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Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 2: Sketchbooks; Subseries 2.07: Persepolis: Sketchbook 19

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble, FSg Archives cataloger, based on Herzfeld's original sketchbook title and Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.

"The field activities of the Persepolis Expedition were initiated by Professor Ernst Herzfeld in Spring 1931, after the French archaeological monopoly had been replaced by the new Antiquity Law, which opened Iran to archaeological field work by other nations. The expedition ended in fall 1939, after the outbreak of World War II. [...] At the end of 1934, Herzfeld was removed from his position as expedition director. He left Persepolis for the last time toward the end of November 1934 and went to London." [Elspeth R. M. Dusinberre, "Herzfeld in Persepolis", Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Edited by Ann Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser. Leiden: Brill, 2005. P.137 and P.161]

"Herzfeld returned to Persepolis in 1931 as field director. The project was conducted under the auspices of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, with additional financial assistance from other American individuals and institutions." [Elspeth R. M. Dusinberre, "Herzfeld in Persepolis", Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Edited by Ann Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser. Leiden: Brill, 2005. P.146]

Finding aid, based on Joseph M. Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive, 1974, is available in the Archives Department and on Internet http://www.asia.si.edu/archives/finding_aids/herzfeld.html#series2

- SK-19 is the nineteenth of a series of thirty-five sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, inscriptions and reliefs, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs related to Istakhr (Iran), and Persepolis (Iran).

- Original handwritten title on cover reads: "Ernst Herzfeld; Skizzenbuch XIX: Persepolis."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 1 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [topographical] measurements for mountains on edge of plain: Kūh-i Nasare-Khanä, Kūh-i Sachl, Kūh-i Gerd."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 2 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], plan of summit of Kūh-I Sachl and of cistern."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 3 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], sketch elevations of Kūh-i Sachl and Kūh-i Nasare-Khanä; measurements for map of plain; [funerary inscriptions associated with] astodans (astudans) on Kūh-i Sachl."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 4 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], measurements for map of plain."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 5 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], course of Polvar [(Pulvar)] River across plain."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 6 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [perspective drawing of unidentified graves]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 7 reads, "between Naqsh-i Rajab [(Iran)] and Naqsh-i Rustam [(Iran)], [unidentified graves]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 8 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [Fratadara Temple]: plan of building [north-west corner with basis for a fire altar], [see FSA A.6 05.0873]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 9 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [Fratadara Temple]: [plan of building northern half], [see FSA A.6 05.0873]; remains of Greek [votive] inscription."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 10 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [Fratadara Temple]: alabastron, bronze ring [with animal design], altar and column base."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 11 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Harem [of Xerxes]: [partial plan of west wing], [see FSA A.6 05.0866]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 12 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Harem [of Xerxes]: [partial plan on west side of main wing], [see FSA A.6 05.0865; FSA A.6 05.0866; FSA A.6 05.1238]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 13 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Harem [of Xerxes]: [partial plan of west wing] (continued), [see FSA A.6 05.0866]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 14 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [floor pavement] over graves (related to p.7)."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 15 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [Fratadara Temple]: plan of building [south-east corner], [see FSA A.6 05.0874] with location and drawing of finds."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 16 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Tripylon [Council Hall]: plan of [southern portico] and small staircase, [see FSA A.6 05.0842]; [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2347]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 17 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], plan of building north of Tripylon [Council Hall], [see FSA A.6 05.0842]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 18 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [Fratadara Temple]: stone plaque with lion and affronted sphinxes (location on p.15); east of TaĊara [Tachara (Palace of Darius)]: remains of jar."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 19 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [Tripylon (Council Hall)]: plan, [see FSA A.6 05.0889]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 20 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [Fratadara Temple]: [plan of building southern half], [see FSA A.6 05.0874] with measurements."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 21 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [Fratadara Temple]: [plan of building southern half], [see FSA A.6 05.0874] with measurements."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 22 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Unfinished Gate: plan, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2295; FSA A.6 04.GN.2296]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 23 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [Fratadara Temple]: measurements."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 24 reads, "Istakhr [(Iran)], four stone fragments."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 25 reads, "Istakhr [(Iran)], excavation sounding No. 2 [(probably excavation sounding No. 3 according to FSA A.6 05.0833)]: measured plan with location of stone fragments, [see FSA A.6 05.0833]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 26 reads, "Istakhr [(Iran)], excavation sounding No. 5: plan and elevation."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 27 reads, "Istakhr [(Iran)], excavation sounding No. 2 [(probably excavation sounding No. 3 according to FSA A.6 05.0833)]: measured plan, [see FSA A.6 05.0833]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 28 reads, "Istakhr [(Iran)]: left) excavation sounding No. 2 [(probably excavation sounding No. 3 according to FSA A.6 05.0833)]: plan and elevation, [see FSA A.6 05.0833]; right) excavation sounding No. 1: plan, [see FSA A.6 05.0834]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 29 reads, "Istakhr [(Iran)]: left) excavation sounding No. 3: city wall, [see FSA A.6 05.0835]; right) excavation sounding No. 2 [(probably excavation sounding No. 3 according to FSA A.6 05.0833)]: plan."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 30 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], Harem [of Xerxes], [main wing]: plan of [principal courtyard and northern portico], [see FSA A.6 05.0865; FSA A.6 05.0866; FSA A.6 05.0868; FSA A.6 05.1238]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 31 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [Tripylon (Council Hall)]: plan of northern stairway, [see FSA A.6 05.0842]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 35 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], [Tachara Palace (Palace of Darius)]: plan of small stairway, west of the main building], [see FSA A.6 05.0846]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 44 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], location of "goldnes Schmuckstab"."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 45 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], prehistoric village, kiln."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 46 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], prehistoric village, kiln."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 47 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], location of "Bronzebeschlag"."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 48 reads, "Persepolis [(Iran)], measurements for map of Hajji Nasrullah water channel (qanāt) from Istakhr."

Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 2: Sketchbooks; Subseries 2.13: Damascus 1, 1914: Sketchbook 32

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble,FSg Archives cataloger, based on Herzfeld's original sketchbook captions and Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.

The monuments and inscriptions of Northern Syria were surveyed and collected between 1908 and 1914 by Moritz Sobernheim and Ernst Herzfeld as part of a broader project, sponsored by the Institut de France, that of Max van Berchem's "Matériaux pour un Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum." The drawing may be related to this survey as well as to additional expeditions to Damascus (Syria) carried out by Ernst Herzfeld as early as 1903 and as later as 1930.

Finding aid, based on Joseph M. Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive, 1974, is available in the Archives Department and on Internet http://www.asia.si.edu/archives/finding_aids/herzfeld.html#series2

- SK-32 is the the thirty-second of a series of thirty-five sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, inscriptions and reliefs, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs related to Damascus (Syria).

- Original handwritten title on cover reads: "Ernst Herzfeld; Skizzenbuch XXXII: Damas I"

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 1 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], Citadel (March 29, 1914): [southern fortification wall], ornamentation on [tower B, tower C, and tower D] and [eastern] wall."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 2 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], Citadel (March 29, 1914): profiles of inscription enframements; [northwestern corner of fortification walls], [reused Ayyubid inscription frame on eastern wall of tower G], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.3444];[blason] with stylized fleur-de-lis."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 3 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], Citadel (March 29, 1914): [northern fortification wall], [ruins of tower I (northern gate)], coats of arms [(blason)] with [Sultan al-Mu'ayyad Shaikh inscription (No. 17)], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.3437; FSA A.6 04.GN.3439; FSA A.6 04.GN.3447]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 4 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], Great Mosque [(March 29, 1914)]: [northern facade], bronze door, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.3672]; [column] capital with cornucopias; top of minaret; and coat of arms [(blason)]."

- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 5 and 6 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], Citadel: [topographical] measurements for plan of tower A and K, [see FSA A.6 05.0128]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 7 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], Citadel (April 1, 1914): molding marked "erledigt July, 1934"; [Romanesque] capitals in Jami' Sadat; Greek inscription."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 8 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], Citadel: stone capital [from unidentified tower]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 9 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)]: left) [city walls], machicolation of Bab al-Salam, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.3344]; right) [column] capital of mihrab in gate of Citadel."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 10 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], sarcophagus in Sakina Mausoleum; tile pattern decoration."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 10a reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], [Maqbarat al-Bab al-Shaghir (outside of Bab al-Hadid)]: [sketch of entrance portal]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 11 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], Tomb of Bilal [(Maqbarat al-Bab al-Shaghir)] (marked "erledigt July, 1934,"): left) plan, [see FSA A.6 05.0191]; right) sarcophagus covers of 'Omar ibn 'Abd al-'Azīz [(alleged tomb of companion of the prophet Muhammad)], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.3831; FSA A.6 04.GN.3832]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 12 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], [al-Jarrah Mosque]: [column] capital and window [screen], [see FSA A.6 05.0326;FSA A.6 05.0327]; [Arabic] inscription in Kufic script; [Qube Bahadur (n. Sauv[aget] 703)]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 13 reads, "panorama of minaret tops."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 14 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], Salihiya, [Turbat al-Raihaniya (Raihan)]: plan of entrance, marked "erledigt July, 1934," [and reference to van Berchem]; Salihiya, [Turbat Aidekin]: sketch of antique basalt windows, [see FSA A.6 05.0195]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 15 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], [Salihiya], [Turba Abu Djarash]: plan and elevation of Mausoleum of Ibn 'Abdallah, marked "erledigt July, 1934", [see FSA A.6 05.0213; FSA A.6 05.0229]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 15a reads, "[Damascus (Syria)]: entrance east of Bahadur As."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 16 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], [Area of Salihiya]: unidentified inscription, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2813]; three coats of arms (blason); Madrasa Sāhīb al-Rumi [(Sahiba Madrasa)]: vault section of entrance portal with muqarnas ornamentation, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2832]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 17 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], [Mosque of al-Tairuzi]: [sketches of dome], [see FSA A.6 05.0256]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 18 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)]: plan of Jami' Tainabiyya, 779 H.."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 19 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)]: [entrance portal] of Jami' Tainabiyya."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 20 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], [Area of Salihiya]: plan of Mahāll al-Sikka."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 21 reads, "Tomb in garden, marked "erledigt July, 1934"."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 22 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], [Turba al-Najmiya] or [Turba Abu Djarash (Abdullah al-Rakki)]: plan, elevation of mausoleum's folded dome, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.2828], [see FSA A.6 05.0213]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 23 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], al-Tauba Mosque: section of folded dome, 632 H.."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 24 reads, "[Damascus (Syria)], Citadel, sketch plan of location of towers, [see FSA A.6 05.0128]."

Edmontosaurus annectens (Marsh, 1892)

NMNH - Paleobiology Dept.

