany: Schwanberger Verlag GMBH, 2008.

“Vatican City,” in Stanley Gibbons Stamp Catalogue, part 8, Italy and Switzerland, 7th edition, Ringwood, Hampshire, England, 2010.

Guarducci, Margherita. The Tomb of St. Peter: The New Discoveries in the Sacred Grottoes of the Vatican, Translated by Joseph McLellan, New York: Hawthorn Books, 1960.

Toynbee, Jocelyn and Perkins, John Ward. The Shrine of St. Peter and the Vatican Excavations (New York: Pantheon Books, 1953), 3-17.

Oral history interview with Enrique Chagoya, 2001 July 25-August 6

Archives of American Art
Transcript: 95 pages

An interview of Enrique Chagoya conducted July 25-August 6, by Paul Karlstrom, for the Archives of American Art.

The interview takes place at Chagoya's home in South San Francisco (sessions 1,2) and at Karlstrom's San Francisco office (session 3). Chagoya's wife, Kara Maria, joins in for the final portion of the interview. Chagoya discusses activities in Mexico and the U.S.; his involvement with the Galeria de la Raza and the Chicano Movement; his work, including books that are based on Pre-Columbian codices; his application of "reverse anthropology," the history of the Americas and Europe, as if Mexico conquered Europe; Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera; the legacy of Mexican muralism and the union of art and ideology; the nature of his own interest in Pre-Columbian imagery; his sabbatical year in Paris; collaborations with his wife Kara Maria, including issues of self-projection into works of art; artistic responsibility; creation of hybrid cultures; the separation of his art from other Chicano art; and identity as a Mexican. Chagoya's wife, painter Kara Maria, discusses her training at UC Berkeley, meeting Chagoya; their evolving relationship as artists; his role as mentor; and her separate artistic identity.

Theatre Mask

NMNH - Education & Outreach
This object is part of the Education and Outreach collection, some of which are in the Q?rius science education center and available to see.

A wooden mask that has been carved to resemble a dragon or demon, likely from Indonesia. The mask has exaggerated features including bulging eyes, large teeth, fangs, and a long, curling forked tongue. The face is painted in a number of colors including red, green, gold, black, yellow, and white. The paper tongue is red on top and yellow on the underside with many decorative shapes cut out of it. The back of the mask is unpainted and has a section carved out where the eyes, nostrils, and mouth are located. The paper tongue is affixed to the mask on the lower portion of mouth opening and two other decorative paper features at the sides of the mouth are affixed through small slits in the wood. There is a nail with some rope attached embedded near the top of the mask.

Roxie Laybourne and Carla Dove Holding Black Vulture Remains

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
With Smithsonian Secretary Alexander Wetmore's encouragement, Laybourne accepted a short-term appointment in 1944 in the Bird Division at the National Museum of Natural History, working with taxidermist Watson Perrygo and curator Herbert Friedmann. Known as the "Feather Lady," Laybourne pioneered the field of forensic ornithology at the Smithsonian Institution by studying the detailed microscopic structure of plumaceous (downy) feather barbules and creating a technique of identifying species of birds from fragmentary feather samples. Her methods revolutionized aviation safety by creating a technique of identifying birds involved in aircraft bird strikes. That work led to the development of the first laboratory in the world dedicated solely to feather identification. The methods she developed are now routinely applied to studies of prey remains, evidence from criminal cases, and anthropological artifacts.

For more images of Roxie Laybourne, see SIA2009-2205, SIA2010-0575, SIA2010-0580, SIA2010-0639, SIA2014-07398, SIA2014-07403, SIA2014-07404, SIA2014-07405, SIA2014-07406, SIA2014-07407, SIA2014-07411, SIA2014-07413, SIA2014-07417, SIA2014-07421, SIA2014-07431, SIA2014-07434, SIA2014-07441, SIA2014-07442, and SIA2014-07448.

Roxie Laybourne (left) and Carla Dove (right) stand behind a counter in the Bird Division of the National Museum of Natural History. Carla Dove is holding a study skin of a black vulture while Roxie Laybourne holds a feather near the breast of the bird. On the counter in front of them are boxes of feathers and bird remains, a letter, a black wing, and a stack of open envelopes.