Khamsa (Quintet) by Nizami (d.1209)

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

John Peabody Harrington papers: Hopi, 1913-1946

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 4, reel 26. Only original documents created by Harrington, his collaborators and field assistants, or notes given to him were microfilmed.

John P. Harrington's field notes indicate that he worked on the Hopi language as early as 1913 and reviewed his material as late as 1944. Although he published a short article on Hopi in 1945 and a review of The Hopi Way (1944) in 1946, his notes on this language are not extensIve.

His first contact with speakers of Hopi evidently occurred in 1913, as suggested by his heading "Hopi Language. 1913." A more precise date and location are not given, but it is possible that Harrington made a side trip to the Third Mesa during February when he was working at a number of other pueblos or that he located a speaker of the Oraibi dialect at one of those locations.

From May through September of 1926, Harrington was called away from fieldwork in northern California to assist J. Walter Fewkes, head of the Bureau of American Ethnology, in archeological excavations at Elden Pueblo near Flagstaff, Arizona. According to The B.A.E. Annual Report for 1925 -1926 (p. 5), prior to the excavations, Harrington and J. O. Prescott assisted Fewkes in the recording of Hopi songs. Four of the older Hopi were brought from Walpi to the Grand Canyon, where they performed 11 katcina songs.

Harrington had a second opportunity to record several short vocabularies in the dialect of First Mesa in 1939 when he and Robert W. Young were beginning joint work on Athapascan in the Fort Defiance area of Arizona. His interest in Hopi was renewed again in March of 1944 when he made a comparative study with other Uto-Aztecan languages of the Takic subfamily.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. Also see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 4: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of the Southwest," edited by Elaine L. Mills and Ann J. Brickfield (1986). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%204.pdf

This set of files contains Harrington's Hopi research. The materials consist of Oraibi linguistic notes, Walpi linguistic notes, notes on phonetics, writings, and miscellaneous notes.

His Oraibi notes include geographical terms provided by Bert Fredericks in slipfile format, a short etymology of the village name Awatobi, and a small rudimentary file of phonetic sounds. While at Elden Pueblo, Harrington also elicited several Oraibi terms from Otto Lomavitu, described as an educated Indian associated with the Moravian missionaries. Kuyawaima, an elderly Oraibi, provided information on basket-making during another interview in August 1926. The majority of the early records in the Oraibi dialect consist of numbered pages of Harrington's handwritten notes which emerge as a combination of vocabulary, phrases, and grammar in the early stages of development, followed by a brief text on Coyote with interlinear translation. Pages 38, 39, and 40 contain a selected number of terms in Zuni.There is one brief mention of an individual named Ignacio but it is not clear whether the vocabularies originated with him. The elicitation was based partly on a rehearing of a typed "Oraivi Vocabulary" found accompanying the handwritten notes. Harrington was in California in 1912 and early 1913 and was engaged in various projects, one of which was copying manuscripts at the Bancroft Library, a possible source of this material.

Harrington's Walpi data from the work in 1926 and 1939 are of a much less systematic nature. A pocket-sized notebook which he used while at the Grand Canyon contains notes from a brief survey of Walpi speakers, random vocabulary items from Percy Hilling, and an outline of the sequence of songs performed by kutKa, the chief of Walpi, and others. Also recorded during this period are additional lexical items, possibly obtained from a man named Sam, and five pages describing a placename trip which Harrington made from Polacca to Holbrook.

The material from 1939 consists of notes from several brief interviews with Walpi speakers encountered in the Fort Defiance area. On September 27, 1939, Harrington recorded one page of placenames from the son of Tom Polacca, an interpreter at First Mesa in the 1880s and 1890s. Additional placename data were obtained from an unidentified Hopi speaker at the home of Jack Snow. Following each of the vocabularies are copies which Harrington made of the names in 1944 in order to locate them on a map by Van Valkenburgh (1941). Three pages of miscellaneous vocabulary from an unidentified source also date from the 1939 period.

His notes on phonetics were likely made during his comparative study of Hopi and other Uto-Aztecan languages. Harrington made a number of observations on the phonetics of the language. These were recorded in the form of a "Hopi Mouthmap." Secondary sources referred to were Parsons (1936), Trubetskoi (1939), Whiting (1939), and Whorf (unspecified works). The mouthmap appeared in Hewett, Dutton, and Harrington's The Pueblo Indian World (1945).

His Hopi writings consist of preparatory notes and drafts in various stages of completion. From 1945-1946 are notes, handwritten drafts, and finished typescripts of his review of The Hopi Way by Laura Thompson and Alice Joseph, as well as the article "Note on the Names Moqui and Hopi." Both of these were published in the American Anthropologist. There is also a typed draft of an unpublished note, intended for release in Indians at Work, titled "Hopi Discovered To Be Most Nearly Akin to Northern Paiute."

Dating from both the periods around 1922 and 1939 are a number of pages of miscellaneous notations. These contain observations of an ethnographic nature, bibliographies, and brief extracts from secondary sources. One set, consisting of comments on seven "landnames," was obtained from an informant referred to as "Hopi at Jack Snow's." Also included is correspondence dated 1914 requesting information on Hopi rocks and a related photograph (originals in files of correspondence and photographs).

There are few field notes relative to the Hopi recordings Harrington made with Fewkes and Prescott and the related sound recordings have not been located.

Brooklyn Dodgers 1955

National Portrait Gallery
Brooklyn Dodgers 1955

In the 1940s and 1950s, Branch Rickey, the co-owner of the Brooklyn, Dodgers, assembled one of the greatest teams in baseball history. This team picture from 1955—the year Brooklyn won its only World Series—includes Pee Wee Reese, Carl Furillo, Gil Hodges, Duke Snider, Roy Campanella, Don Newcombe, and Carl Erskine. At the team’s heart, however, was Major League Baseball’s first African American player, Jackie Robinson (back row, standing at far right). Rickey carefully selected Robinson (1919–1972) to “break the color barrier,” not only because of “Robbie’s” talent, but because he had faith in Robinson’s inner strength. He made Robinson promise not to respond for one year to racist taunts from fans and players. Robinson was rookie of the year in 1947. In his ten years as a Brooklyn Dodger, he led the team to six pennants and a World Series victory and ended his career with a batting average of .311.

Photograph album of nineteenth century artists

Archives of American Art
Photograph Album : 32 p. : b&w ; 19 x 14 cm. Contains 32 autographed cartes de visite of artists, collected by Whittredge.
Two photographs are unidentified.
Three photographs have been removed and only an autograph appears on the page.
Artists depicted are: Albert Bierstadt, George A. Baker, William Holbrook Beard, Albert F. Bellows, John G. Brown, Seth Wells Cheney, Frederic Church, Jasper Cropsey, Thomas Seir Cummings, Mauritz De Haas, Francois Regis Gignoux, Henry Peters Gray, Seymour Guy, George Henry Hall, William Hart, William Hennessy, Richard W. Hubbard, Daniel Huntington, Henry Augustus Loop, Jervis McEntee, Samuel F. B. Morse, William Page, Horace Wolcott Robbins, Aaron Shattuck, James Augustus Suydam, Launt Thompson, Robert W. Weir, Henry Wenzler, Edwin White, and George Yewell, and two unidentified artists.

New York Yankees 1956

National Portrait Gallery

Horse and Groom, after Li Gonglin

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

Seven Must-See New Museum Exhibits to Marvel at This Winter

Smithsonian Magazine

With a new season comes a new slate of museum exhibits designed to inspire, teach and delight visitors. Whether it’s a light display showing a museum campus in a new way, an anniversary celebrated through art and photographs or a collection devised by a legendary filmmaker, these seven exhibits are must-sees for this winter.

Winterlights; Newfields; Indianapolis, Indiana
Now through January 6, 2019

Image by Visit Indy. Winterlights brings a sparkling glow to Newfields and the grounds of the Indianapolis Art Museum. (original image)

Image by Visit Indy. Winterlights brings a sparkling glow to Newfields and the grounds of the Indianapolis Art Museum. (original image)

Image by Visit Indy. Winterlights brings a sparkling glow to Newfields and the grounds of the Indianapolis Art Museum. (original image)

Image by Visit Indy. Winterlights brings a sparkling glow to Newfields and the grounds of the Indianapolis Art Museum. (original image)

Image by Visit Indy. Winterlights brings a sparkling glow to Newfields and the grounds of the Indianapolis Art Museum. (original image)

Winterlights, the curated outdoor lighting spectacular, is back at Newfields in Indianapolis for a second year—but this time with a few additions. More than 1.5 million lights twinkle around guests this year, with a new Wintermarket and an updated and redesigned finale show. At last year’s inaugural edition, it's said that at least 46 people proposed to their significant others. Inside the Lilly Mansion on the Newfields property, guests will be treated to displays with hundreds of LED candles and origami butterflies. The new finale on the walk-through includes a digital snowstorm and an ice cave.

Museo del Prado 1819-2019. A Place of Recollection; Museo Nacional del Prado; Madrid, Spain
Now through March 10, 2019

María Isabel de Braganza, López Piquer. (Courtesy of the Prado)

In 2019, Spain’s famed Prado museum is celebrating 200 years since its founding. In total, the exhibit, titled A Place of Recollection, will feature 168 art pieces, plus a large number of additional documents, photos, maps and audiovisual installations. The show will not only look at the past two centuries of art and installations in the museum, but it will also explore the ways in which the museum has interacted with Spain and society at large. The layout will be broken into eight different periods of the museum’s history, spread throughout Halls A and B. Featured artists on display include Renoir, Manet, Chase, Sargent, Arikha, Pollock, Rosales, Saura and Picasso.

Spitzmaus Mummy in a Coffin and Other Treasures; Kunsthistorisches Museum; Vienna, Austria
Now through April 28, 2019

Image by Courtesy of the Kunsthistorisches Museum. A view of the Spitzmaus exhibit. (original image)

Image by Courtesy of the Kunsthistorisches Museum. A view of the Spitzmaus exhibit. (original image)

Image by Courtesy of the Kunsthistorisches Museum. A view of the Spitzmaus exhibit. (original image)

Image by Rafaela Proell. Wes Anderson and Juman Malouf at the exhibit. (original image)

Filmmaker Wes Anderson and his partner, writer and illustrator Juman Malouf, have teamed up again for something a bit less cinematic than their usual, but no less impressive. The two have curated the art installation Spitzmaus Mummy in a Coffin and Other Treasures at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. The exhibit includes 400 pieces that Anderson and Malouf selected from the overall collection at the museum, the majority of which they pulled out of storage just for the show. In fact, many of the items will be on display for the first time in the museum’s history. Among the treasured pieces in the exhibit are an ancient Egyptian ceramic bead necklace and an Indonesian carved wooden monkey.