Film Studies of Traditional Tibetan Life and Culture: Ladakh, India 7/20/1978 (3:40pm)

Human Studies Film Archives
title derived from name of project (unpublished work)--archival collection field notes and logs Slide photographs shot in Mathoo Monastery, Mathoo Village, Ladakh, India. Numbers 1-2 man holding a baby with a green cap moving around a crowd of women and children; 3 crowd of women holding children, children sitting down as well; 4 same crowd, close up on a boy in a blue sweater with a pink shirt under it and a red robe, pulling off the sweater; 5-9 woman with child on wodden balcony next to cement stairs; 11 two women in goatskin shawls with a child infront of prayer wheels hung inthe courtyard; 12-15 a boy monk talking; 16-19 boys in a group, slose up on the middle boy wearing purple and smiling; 20-24 two women in tall hats infront of the prayer wheels spinning them; 25 boy smiling and wearing a purple shirt; 26 two women walking, one in a (turquoise hat), other in tall hat with a baby tied to her back wht a shawl; 27 women walking named in #26 joined by other woman; 28-30 woman with baby strapped to her back, spinning the prayer wheels inthe courtyard; 31 woman with peyrak on looking up; 32 three women walking, one with a peyrak, two with tall hats on; 33-34 a building with tan, white and brown designs of marching horses around the outside of it, people walking; 35 distant shot of building with horse deisn,with fields behind it

Gibraltar, Neanderthal Man, Fossil Hominid

NMNH - Education & Outreach
This object is part of the Education and Outreach collection, some of which are in the Q?rius science education center and available to see.

Light brown plastic cast of the Gibraltar cranium, from the species Homo neanderthalensis. Portions of the left side and top are missing. Not all teeth of the maxilla are present. Black paint represents absence of bone. The Gibraltar cranium is between 70,000 and 45,000 years old.

Roxie Collie S. Laybourne (1910-2003)

Smithsonian Archives - History Div
With Smithsonian Secretary Alexander Wetmore's encouragement, Laybourne accepted a short-term appointment in 1944 in the Bird Division at the National Museum of Natural History, working with taxidermist Watson Perrygo and curator Herbert Friedmann. Known as the "Feather Lady," Laybourne pioneered the field of forensic ornithology at the Smithsonian Institution by studying the detailed microscopic structure of plumaceous (downy) feather barbules and creating a technique of identifying species of birds from fragmentary feather samples. Her methods revolutionized aviation safety by creating a technique of identifying birds involved in aircraft bird strikes. That work led to the development of the first laboratory in the world dedicated solely to feather identification. The methods she developed are now routinely applied to studies of prey remains, evidence from criminal cases, and anthropological artifacts.

For more images of Roxie Laybourne, see SIA2009-2205, SIA2010-0575, SIA2010-0580, SIA2010-0639, SIA2014-07398, SIA2014-07403, SIA2014-07404, SIA2014-07405, SIA2014-07406, SIA2014-07407, SIA2014-07411, SIA2014-07413, SIA2014-07417, SIA2014-07421, SIA2014-07431, SIA2014-07434, SIA2014-07441, SIA2014-07442, and SIA2014-07448.

Roxie Laybourne sits at a table with collection of songbird skins on it. She is wearing a striped suit and is holding a skin and a caliper in her hands, measuring one of the bird's head.

Film Studies of Traditional Tibetan Life and Culture: Ladakh, India, 1978 86.13.3-24OP 7/22/1978 (10:30am)

Human Studies Film Archives
title derived from name of project (unpublished work)--archival collection

field notes and logs

Slide photographs shot in Mathoo Monastery, Mathoo Village, Ladakh, India. Numbers 1 man, with three children in background in shade; 2 man with boy smiling and looking away from the camera; 3-5 young manin black with white scarf around his neck; 6-8 monk in red infront of colorful cloth; 9-10 baby in yellow pointing at adult; 11-14 man in tan sweater shooting arrow infront of tree; 15--16 man in tan sweater smiling at other men in foreground; 17 boy beside a tree; 18-20 two men bending over the dirt mound that is target taking out the arrows; 22 gilded statue with tall gold crown, white scarves on his lap; 26 embroidered buddhist diety on white seat with red skin and orange behind him, two llama like animals; 27 older monks sitting on throne with colorful decorations in foreground; 29 statue of monk in yellow robe and red hat; 30 gilded statue with blue hair wrapped in gold colored cloth; 31 gilded buddhist diety statue with gold crown infront of painting; 32 painting, old red buddhist diety with fire around him;33 gilded buddhist diety sculpture with blue hair; 34 two dieties painted on wall; 35 dark blue painting of dieties, one with many arms and other infront a lighter blue; 36 blue diety of him on white horse with dark green smoke in background

STS 5, Fossil Hominid

NMNH - Education & Outreach
This object is part of the Education and Outreach collection, some of which are in the Q?rius science education center and available to see.

Orange/brown plastic cast cranium of STS 5, also known as "Mrs. Ples," is from the species Australopithecus africanus. STS 5 was nicknamed "Mrs. Ples" by scientist Robert Broom after initially hypothesizing that she was a middle-aged female Plesianthropus transvaalensis, which was the original name of the species - thus, "Mrs. Ples." Australopithecus africanus was anatomically similar to Australopithecus afarensis, with a combination of human-like and ape-like features. Compared to Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus africanus had a rounder cranium housing a larger brain and smaller teeth, but it also had some ape-like features including a strongly sloping face that juts out from underneath the braincase with a pronounced jaw. This skull is now thought to have belonged to a male. Missing pieces are indicated in white. STS 5 is between 2.5 and 2.1 million years old.

La Chapelle-aux-Saints, Neanderthal Man, Fossil Hominid

NMNH - Education & Outreach
This object is part of the Education and Outreach collection, some of which are in the Q?rius science education center and available to see.

Red/brown plaster cast mandible of La Chapelle-aux-Saint, also known as "The Old Man of La Chapelle," from the species Homo neanderthalensis. The black areas indicate missing pieces; light gray indicates a present tooth. La Chapelle-aux-Saint is about 60,000 years old.

La Chapelle-aux-Saints, Neanderthal Man, Fossil Hominid

NMNH - Education & Outreach
This object is part of the Education and Outreach collection, some of which are in the Q?rius science education center and available to see.

Red/brown plaster cast cranium of La Chapelle-aux-Saint, also known as "The Old Man of La Chapelle," from the species Homo neanderthalensis. This well-preserved skull shows the low, receding forehead, protruding midface, and heavy browridges typical of Homo neanderthalensis. The cranium is mostly complete; however, areas in black indicate missing pieces. Scientists estimate the individual was quite old by the time he died, as bone had re-grown along the gums where he had lost several teeth, perhaps decades before. La Chapelle-aux-Saints is about 60,000 years old.

Modern Human, Human

NMNH - Education & Outreach
This object is part of the Education and Outreach collection, some of which are in the Q?rius science education center and available to see.

Light brown plaster cast of a modern human male cranium. All of the teeth are missing from the maxilla except for three molars with evidence of tooth wear, also called attrition.

KNM-ER 406, Fossil Hominid

NMNH - Education & Outreach
This object is part of the Education and Outreach collection, some of which are in the Q?rius science education center and available to see.

Brown plastic skull cast of KNM-ER 406. This skull cast is nearly a complete adult male Paranthropus boisei. It has the facial and cranial features typical of the species such as massive cheek teeth, and the widely flaring zygomatic arches with a forward placed connection to the other facial bones, and large cheek bones supported powerful chewing muscles - the latter two features giving it a "dish-shaped" face. Other muscles extended from his jaw to the sagittal crest at the top of his head. The cranial capacity of this skull has been estimated at 510 cubic centimeters. It is about 1.7 million years old. The cast measures around 18 cm x 17 cm x 12 cm in size. Find out more by visiting humanorigins.si.edu
332377-332400 of 332,744 Resources