Magritte & Dali; The Dali Museum; St. Petersburg, Florida
December 15, 2018, to May 19, 2019

Image by Banque d'lmages, ADAGP / Art Resource, NY. Rene Magritte [1898-1967]La Magie noire [Black Magic]. 1945 Oil on canvas, 79 x 59 cm; Inv. 10706. Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium,Brussels 2018. C. Herscovici I Artists Rights Society [ARSI]. New York (original image)

Image by Herscovici / Art Resource, NY. Rene Magritte [1898-1967]L'ile au tresor (Treasure lsland). 1942 Oil on canvas, 60 x 80 cm; Inv. 10708 Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium,Brussels 2018 C. Herscovic1 I Artists Rights Society IARSI. New York (original image)

Image by Banque d'lmages, ADAGP / Art Resource, NY. Rene Magritte (1898-1967]Dieu n·est pas un samt (God Is No Saint].ca. 1935-36 Oil on canvas, 67.2 x 43 cm. Inv. 11681 Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, Brussels 2018 C. Herscovic1 I Artists Rights Society (ARS]. New York (original image)

Image by Salvador Dali Museum. Salvador Dali. Old Age, Adolescence, Infancy (The Three Ages), 1940, Oil on canvas. Collection of The Dali Museum, St. Petersburg, FL [USA 2018 ©Salvador Dali, Fundaci6 Gala­ Salvador Dali, [Artists Rights Society]. 2018. (original image)

Image by Salvador Dali Museum. Salvador Dali. Portrait of Gala, c.1932, Oil on panel. Collection of The Dali Museum, St. Petersburg, FL [USA! 2018 ©Salvador Dali, Fundaci6 Gala-Salvador Dali, (Artists Rights Society}. 2018. (original image)

It’s a festival of surrealism at the Magritte & Dali exhibit in Florida’s Dali Museum. The exhibit draws together the two great minds, showcasing their work from the 1920s to the 1940s—the decades during which the two spent a great deal of time together and often displayed their work at the same exhibitions. This is the first exhibit of its kind to highlight the works of the two Surrealists, and to examine the shared themes in their paintings. Some of the Magritte pieces on display include Le Baiser [The Kiss] (1938), La Magie noire [Black Magic] (1945) and Dieu n’est pas un saint [God Is No Saint] (ca. 1935-36).

Gods in My Home: Chinese New Year with Ancestor Portraits and Deity Prints; Royal Ontario Museum; Toronto, Canada
January 26, 2019, to September 15, 2019

Image by Royal Ontario Museum. Unidentified artistAncestor Portrait of a Couple祖先像(夫婦)Qing dynasty, 1644–1911Hanging scroll, ink and colour on paper138.4 × 77.5 cm ROM, 2018.46.1 (original image)

Image by Royal Ontario Museum. Portable Shrine for Housing Spirit Tablets祠堂Late 18th – early 19th centuryShanxi 山西Painted and gilded wood115 × 95 × 60 cmROM, 2009.72.1 (original image)

Image by Royal Ontario Museum. Unidentified artistAncestor Portrait of an Elderly woman祖先像Qing dynasty, 1644–1911Hanging scroll, ink and colour on silk172.5 × 96.5 cm ROM, 921.1.139 (original image)

Image by Royal Ontario Museum. The Dragon King God龍王之神19th–mid 20th Century Woodblock print, ink and colour on paper31 × 27.9 cmBeijing, 北京 ROM, 969.168.56 (original image)

Image by Royal Ontario Museum. Enjoy Music/Happiness Together 同樂會Republic of China,1912–1949Woodblock print, ink and colour on paper53.0 × 29.6 cm, eachYangliuqing, Tianjin 天津楊柳青ROM, a: 969.168.32, b: 969.168.33 (original image)

Image by Royal Ontario Museum. Unidentified artistZhong Kui (Demon Queller)鐘馗19th–mid 20th Century Hanging scroll, ink and colour on paper220 × 106.5 cmROM, 921.32.23 (original image)

Image by Royal Ontario Museum. Military Door Gods with Battle-axes立斧門神19th–mid 20th Century Woodblock print and hand drawing 65.0 × 41.0 cm, each Yangwanfa 楊萬發, Liangping, Chongqing重慶梁平 ROM, a: 995.160.11.2, b: 995.160.12.1 (original image)

Image by Royal Ontario Museum. Lady Mouse’s Wedding 老鼠嫁女19th–mid 20th Century Woodblock print, ink and colour on paper52.5 × 34.2 cmJiajiang, Sichuan 四川夾江ROM, 969.168.22 (original image)

Celebrate the Chinese New Year in 2019 by exploring Gods in My Home, an exhibit of rare ancestral portraits and traditional prints honoring the occasion. The majority of the pieces in the exhibit have never been on display before; there are more than 100 items, dating back to the late Imperial period, that all speak to the customs and beliefs of Chinese culture. Nine large ancestral portraits that were commissioned by wealthy families are complemented by a selection of printed ancestral scrolls, something a not-so-well-off family could have afforded. For the traditional prints, these were often pasted onto walls and doors to ward off evil spirits and bless the home.

Leonardo da Vinci: A Life in Drawing; Bristol Museum and Art Gallery; Bristol, England
February 1, 2019, to May 6, 2019

Image by Creative Commons. The Bristol Museum and Art Gallery. (original image)

Image by Bristol Museum and Art Gallery. An image from the da Vinci exhibit. (original image)

Leonardo da Vinci: A Life in Drawing honors the artist for the 500th anniversary of his death at the Bristol Museum and Art Gallery. The showing is part of a larger exhibit across 12 venues throughout the United Kingdom, featuring a total of 144 da Vinci drawings. The Bristol Museum will have 12 of the drawings (as will each of the other venues), all specially picked to show the breadth of da Vinci’s career. The works have been selected to showcase da Vinci's wide-ranging interests and include painting and sculpture sketches, scientific drawings and engineering diagrams. The drawings on display all come from the Royal Collection Trust.

The Young Picasso – Blue and Rose Periods; Fondation Beyeler; Basel, Switzerland
February 3, 2019, to May 26, 2019

Image by Succession Picasso / 2018, ProLitteris, Zurich. PABLO PICASSO, ACROBATE ET JEUNE ARLEQUIN, 1905Gouache on cardboard, 105 x 76 cmPrivate collection (original image)

Image by Göteborg Konstmuseum. PABLO PICASSO, FAMILLE DE SALTIMBANQUES AVEC UN SINGE, 1905Gouache, watercolour and ink on cardboard, 104 x 75 cmGöteborg Konstmuseum, Purchase, 1922Succession Picasso / 2018, ProLitteris, Zurich (original image)

Image by RMN-Grand Palais (Musée national Picasso-Paris) / Mathieu Rabeau. PABLO PICASSO, AUTOPORTRAIT, 1901Oil on canvas, 81 x 60 cmMusée national Picasso – ParisSuccession Picasso / 2018, ProLitteris, Zurich (original image)

Image by The Cleveland Museum of Art. PABLO PICASSO, LA VIE, 1903Oil on canvas, 197 x 127.3 cm The Cleveland Museum of Art, Donation Hanna FundSuccession Picasso / ProLitteris, Zurich 2018 (original image)

For the first time in Europe, paintings and sculptures from Picasso’s formative years—1901 to 1906, known as the Blue and Rose periods—will be displayed together in one place in The Young Picasso. The exhibit will be laid out chronologically and will focus on his work with human figures. The first part will be the Blue period, when shades of blue dominated his work, which mostly explored deprivation and suffering in the people around him. From there, the exhibit pivots to the Rose period, during which time he moved to Paris; these works focus on circus performers. The exhibit has about 80 paintings and sculptures on view.

This Galentine's Day blog post is for you. You poetic, noble land-mermaid.

National Museum of American History

On February 13, women everywhere (we hope!) will be gathering together to celebrate Galentine's Day. First introduced in 2010 by character Leslie Knope on the TV show Parks and Recreation, Galentine's Day is about "ladies celebrating ladies," be they friends, co-workers, family members, or personal heroes. What began as a fictional holiday for women to honor other women has merged into real life as more women learn about and celebrate this happy day. In honor of Galentine's Day we have chosen some of our favorite gal pals in our collections. Below are some of the women and girls who could have had their own Galentine's Day celebration.

The Monterey Gals

Black and white posed photo of women, each with their hair piled on top of their head and high-collared blouses.

Postcard with typed words and handwritten words. Green postage stamp.

Before telephones were common forms of communication, real photo postcards were the rapid messaging tool of the day. The postmark indicates that Elsie sent this card from Monterey, Virginia, at 9:00 a.m. on 23 May, 1907, to a Miss Jay (maybe a nickname?) Yager in Bartow, West Virginia, some 30 miles away. With mail services often delivering twice a day, you could send a quick note in the morning to invite a friend for a late-night horseback ride as Elsie did in May 1907, "am going horse back riding to night [sic], come and go along 'Moon-light' you know." Enticing!

If Elsie or Jay are depicted among the group of young women photographed in an unidentified photographer's studio, we don't know. It sounds like perhaps Elsie was a store clerk at Dunlevie Drug Store in Dunlevie (now Thornwood), West Virginia. "Do you ever go to Dunlevie, anymore(?)/ Would love you to. Come in and see me." Maybe then Jay could have gotten the scoop from her gal pal, "Rec'd card it was a rich one." When this postcard was written, senders were not allowed to write on the back of the postcard; it was to be the address only. Our rebellious sender, Elsie, continued her message there anyway. With their spunk, contemporary hair and clothes, and tight friendship, we would like being friends with these gals!

The Seven Sutherland Sisters

Black and white photo of seven women with exceedingly long hair.

Women of late-19th-century America flaunted hair as their "crowning glory," the ultimate marker of feminine beauty, luxurious vitality, and even moral health. For the seven Sutherland sisters of Cambria, New York, luscious locks were never in short supply. Together, their womanly manes measured 37 feet, a fact that helped them become national celebrities and entrepreneurs.

Glass bottle labeled "hair grower" beside packaging featuring black and white image of seven women with long hair.

Sarah, Victoria, Isabella, Grace, Naomi, Dora, and Mary toured the country first as a musical act and later with the Barnum and Bailey Circus. Eventually, they took their show to the drug store, offering demonstrations and consultations to admirers and selling their father Reverend Fletcher Sutherland's Seven Sutherland Sisters hair and beauty products. Their success allowed them to retire from the road and build a mansion where they lived together back in New York. By the 1920s, however, the fashion for bobbed hair cut their sales short.

The Navy Nurses of Base Hospital No. 5

Black and white group photo of women wearing uniform coats and hats.

In May 1917, just a month after the United States officially entered World War I, four women set sail from New York Harbor amidst a flurry of noisily cheering crowds. Beulah Armor, Faye Fulton, Halberta Grosh, and Bertha Hamer were nurses with the Navy Nurse Corps and, along with hundreds of soldiers and sailors, they were heading to France well before the troops of the American Expeditionary Force could be fully mobilized to follow them. As young nurses in Philadelphia at the time of the war, the women joined a group of fellow medical professionals from Philadelphia to establish Navy Base Hospital No. 5 in Brest, France.

The hospital began operations in December 1917 and was quickly inundated with patients including new soldiers arriving from the United States, wounded soldiers returning from the war front, civilians injured in German submarine attacks, and victims of the 1918 flu epidemic. There's nothing like a war zone to forge lasting relationships, and no doubt the nurses of Base Hospital No. 5 relied on each other to get them through the long, grueling war.

Coat with "USR" on collar and two lines of buttons, vertical. Dark navy blue.

With the end of the war in November 1918, and the closing of the Base Hospital in March 1919, the four women returned to Philadelphia. Fulton, Grosh, and Hamer continued working as professional nurses, while Armor married a fellow member of Base Hospital No. 5: a cook named Elwood Basler, who was also briefly a patient. Clearly the relationships formed among the nurses in Brest remained strong over the years, as the women got together in 1970 to donate objects from their time in the war. These objects serve as a lasting reminder of brave women facing difficult situations with the support of their friends and colleagues.

Takayo Tsubouchi Fischer and Jayce Tsenami

Black and white photo of two smiling children. Standing outside, with a very plain building behind them. They are both smiling.

Screen, stage, and voice actress Takayo Fischer, was one of 120,000 citizens or residents of Japanese ancestry who were forcibly removed from their homes in Western states and incarcerated in camps during World War II. The youngest of five girls, she grew up with a rich tradition of valuing female friends. The communal nature of the camps—where inmates ate common meals in central mess halls and used bathrooms and showers without individual stalls—broke down the traditional Japanese family structure. As families lost the opportunity to create private family meals or carve out family time, friends, like Jayce Tsenami, took on an even greater importance. Both Takayo and Jayce were inmates at the Jerome camp in Arkansas, where the wooded swampland of the Mississippi delta brought with it mosquitoes, poisonous snakes, malaria, and dysentery. The friendship they forged in camp helped to sustain them through the long and difficult incarceration.

Mary Hill and the Ladies of Maltaville

Quilt with white background and simple shapes in a variety of colors. These include flowers, leaves, and shapes.

In 1847, the women of the Presbyterian Church of Maltaville, New York, honored their friend Mary Hill by making her an album quilt. Album quilts, also called friendship quilts, are made up of appliquéd and embroidered blocks which are joined together to form a quilt. The blocks often contain inked inscriptions with special meaning to the maker, including names, dates, places, or poems.

For Mary Hill's quilt, the women of the church made, joined, lined, and quilted 61 blocks. Each block is signed in ink and features motifs such as birds, flowers, hearts, and stars. At the center of the quilt is a large block with a wreath of flowering vines surrounding the inscription, "Presented to Mrs. Mary B. Hill as an expression of esteem by the Ladies of Maltaville." The quilt was clearly treasured by Mary Hill and her family, as it remained with them for almost 100 years until it was donated to the museum by her granddaughter in 1930.

Gertrud Friedemann and Eva Morgenroth Lande

Black and white portrait of a young girl in a plaid coat. Her hair is on top of her head, perhaps in a hat. Her hands are in muff or hand warmer.

In the 1930s Gertrud Bejach Friedemann and her husband, the bacteriologist Ulrich Friedemann, took refuge in Great Britain and then the United States to avoid the terrors of Nazi Germany. They brought with them Gertrud's two children by her first marriage, Eva and Anton Morgenroth. Among their belongings was a small paper puzzle, called Zauberspiel (Magic Game), which Gertrud had played with as a child in Berlin.

Green piece of paper with rectangular windows cut into the top piece of paper. One window reveals the number 73.

Many green sheets of rigid paper with rectangular windows cut into them, some revealing numbers.

Gertrud passed the game on to her children and it remained a favorite of theirs in their new home in America. In 1988 Eva gave her Zauberspiel to the Smithsonian. The game suggests not only the enduring fascination of mathematical recreations and the rich culture of early 20th century Berlin, but also the power of a small object to tie a mother and daughter who took refuge in the United States to the past they left behind.

Care to try Zauberspiel? Visit our collections record to learn more. But be warned: according to Eva, when family friend Albert Einstein tried his hand at the game he spent days puzzling over it to no avail.

Patri O'Gan is a project assistant in the Division of Armed Forces History. Shannon Perich is a curator in the Division of Culture and the Arts. Mallory Warner is a curatorial assistant and Rachel Anderson is a research and project assistant in the Division of Medicine and Science. Lucy Harvey is a program assistant in the Division of Armed Forces History. Madelyn Shaw is a curator in the Division of Home and Community Life. Peggy Kidwell is a curator in the Division of Medicine and Science.

Author(s): 
Patri O’Gan, Shannon Perich, Mallory Warner, Rachel Anderson, Lucy Harvey, Madelyn Shaw, and Peggy Kidwell
Posted Date: 
Monday, February 13, 2017 - 08:00
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Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 2: Sketchbooks; Subseries 2.01: Persia, 1923: Sketchbook 01

Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
- Title is provided by Xavier Courouble,FSg Archives cataloger, based on Herzfeld's original sketchbook captions and Joseph Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive.

"Ernst Herzfeld's years in Iran [Persia] from [February] 1923 to [the end of October] 1925 were made possible by a private company with limited liability called the Gesellschaft zur Förderung von Ausgrabungen und Forschungsreisen GmbH, which was founded in 1923. Its aim was to foster excavations and scientific expeditions in Asia and to publish the results. [...]. [Consequently] Herzfeld was able to travel freely in Iran and survey most major archaeological sites, including Pasargadae, Persepolis, and Kuh-e Khwaja, and develop for future excavations." [Jens Kröger, "Ernst Herzfeld and Friedrich Sarre", Ernst Herzfeld and the Development of Near Eastern Studies, 1900-1950. Edited by Ann Gunter and Stefan R. Hauser. Leiden: Brill, 2005. P.61 and P.64]

Finding aid, based on Joseph M. Upton's Catalogue of the Herzfeld Archive, 1974, is available in the Archives Department and on Internet http://www.asia.si.edu/archives/finding_aids/herzfeld.html#series2

- SK-1 is the first of a series of thirty-five sketchbooks (Skizzenbücher), in which Ernst Herzfeld recorded his observations on topography, landscape, inscriptions and reliefs, archaeological remains, architecture, artifacts and decorative motifs related to Ctesiphon (Iraq), Qara Tepe (Iran), Paikuli (Iraq), Taq-i Bustan (Iran), Darband i Shaikhan and Sarpul (Iran), Harnawa, Tell Ishan and Kale i Khosrowi (Iran), Bisutun (Iran), Asadabad and Sunghur (Iran), Hamadan (Iran), Qazvin (Iran), Varamin (Iran), Rayy (Iran), Khurha, Tepe Maringar and Husainabad (Iran), and Daulatabad (Iran).

- Original handwritten title on cover reads: "Ernst Herzfeld; Skizzenbuch I: Persien, 1923"

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 1 reads, "Ctesiphon [(Iraq)], Taq-i Kisra, stucco fragments, [19.4.1923], [N-89, inventory number 542]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 2 and 3 reads, "Travel-log Deli 'Abbas, Qara Tepe, Kifri, May 27-29, 1923."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 4 reads, "Tell Ishan [(Iran)], profiles of three potsherds, [see FSA A.6 05.0660]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 5 reads, "Pahlavi inscription."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 6 and 7 reads, "Paikuli [(Iraq)], [plaited hair and palmettes attached to the crown of king Narseh], [see FSA A.6 05.0985], and bell-shaped [column] capital, [see FSA A.6 05.0743]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 8 reads, "Darband i Shaikhan [(Iran)], [rock relief depicting king with foot on the prostrate figure of an enemy as well as detail of stone and metal axes], [see FSA A.6 05.0775; FSA A.6 05.0791]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 9 reads, "Taq-i Bustan [(Iran)], cross-section of column [with fluted shaft, drawn from the Sasanian rock reliefs in the large vault], [see FSA A.6 05.0734]; [ornaments on cloaks of the god and the godesses], [see FSA A.6 05.0918; FSA A.6 05.0955]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 10 reads, "Sarpul [(Iran)], Pahlavi inscription, [12 June 1923]: cross-section of column [with fluted shaft]; Taq-i Girra, masons' marks, [see FSA A.6 05.0955]."

- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 11 and 12 reads, "Harnawa-Harunabad [(Iran)], [reconstruction of prehistoric pottery, profiles of rims and handles], [see N-89, inventory number 734], [see FSA A.6 05.0660]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 13 reads, "Taq-i Bustan, Bisutun [(Iran)], measurements for plan of [group of small grottoes shaped like a Roman triple gate], [see FSA A.6 05.0717; FSA A.6 05.0717a]."

- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 14 and 15 reads, "Kale i Khusrawi [Kale i Khosrowi (Iran)], profiles of Sasanian pottery, [inventory number 920], [see FSA A.6 05.0660]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 16 reads, "Taq-i Bustan and Bisutun [site] [(Iran)], details of capitals [various vegetal ornaments], [see FSA A.6 05.0955]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 17 reads, "Bistun [Bisutun site (Iran)], Greek inscription [on rock relief of Mithridates II (the Parthian remains)]; and on gravestone of 1232 H., in cemetery north of Bistun, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1907]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 18 reads, "Tepe Maringan [(Iran)], south-east of Sunghur, between Sunghur and Qara Tepe, profiles of [prehistoric] pottery, [see N-89, inventory number 800], [see FSA A.6 05.0655]."

- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 19 and 20 reads, "As'adabad [vicinity of Asadabad (Iran)], part of column [bases] and [unidentified gravestones with Arabic inscription, in Kufic script], [see FSA A.6 05.0735; FSA A.6 05.0735a; FSA A.6 05.0749; FSA A.6 05.0750]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 21 reads, "As'adabad [vicinity of Asadabad (Iran)], panel [with Arabic inscription, in Kufic script]; Sunghur [(Iran)], gravestone [with Arabic inscription, in Kufic script]; Firuzabad [(Iran)], between Kerind and Harunabad, [incised relief depicting a hunting scene]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 22 reads, "Darband i Shaikhan [(Iran)], [northwest of Sarpul], cuneiform inscription [on rock relief depicting king with foot on the prostrate figure of an enemy], [see FSA A.6 05.01292]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 23 reads, "Hamadan [(Iran)], Gumbadh i 'Alawiyyan [Gunbad-i Alaywian], [Arabic inscription], in Kufic [script]; Sura 76, 5 and 6, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1944]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 24 reads, "Hamadan [(Iran)], Arabic inscriptions, in Kufic script, in cemetery Sar i Ahl al-Qubur."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 25 reads, "Qazvin (Iran), three Safavid tile inscriptions, white on blue."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 26 reads, "Bistun [Bisutun site (Iran)], [Arabic inscription, in Kufic script, found on gravestone]."

- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 27, 28 and 29 reads, "Sunghur [(Iran)], Kufic and Naskhi tombstone inscriptions, [Arabic inscriptions, in Kufic and Naskhi script, found on gravestone], [see FSA A.6 06.A029; FSA A.6 06.A030; FSA A.6 06.A030a; FSA A.6 06.A030b]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 30 reads, "Kale i Khusrawi [Kale i Khosrowi (Iran)] near Kermanshah, Kufic inscription on tombstone [Arabic inscription, in Kufic script, from unidentified gravestone], [see FSA A.6 06.A031]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 31 reads, "Waramin [Varamin (Iran)], Mosque inscription on outer door [Friday Mosque, remnants of an Arabic inscription on main portal iwan] and one of Sayyid 'Ala in the city, [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1928; FSA A.6 04.GN.1930; FSA A.6 04.GN.1931]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 32 reads, "Waramin [Varamin (Iran)], Kufic inscription in Imamzadeh Sayyid 'Ala [Ala al-Din Tomb Tower, Arabic inscription, in Kufic script, on the triangular flanges], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1938; FSA A.6 04.GN.2520; FSA A.6 04.GN.2521]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 33 reads, "Rayy [(Iran)], Kufic inscription of 534H. [Arabic inscription on iron plaque, possibly from Tughril Mausoleum], [see N-89, inventory number 1515], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1441]; silk roundel, Tehran, [see N-89, inventory number 1517], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1434]."

- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 34 to 43 reads, "Taq-i Bustan [(Iran)], [textile pattern on costume, drawn from the two Sasanian rock reliefs], [see FSA A.6 05.0308; FSA A.6 05.0311; FSA A.6 05.0312; FSA A.6 05.0313; FSA A.6 05.0924; FSA A.6 05.0946; FSA A.6 05.0951]."

- In Finding Aid, caption for pg. 44 reads, "Arabic inscription on inlaid copper tray, possibly in Berlin Museum, [see N-89, inventory number 1632], [see FSA A.6 04.GN.1430]."

- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 45, 46, and 47 reads, "Husainabad [(Iran)], opposite Neizar, [prehistoric] pottery, profiles [of rims and handles], [see FSA A.6 05.0655]."

- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 48 and 49 reads, "Daulatabad [(Iran)], near Khurha, [prehistoric] pottery, profiles [of rims and handles], [see FSA A.6 05.0654]."

- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 50 and 53 reads, "Khurha and Khurha-Shahriyar [(Iran)], [prehistoric] pottery, profiles [of rims and handles] and copper arrow head, [see FSA A.6 05.0654]."

- In Finding Aid, captions for pg. 54, 55, and 56 reads, "Measurements for plan of temple area at Khurha [(Iran)], Oct. 11, [19]23."

The Bold Accomplishments of Women of Color Need to Be a Bigger Part of Suffrage History

Smithsonian Magazine

The history of women gaining the right to vote in the United States makes for riveting material notes Kim Sajet, the director of the Smithsonian’s National Portrait Gallery in the catalog for the museum’s upcoming exhibition, “Votes For Women: a Portrait of Persistence,” and curated by historian Kate Clarke Lemay. “It is not a feel-good story about hard-fought, victorious battles for female equality,” Sajet writes of the show, which delves into the “past with all its biases and complexities” and pays close attention to women of color working on all fronts in a movement that took place in churches and hospitals and in statehouses and on college campuses. With portraiture as its vehicle, the task to represent the story proved challenging in the search and gathering of the images—the Portrait Gallery collection itself is historically biased with just 18 percent of its images representing women.

In this conversation, Lemay and Martha S. Jones, Johns Hopkins University’s Society of Black Alumni presidential professor and author of All Bound Up Together, reflect on the diverse experiences of the “radical women” who built an enduring social movement.

Many Americans know the names Susan B. Anthony or Elizabeth Cady Stanton, but the fight for suffrage encompassed a much wider range of women than we might have studied in history class. What “hidden stories” about the movement does this exhibition uncover?

Lemay: Putting together this exhibition was revealing of how much American women have contributed to history but how little attention we have paid them.

For example, when you think of African-American women activists, many people know about Rosa Parks or Ida B. Wells. But I didn’t know about Sarah Remond, a free African-American who in 1853 was forcibly ejected from her seat at the opera in Boston. She was an abolitionist and was used to fighting for citizenship rights. When she was ejected, she sued and was awarded $500. I hadn’t heard this story before, but I was really moved by her courage and her activism, which didn’t stop—it just kept growing.

The exhibition starts in 1832 with a section called “Radical Women,” which traces women’s early activism. You don’t think of women in these very buttoned-up, conservative dresses as “radical” but they were—they were completely breaking from convention.

Jones: Some of these stories have been hiding in plain sight. In the section on “Radical Women,” visitors are re-introduced to a figure like Sojourner Truth. She is someone whose life is often shrouded in myth, both in her own lifetime and in our own time. Here, we have the opportunity to situate her as a historical figure rather than a mythical figure and set her alongside peers like Lucy Stone, who we more ordinarily associate with the history of women’s suffrage.

Image by NPG. Zitkála-Šá by Joseph T. Keiley, 1898 (original image)

Image by Stuart A. Rose Manuscript, Archives and Rare Book Library, Emory University. Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, unidentified artist, 1895 (original image)

Image by Courtesy of Oberlin College Archives. Anna Julia Haywood (Cooper) by H. M. Platt, 1884 (original image)

Image by Courtesy of Oberlin College Archives. Ida A. Gibbs Hunt by H. M. Platt, 1884 (original image)

Image by State Archives of Florida, Collection M95-2, Florida Memory Image #PROO755. Mary McLeod Bethune by William Ludlow Coursen, 1910 or 1911 (original image)

Image by Courtesy of Oberlin College Archives. Mary E. Church Terrell by H. M. Platt, 1884 (original image)

Image by NPG, gift of Frederick M. Rock. Lucretia Coffin Mott, unidentified artist, c. 1865 (original image)

Image by NPG. Ida B. Wells-Barnett by Sallie E. Garrity, c. 1893 (original image)

The exhibition introduces us to more than 60 suffragists primarily through their portraits. How does this particular medium bring the suffrage movement to life?

Lemay: It’s interesting to see how formal, conventional portraits were used by these “radical women” to demonstrate their respectability. For example, in a Sojourner Truth portrait taken in 1870, she made sure to be portrayed as someone who wasn’t formerly enslaved. Being portrayed as such would have garnered her much more profit as the image would have been considered a more “collectible” item. Instead, she manifested dignity in the way that she dressed and posed . . . she insisted in portraying herself as a free woman.

We see a strong element of self-awareness in these portraits. Lucretia Coffin Mott, a great abolitionist, dressed in Quaker clothing that she often made herself. She was specific about where she sourced her clothing as well, conveying the message that it wasn’t made as a result of forced labor.

On the exhibition catalogue cover, we see Mary McLeod Bethune, beautifully dressed in satin and lace. The exhibition presents the use of photography as a great equalizer; it afforded portraiture to more than just the wealthy elite.

Jones: The other context for African-American portraits, outside the bounds of this exhibition, is the world of caricature and ridicule that African-American women were subjected to in their daily lives. We can view these portraits as “self-fashioning,” but it is a fashioning that is in dialog with, and opposition to, cruel, racist images that are being produced of these women at the same time.

I see these images as political acts, both for making claims about womanhood but also making claims for black womanhood. Sojourner Truth’s garb is an interesting mix of Quaker self-fashioning and finely crafted, elegant fabrics. The middle-class trappings behind her are worth noticing. This is a contrast to later images of someone like Ida B. Wells, who is much more mindful of crafting herself in the fashion of the day.

African-American suffragists were excluded from many leading suffrage organizations of the late 19th and early 20th centuries due to discrimination. How did they make their voices heard in the movement?

Jones: I’m not sure African-American women thought there was only one movement. They came out of many movements: the anti-slavery movement, their own church communities, self-created clubs.

African-American women were oftentimes at odds with their white counterparts in some of the mainstream organizations, so they continued to use their church communities as an organizing base, to develop ideas about women’s rights. The club movement, begun to help African-American women see one other as political beings, became another foundation.

By the end of the 19th century, many of these women joined the Republican Party. In cities like Chicago, African-American women embraced party politics and allied themselves with party operatives. They used their influence and ability to vote at the state level, even before 1920, to affect the question of women’s suffrage nationally.

Lemay: The idea that there were multiple movements is at the forefront of “Votes for Women.” Suffrage, writ large, involves women’s activism for issues including education and financial independence. For example, two African-American women in the exhibition, Anna Julia Cooper and Mary McLeod Bethune, made great strides advocating for college preparatory schools for black students. It’s remarkable to see what they and other African-American women accomplished despite society’s constraints on them.

The 19th Amendment, ratified in 1920, did not resolve the issue of suffrage for many women of color and immigrant women, who continued to battle for voting rights for decades. Might we consider the Voting Rights Act of 1965 part of the 19th Amendment’s legacy?

Jones: Yes and no. I can’t say that the intention of the 19th Amendment was to guarantee to African-American women the right to vote. I think the story of the 19th Amendment is a concession to the ongoing disenfranchisement of African-Americans.

We could draw a line from African-Americans who mobilized for ratification of the 19th Amendment to the Voting Rights Act of 1965, but we’d have to acknowledge that is a very lonely journey for black Americans.

Black Americans might have offered a view that the purpose of the 19th Amendment was not to secure for women the right to vote, but to secure the vote so that women could use it to continue the work of social justice.

Of course, there was much work to be done on the question of women and voting rights subsequent to the 19th Amendment. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was the point at which black men and women were put much closer to equal footing when it comes to voting rights in this country.

Is there one particular suffragist in “Votes for Women” who stood out for her persistence, perhaps serving as a guidepost for activists today?

Lemay: All of the suffragists showed persistence, but two that come to mind are Zitkála-Šá and Susette LaFlesche Tibbles—both remarkable Native-American women leaders. Their activism for voting rights ultimately helped to achieve the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, which granted citizenship to all Native-Americans born in the United States. But their legacy stretched well beyond 1924. In fact, some states excluded Native-Americans from voting rights through the early 1960s, and even today, North Dakota disenfranchises Native-Americans by insisting that they have a physical address rather than a P.O. box. More than a century ago, these two women started a movement that remains essential.

Jones: My favorite figure in the exhibition is Frances Ellen Watkins Harper. Here’s a woman born before the Civil War in a slave-holding state who was orphaned at a young age. She emerges onto the public stage as a poet. She goes on to be an Underground Railroad and anti-slavery activist. She is present at the Women’s Convention of 1866 and joins the movement for suffrage.

The arc of her life is remarkable, but, in her many embodiments, she tells us a story that women’s lives aren’t only one thing. And she tells us that the purpose of women’s rights is to raise up all of humanity, men and women. She persists in advocating for a set of values that reflect the principles of human rights today.

On March 29, the Smithsonian’s National Portrait Gallery opens its major exhibition on the history of women’s suffrage—“Votes for Women: A Portrait of Persistence,” curated by Kate Clarke Lemay. The exhibition details the more than 80-year struggle for suffrage through portraits of women who represent different races, ages, abilities and fields of endeavor.

A version of this article was published by the American Women’s History Initiative.

John Peabody Harrington papers: Nahuatl, 1951

National Anthropological Archives
Microfilm and digital surrogates of microfilm are available. See Volume 7, reels 2-7. Only original documents created by Harrington, his coworkers and field assistants, or field notes given to him by others were microfilmed.

Harrington conducted fieldwork on Nahuatl--also referred to as Aztec--during a six-month period in 1951. In March he left Washington, D.C., arriving at the Hotel Fornos in Mexico City on March 25. He remained there until early September. Most of his informants were found locally, although he did make a number of side trips into the surrounding regions.

During the course of his study he worked with speakers of a number of dialects. He distinguished between the various forms he recorded by the use of abbreviations: "Az." or "Cl. Az." referred to Classical Aztec and "Naw." to Nahuatl. "Fed. Dist." was used for Federal District, "Xoch." for Xochimilco, "MA" for Milpa Alta, "V.C." for Vera Cruz, and "Mat(l)." for Matlapa. Terms from the Valley of Mexico were noted variously by the markers "Valle de Mex.," "V de M.," or "V of M." Some comparisons were occasionally made with Cahuilla (Cah.) words.

Harrington made use of a number of secondary sources throughout his study. The primary works which he consulted included the Dictionnaire de La langue nahuatl ou mexicaine by Remi Simeon, Arte de La lengua mexicana by Horacio Carochi, and a source referred to as "Gar."--possibly by Angel Maria Garibay Kintana or Jose I. Davila Garibi. He evidently had plans to prepare an annotated version of Simeon's Nahuatl-French dictionary. An assistant aided him in photostatting and pasting each entry on a separate card. Preliminary steps were taken to provide English glosses but no new Nahuatl data were appended to them.

The first informant whom Harrington contacted was Miguel Romero. They worked together on March 26 and 27 and April 1. He spoke with Salome Perez on March 27 and interviewed Tomas Perez Escobar on an almost daily basis from March 28 through April 28. The latter, referred to variously as "Professor Perez," "Perez," and "Tomas," was from the Valley of Mexico. Sessions were conducted intermittently with Frederico Hernandez Mota and Professor Jose Farias Galindo in April and May. Farias (Far.) was a Nahuatl speaker teaching elementary school in Mexico City and Xochimilco. Harrington also noted that he was the translator of the Mexican national anthem into Nahuatl and that he published poetry. In several sessions he was accompanied by Santos Acevedo Lopez, a captain in the Mexican army, who also typed a number of sheets for Harrington.

Harrington's financial records for May 22 mention receipts for payment signed by Tiburcio Jaimez and Arcadio Sagahon, indicating that he probably worked with them at least during the latter part of May. Jaimez, usually referred to by the abbreviation "Tib.," was born and raised in the pueblo of San Francisco Calixtlahuacan.

The field notes indicate that Harrington worked with another major informant, Professor Alfonso Hernandez Catarina, beginning in July. Born at Coxcatlan, "Alf." had been living for some nine years at Ciudad Santos, San Luis Potosi.

Among secondary informants with whom Harrington consulted were Professor Gregorio Cruz (Cruz, Ruz), of the Colegio Administrativo at Toluco, who was teaching school in Tenango;Jose Fortino, a resident of Teskitote Ranch; and Professor Camarena of Toluca. Others mentioned were Francisco Pinera Martinez (middle name alternately spelled Pireda), E[fraim] Sanchez, Pablo Yadieis, and Juan Baloria.

Electronic inventory available. Consult with archivist. For a comprehensive description of these materials, see "The papers of John Peabody Harrington in the Smithsonian Institution, 1907-1957, Volume 7: A guide to the field notes: Native American history, language, and culture of Mexico/Central America/South America," edited by Elaine L. Mills (1988). http://anthropology.si.edu/naa/harrington/pdf/mf_guides/jp%20harrington%20guide%20-%20volume%207.pdf

This subseries of the Mexico/Central America/South America series contains Harrington's Nahuatl research. The materials consist of linguistic notes, grammar, texts, and miscellaneous notes.

His linguistic notes form the largest section of this subseries. A semantically arranged vocabulary was elicited from Alfonso Hernandez Catarina. The categories of lexical items include phenomena, directions, seasons, astronomy, time, plant parts, plants, animal parts, animals, age-sex, rank, relationship, material culture, religion, tribenames, and placenames. A "Flood Story" in English is also included. In addition, there are some phrases, information on phonetics and grammar, and a little ethnographic data. There are references to secondary sources such as Simeon, Carochi ("Car."), and "Gar."

Arcadio Sagahon was also a major contributor. Harrington recorded eighteen pages of basic vocabulary with him. There is also a section of randomly arranged vocabulary based on an examination of rock and plant specimens, with occasional references to "Arc's book" (not further identified). Some equivalent terms were provided by Tiburcio Jaimez.

A compilation of several sets of word lists on numbered pages resulted from a number of linguistic sessions with Tiburcio Jaimez. These include commentary on a book by Cardenas (abbreviated "Card.") which is not further identified. Harrington also elicited Jaimez's aid in rehearing the source referred to as "Gar." They developed fairly extensive annotations to pages 40 to 51 of that work, and the section on verbs. In addition, Jaimez provided commentary on the book Raices etimologicas del idioma nahuatl by Pedro Barra y Valenzuela.

Additional linguistic data were furnished by Tomas Perez Escobar and Jose Farias Galindo. A general, unsorted vocabulary which Harrington recorded from Escobar, with a few comments from Arcadio Sagahon, is supplemented by a sizable section of notes in his own hand. Sentences in Nahuatl are each followed by a Spanish translation. Farias provided vocabulary during a number of sessions in which he was accompanied by Captain Santos Acevedo Lopez. There is also a small file of miscellaneous vocabulary given together by Farias and Arcadio Sagahon.

Many of the data from the preceding groups of field notes were brought together in a comprehensive semantic arrangement. In addition, Harrington compiled lists of words in English and Spanish as a questionnaire for eliciting Maya words. (In fact, this section is headed by a sheet with the label "Questionnaire for Az[tec].")

A final section of linguistic notes includes miscellaneous shorter vocabularies, a four-page word list, and Harrington's questionnaire. A "Coyotepec Vocabulary" of nineteen pages was recorded from Francisco Pinera Martinez. It includes Xochimilco equivalences, commentary by Jose Farias Galindo, and a reference to Mr. Sanchez. Notes from a "Cuautla Trip" include a short vocabulary (seven pages) from an unidentified informant and miscellaneous notes on people and places. A twenty-three page basic vocabulary and a few phrases were recorded from Jose Fortino. Harrington later obtained a few Xochimilco glosses and a little commentary by Arcadio Sagahon. The sixteen pages of notes, resulting from a trip Harrington took to Tepotzotlan with Farias and "Arc," contain miscellaneous data and references to an unnamed informant. A basic vocabulary and some short sentences were elicited from Jose Barreraon May 2, 1951, under the heading "Tete. Voc." It is unclear whether the language referred to is Tetelcingo or Tetela but it was presumably related to the language of Tezcoco. The seventy pages of data, which include some Xochimilco terms and information on the country, are supplemented by two pages obtained from "Juan while waiting for the bus." The material was reheard with Farias, Perez, and Sagahon at a later date. There are nine pages of data from an interview with Albino (Alvino) Cortes. There is a mention of Frederico Hernandez, and Miguel Romero was also present during the recording of the "Aztec vocabulary." Lexical items were recorded from Munoz (alternate spelling Munos), Romero, and Juan Ramos of Puebla, near Vera Cruz City. There are also four pages of notes in an unidentified hand and a questionnaire used by Harrington in his linguistic work. It includes a little data from "Alf." and "Arc."

Notes on Nahuatl grammar include excerpts from a number of published sources, primarily Whorf, Simeon, and Carochi. The topics covered include phonetics (one section is labeled "Phonetics Tibd"), syntax, verb, noun, pronoun, numeral, adjective, adverb, postposition, conjunction, and interjection. The principal informants cited are Arcadio Sagahon and Tomas Perez Escobar. Additional information was provided by Alfonso Hernandez Catarina, Tiburcio Jaimez, Tomas Perez Escobar, Jose Farias Galindo, and Captain Acevedo. One page of the grammar is in Farias' handwriting. Several pages are marked "Tete."

The major sets of Nahuatl texts which Harrington recorded were assigned by him to one of two categories: "Finished" or "Not yet gone over." The first designation indicates that the Nahuatl phonetic transcription of a given text was refined with the original speaker--and sometimes reheard by others--and that it was accompanied by a complete Spanish translation and possibly notes. There are references to Matlapa and Jalpilla forms. The predominant contributor was Arcadio Sagahon. Alternate versions of each text were also given by Tiburcio Jaimez and Alfonso Hernandez. All of the stories have to do with animals and many appear to be translations of fables rather than native texts: "The Sky Is Falling" (Chicken Little), "La Zorra y el Queso" (The Fox and the Cheese). The texts labeled "Not gone over" appear to have been recorded from Hernandez and Jaimez but not reviewed with Sagahon. The stories include "The Girl and the Head of the Birds," "The Queen Bee and the Drone," and the lengthy "La Vida de un Indigena." A miscellaneous set of texts at the end of the series represents an attempt at a translation of the Lord's Prayer by Hernandez and Sagahon and a poem evidently written by the latter.

Harrington also compiled several miscellaneous files of data on Nahuatl. The first, consisting of notes from the period 1922 to 1927, includes bibliographic references, a list of "Aztek" words from Ben Elson in Vera Cruz, and a partial English translation of Carochi's grammar by Paul Vogenitz. Other files -which contain some typed and handwritten notes prepared by others-include background notes on the geography, history, and language of the Nahuatl; bibliographic references; maps; and a list of "persons and addresses." The latter contains some biographical data on Harrington's informants. There are also reports from Carlos Morales and copies of letters which reflect Harrington's efforts to contact Nahuatl speakers.

10 blog posts from 2016 that history buffs can't miss

National Museum of American History

2016 was a stupendous year for the museum's blog! Many thanks to the staff, volunteers, interns, and guest writers who shared their research and expertise with us on topics ranging from an epic 1888 blizzard to a British-American television series about historical time travel. But we want to offer a special thanks to YOU, reader, for making our blog part of your week and sharing these stories with your friends and colleagues.

One of your favorite topics this year was food history so I've made a separate list of the top food history posts of 2016 for you to nibble upon. (I'll publish that one soon!) Read on for some can't-miss history posts from our blog.

A handwritten note hastily scrawled on a large rectangular yellow Post-it

1. Why did the Smithsonian collect a handwritten note from September 11, 2001?
We recently collected a handwritten note from a wife to her husband on September 11, 2001. Both were Pentagon employees who survived the terrorist attack, and in an era in which cell phones were yet to be essential possessions, a system of putting a note on their car in an emergency reunited them on a tragic day. The story of this unassuming scrap of paper received over 64,480 pageviews in just a few months.

young man wearing a jacket and a kilt seated upon a desk or similar furniture

2. Finding Outlander in the Photographic History Collections
Fans of the world of Outlander, with strapping Jamie and sharp-witted sassenach Claire, loved our post of photos which included views of Scotland and fashions that traveled from the Highlands to America. We definitely "ken" why this one was such a favorite.

Tinted black and white photo featuring a bride with veil, three or four groomsmen, and three bridesmaids. They are outdoors with leafy green trees and green grass. Behind them, a woman stands with arms crossed and cars are parked.

3. Pick which photos of celebrations in African American life should go on our walls
Celebrations of all kinds are on display in this touching post, featuring special moments and traditions in American culture. Inviting the public to decide the winners, we presented a number of colorful, thoughtful, and vibrant photos from African American life for consideration. Who won? We revealed the winners here.

Color photo of a woman carefully handling a Ruby Slipper and placing it into a brace or mount for display.

4. The conservator who is saving the Ruby Slippers' sparkle

Our supremely successful Kickstarter campaign raised the necessary funds to study and conserve the famed Ruby Slippers from The Wizard of Oz so they can stay on display for generations to come. In this post, we sit down with Dawn Wallace, a member of the conservation team that will painstakingly research and work on one of the most popular objects at the museum. Want more details about why the slippers need conservation or our Kickstarter campaign? Find your answers here.

Color photo of lots of red poppies growing in front of the Washington Memorial. Blue skies and green trees surround.

5. Before Memorial Day, brush up on your language of flowers

Flowers and the military might seem like an odd pairing, but symbolism behind certain blooms has historical significance. "Floriography" (the language of flowers) was prevalent in the Victorian Era, but wearing red poppies is a tradition that has endured to contemporary times.

Black and white photo of man wearing a hat leaning against a giant bank of snow. To the right, snow-covered gate or fence and three story building.

6. The blizzard of 1888

Snowmaggedon of 2016 bogged down the mid-Atlantic states with foot after foot of snow, but imagine a storm in a time without snow plows when people had no choice but to cope. Wowed by several feet of snow? Try New York in 1888, which suffered under STORIES. History shows that nature can be a powerful and fearsome thing.

Photo two nuns walk with a line of students. The girls, at the front of the line, wear white dresses and have headbands on. The boys, in the back of the line, wear blue suits. They're on a sidewalk outside a building.

7. A uniform approach to documenting Catholic school education

Did you go to Catholic school? Did you wear a uniform? The uniforms of the early days of parochial school were not the crisp khakis, navy skirts, and white blouses we see today. While school attire may chafe at the sensibilities of individualistic youth, the history of parochial school uniforms is not at all bland.

Postcard with photo of two young children wearing ballet shoes. Little boy holds top hat in his raised hand and an over-sized coat. The little girl strikes a pose with a fancy fan and wears a full-skirted tea length dress and a hat with many bows.

8. Who takes the cake? The history of the cakewalk

A distinctly African American product, the circular group "cake walk" dance originated with enslaved people, who sometimes used the activity to mock the culture of their masters. Who got the joke and who didn't? This blog post reveals the cake walk was way more than a simple promenade dance with a pastry for a prize.

A caricature of Jefferson Davis stands bawling with text, "Jeff, on Harper's Ferry. I should think I might be let alone. Boo-oo-oh"

9. 4 fascinating examples of Civil War humor

Americans have always been able to find humor in situations that seem devoid of hope. The Civil War, one of the darkest periods in national history, still had humorous propaganda, cartoons, and art skewering Confederate leaders and military men.

A full-length photo of the sewing machine. It looks like a box with painted doors featuring images of a man and woman. The top is open to show the sewing needle.

10. Yes, Mrs. Tom Thumb had a sewing machine

Fascination with celebrities is a cornerstone of American popular culture and public life, with individuals and families becoming wealthy and famous through voracious self-promotion, scandal, and entrepreneurship. A celebrity of yesteryear called Tom Thumb had a celebrity wedding that rivaled the glitzy movie star extravaganzas we see in tabloids today. Mr. and Mrs. Thumb captured national attention because of their size as well as the Thumbs' work with P.T. Barnum.

Rebecca Seel works with the Office of Communication and Marketing as well as the New Media Department. She would love to be in a wedding where she wears "a bright pink bridesmaids dress" like the one in this blog post.

Posted Date: 
Monday, December 19, 2016 - 11:00
OSayCanYouSee?d=qj6IDK7rITs OSayCanYouSee?d=7Q72WNTAKBA OSayCanYouSee?i=xhfKpPFXbcY:TeoiU_gbZsA:V_sGLiPBpWU OSayCanYouSee?i=xhfKpPFXbcY:TeoiU_gbZsA:gIN9vFwOqvQ OSayCanYouSee?d=yIl2AUoC8zA

10 blog posts from 2016 that history buffs can't miss

National Museum of American History

2016 was a stupendous year for the museum's blog! Many thanks to the staff, volunteers, interns, and guest writers who shared their research and expertise with us on topics ranging from an epic 1888 blizzard to a British-American television series about historical time travel. But we want to offer a special thanks to YOU, reader, for making our blog part of your week and sharing these stories with your friends and colleagues.

One of your favorite topics this year was food history so I've made a separate list of the top food history posts of 2016 for you to nibble upon. (I'll publish that one soon!) Read on for some can't-miss history posts from our blog.

A handwritten note hastily scrawled on a large rectangular yellow Post-it

1. Why did the Smithsonian collect a handwritten note from September 11, 2001?
We recently collected a handwritten note from a wife to her husband on September 11, 2001. Both were Pentagon employees who survived the terrorist attack, and in an era in which cell phones were yet to be essential possessions, a system of putting a note on their car in an emergency reunited them on a tragic day. The story of this unassuming scrap of paper received over 64,480 pageviews in just a few months.

young man wearing a jacket and a kilt seated upon a desk or similar furniture

2. Finding Outlander in the Photographic History Collections
Fans of the world of Outlander, with strapping Jamie and sharp-witted sassenach Claire, loved our post of photos which included views of Scotland and fashions that traveled from the Highlands to America. We definitely "ken" why this one was such a favorite.

Tinted black and white photo featuring a bride with veil, three or four groomsmen, and three bridesmaids. They are outdoors with leafy green trees and green grass. Behind them, a woman stands with arms crossed and cars are parked.

3. Pick which photos of celebrations in African American life should go on our walls
Celebrations of all kinds are on display in this touching post, featuring special moments and traditions in American culture. Inviting the public to decide the winners, we presented a number of colorful, thoughtful, and vibrant photos from African American life for consideration. Who won? We revealed the winners here.

Color photo of a woman carefully handling a Ruby Slipper and placing it into a brace or mount for display.

4. The conservator who is saving the Ruby Slippers' sparkle

Our supremely successful Kickstarter campaign raised the necessary funds to study and conserve the famed Ruby Slippers from The Wizard of Oz so they can stay on display for generations to come. In this post, we sit down with Dawn Wallace, a member of the conservation team that will painstakingly research and work on one of the most popular objects at the museum. Want more details about why the slippers need conservation or our Kickstarter campaign? Find your answers here.

Color photo of lots of red poppies growing in front of the Washington Memorial. Blue skies and green trees surround.

5. Before Memorial Day, brush up on your language of flowers

Flowers and the military might seem like an odd pairing, but symbolism behind certain blooms has historical significance. "Floriography" (the language of flowers) was prevalent in the Victorian Era, but wearing red poppies is a tradition that has endured to contemporary times.

Black and white photo of man wearing a hat leaning against a giant bank of snow. To the right, snow-covered gate or fence and three story building.

6. The blizzard of 1888

Snowmaggedon of 2016 bogged down the mid-Atlantic states with foot after foot of snow, but imagine a storm in a time without snow plows when people had no choice but to cope. Wowed by several feet of snow? Try New York in 1888, which suffered under STORIES. History shows that nature can be a powerful and fearsome thing.

Photo two nuns walk with a line of students. The girls, at the front of the line, wear white dresses and have headbands on. The boys, in the back of the line, wear blue suits. They're on a sidewalk outside a building.

7. A uniform approach to documenting Catholic school education

Did you go to Catholic school? Did you wear a uniform? The uniforms of the early days of parochial school were not the crisp khakis, navy skirts, and white blouses we see today. While school attire may chafe at the sensibilities of individualistic youth, the history of parochial school uniforms is not at all bland.

Postcard with photo of two young children wearing ballet shoes. Little boy holds top hat in his raised hand and an over-sized coat. The little girl strikes a pose with a fancy fan and wears a full-skirted tea length dress and a hat with many bows.

8. Who takes the cake? The history of the cakewalk

A distinctly African American product, the circular group "cake walk" dance originated with enslaved people, who sometimes used the activity to mock the culture of their masters. Who got the joke and who didn't? This blog post reveals the cake walk was way more than a simple promenade dance with a pastry for a prize.

A caricature of Jefferson Davis stands bawling with text, "Jeff, on Harper's Ferry. I should think I might be let alone. Boo-oo-oh"

9. 4 fascinating examples of Civil War humor

Americans have always been able to find humor in situations that seem devoid of hope. The Civil War, one of the darkest periods in national history, still had humorous propaganda, cartoons, and art skewering Confederate leaders and military men.

A full-length photo of the sewing machine. It looks like a box with painted doors featuring images of a man and woman. The top is open to show the sewing needle.

10. Yes, Mrs. Tom Thumb had a sewing machine

Fascination with celebrities is a cornerstone of American popular culture and public life, with individuals and families becoming wealthy and famous through voracious self-promotion, scandal, and entrepreneurship. A celebrity of yesteryear called Tom Thumb had a celebrity wedding that rivaled the glitzy movie star extravaganzas we see in tabloids today. Mr. and Mrs. Thumb captured national attention because of their size as well as the Thumbs' work with P.T. Barnum.

Rebecca Seel works with the Office of Communication and Marketing as well as the New Media Department. She would love to be in a wedding where she wears "a bright pink bridesmaids dress" like the one in this blog post.

Posted Date: 
Monday, December 19, 2016 - 11:00
OSayCanYouSee?d=qj6IDK7rITs OSayCanYouSee?d=7Q72WNTAKBA OSayCanYouSee?i=xhfKpPFXbcY:TeoiU_gbZsA:V_sGLiPBpWU OSayCanYouSee?i=xhfKpPFXbcY:TeoiU_gbZsA:gIN9vFwOqvQ OSayCanYouSee?d=yIl2AUoC8zA

The Great Blues Singer Gladys Bentley Broke All the Rules

Smithsonian Magazine

In 1934, a midtown Manhattan nightclub called King’s Terrace was padlocked by the police after an observer complained of the “dirty songs” performed there.

The after-theater club near Broadway was where a troupe of “liberally painted male sepians with effeminate voices and gestures” performed behind entertainer Gladys Bentley, who was no less provocative for early 20th-century America. Performing in a signature white top hat, tuxedo and tails, Bentley sang raunchy songs laced with double-entendres that thrilled and scandalized her audiences.

And while the performance of what an observer called a “masculine garbed smut-singing entertainer” led to the shutdown of King’s Terrace, Bentley’s powerful voice, fiery energy on the piano and bold lyrics still made her a star of New York City nightclubs.

Her name doesn’t have the same recognition as many of her Harlem Renaissance peers, in part, because the risqué nature of her performances would have kept her out of mainstream venues, newspapers and history books. Today though, Bentley’s story is resurfacing and she is seen as an African-American woman who was ahead of her time for proudly loving other women, wearing men’s clothing and singing bawdy songs.

Years before Gladys Bentley performed in midtown Manhattan, she arrived in Harlem around 1925. After leaving her hometown of Philadelphia as a teenager, she arrived in New York during the Harlem Renaissance and was absorbed into a vibrant artistic and intellectual community.

“The Harlem Renaissance is really a critical point in the history and evolution of African-Americans in the 20th century,” says Dwandalyn Reece, curator of music and performing arts at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African American History and Culture. “The creativity that came out of that period shaped music, theater, dance, literature, intellectual thought and scholarship in a way that has shaped who we are today.”

Portraits of Bentley are now held in the music collections of the African American History museum, where the performer is both a face of the Harlem Renaissance and an example of a woman who on her own terms navigated the entertainment business during the Great Depression and Prohibition Eras.

“I think not only of the performative side but that Bentley was a working woman,” says Reece, who described a letter in the collection which shows that Bentley reprimanded a club owner who failed to pay her. “It makes you wonder and ask more questions about what her challenges were in the professional arena and if this was all easy for her,” Reece says.

Despite those challenges Bentley likely encountered in New York’s entertainment business, it is no surprise that she moved to Harlem. As someone who wrote about feeling attracted to women and being comfortable in men’s clothes from an early age, Bentley likely would have found more acceptance in a community that was home to other sexually-fluid entertainers like Bessie Smith and Ethel Waters. Historian Henry Louis Gates Jr. even described the Harlem Renaissance being “surely as gay as it was black”

According to Jim Wilson, author of the book Bulldaggers, Pansies, and Chocolate Babies: Performance, Race, and Sexuality in the Harlem Renaissance, Harlem was also a community that the police turned a blind eye to during the Prohibition Era. People, many of whom were white, seeking entertainment and covert access to alcohol crowded into Harlem nightclubs, speakeasies and parties.

While Harlem was home to African-Americans facing the challenges of the Great Depression, it also became a destination for pleasure-seekers who Wilson says were eager to “let loose of their bourgeois attitudes. . . and experiment both sexually and socially.”

Years before Bentley played midtown nightclubs, she got her musical career started at rent parties, where people in Harlem would cover the costs by charging admission for private parties with alcohol and live performances.

“She quickly made a name for herself as somebody who sang ribald songs,” says Wilson. “She would take popular songs of the day and just put the filthiest lyrics possible. She took the songs ‘Sweet Alice Blue Gown’ and ‘Georgia Brown,’ and combined them and it became a song about anal sex.”

Bentley was not the first to sing raunchy music, but Reece said that she was still breaking barriers by “pushing the boundaries of public taste in a way that would have been much more suitable for a man to do.”

After graduating from the rent party circuit, Bentley got her shot at becoming a nightclub performer. In an article she wrote about her life for Ebony magazine, she said that soon after arriving in Harlem she auditioned at the Mad House, a venue on 133rd Street, which was in need of a male pianist.

“At the Mad House, the boss was reluctant to give me a chance,” Bentley wrote. “I finally convinced him. My hands fairly flew over the keys. When I had finished my first number, the burst of applause was terrific.”

In Bentley’s account of her life, her audience was as fascinated by her style as it was by her music.

“For the customers of the club, one of the unique things about my act was the way I dressed,” she wrote. “I wore immaculate full white dress shirts with stiff collars, small bow ties and shirts, oxfords, short Eton jackets and hair cut straight back.”

Gladys Bentley by unidentified photographer, ca. 1940 (NMAAHC)

As a singer, Bentley became known for a deep, growling voice and a trumpet-like scat. As a performer, she was advertised by event promoters as a “male impersonator,” and she filled venues with loud, rowdy performances in which she would flirt with women in the audience.

Langston Hughes praised Bentley as “an amazing exhibition of musical energy—a large, dark, masculine lady, whose feet pounded the floor while her fingers pounded the keyboard—a perfect piece of African sculpture, animated by her own rhythm.”

As her star rose, Bentley began playing larger Harlem venues, like the Cotton Club and the iconic gay speakeasy the Clam House. Her act drew white patrons from outside of Harlem, including writer and photographer Carl van Vechten, who based a fictional blues singer in one of his novels off of her, writing that “when she pounds the piano the dawn comes up like thunder.”

Bentley’s fame was a product of being both a gifted singer and an adept provocateur. Her shocking lyrics were accompanied by gossip column stories that readers would have found equally shocking.

“Gladys Bentley had told the gossip columnist that she had just gotten married. The gossip columnist asked, ‘well, who's the man?’ And she scoffed and said, ‘Man? It's a woman,’” Wilson says.

Gladys Bentley: America's Greatest Sepia Player—The Brown Bomber of Sophisticated Songs by an unidentified photographer, 1946-1949 (NMAAHC)

The rumored marriage had all the makings of an early 20th-century scandal—Bentley claimed that not only was it a same-sex civil ceremony, but that the union was between herself and a white woman. While Wilson says there is no record of that union taking place, the story is still a glimpse into Bentley’s unapologetic openness about her sexual orientation, and her acute understanding of the power of shock value.

“One of the frustrating and actually joyous things about Gladys Bentley was she was constantly inventing herself,” Wilson says. “Oftentimes when she mentioned something about her personal life, you had to take it with a grain of salt and not necessarily take it for truth.”

By the late 1930s, the Harlem Renaissance and Gladys Bentley, had lost their allure. The Prohibition Era had come to an end, and now white pleasure-seekers frequented Harlem far less than before.

Bentley moved to California, where she continued recording music, touring and performing in upscale supper clubs and bars, but Wilson says her act was a “toned down” version of what it was at the height of her fame in New York.

By the 1950s, Bentley was approaching middle age and the roaring 20s of her youth and the Harlem Renaissance community that flirted with modernism was now a thing of her past.

“The 1950s were even more conservative than the early part of the 20th century. We see a real change so that somebody who is identified as lesbian or gay is considered a national menace. It's up there with being a communist,” Wilson says. “So Gladys Bentley abandoned that and seems to want to restart her career as a more traditional black woman performer.”

In 1952, Bentley wrote her life story in an article for Ebony magazine, entitled “I Am A Woman Again.” In the article, she described the life of a glamorous performer who silently struggled with herself. “For many years, I lived in a personal hell,” she wrote. “Like a great number of lost souls, I inhabited that half-shadow no man’s land which exists between the boundaries of the two sexes.”

After a lifetime of loneliness, she wrote that she had undergone medical treatment that awakened her “womanliness.” She claimed to have married twice, though Wilson says that one of the men denied ever having been married to Bentley. The article was accompanied by photos of Bentley wearing a matronly white housedress and performing the role of homemaker—preparing meals, making the bed for her husband, wearing a dress and flowers in her hair.

Scholars who have studied Bentley’s life said that the story Bentley told about being “cured” in the Ebony article was likely a response to the McCarthy Era and its hostile claims that homosexuality and communism were threats to the country. Wilson also says that Bentley, who was aging and no stranger to reinvention, was likely making deft use of the press. “I like to believe that Gladys Bentley had her thumb on the pulse of the time. She knew what was popular, what she could do, and what people would pay to see,” he says.

Her career continued after that point, though briefly. In 1958, Bentley, who grew up in Philadelphia, appeared on Groucho Marx’s game show “You Bet Your Life” where she said she was from Port-au-Spain (her mother happened to be Trinidadian). She took a seat at the piano on the set and performed a song that showed a vocal range and confidence that hadn’t diminished since her days in Harlem.

In 1960, after a lifetime as a popular entertainer and a woman who lived on the fringes in a world that wasn’t ready to accept her, Gladys Bentley succumbed to pneumonia. She had been living in California with her mother and was waiting to be ordained as a minister in the Temple of Love in Christ, Inc. Today, she is being rediscovered for the same reason that her story was obscured during her youth.

“Gladys Bentley should be remembered for being a gender outlaw,” says Wilson. “She was just defiant in who she was, and for gender and sexuality studies today, she shows the performance of gender.”

Spicilegia zoologica : quibus novae imprimis et obscurae animalium species iconibus, descriptionibus atque commentariis illustrantur / cura P.S. Pallas ..

Smithsonian Libraries
Each fasc. has separate t.p.

Imprints vary: fasc. 11-12, apud Christianum Fridericum Voss, 1777-1778; fasc. 13, apud Christianum Fridericum Voss et filium, 1779; fasc. 14, apud Joachimum Pauli, 1780.

T.p. vignette engraved by Glassbach after F. Gandini.

Woodcut title vignettes, head-and tail-pieces, initials.

Each fasc. ill. with engr. plates (part. fold.), except fasc. 13, which has pl. IV-VI of fasc. 12 bound in (apparently as issued, since description printed in text of fasc. 13). Fasc. 1-5, 8-10 engraved by C.B. Glassbach after A. Scheuman, J.B.G. Hopfer, C. Hiller, and J.J. Bylaert; fasc. 6-7 engraved by I.F. Schuster after Scheuman, Bylaert, and Decker. Fasc. 11, pl. I engraved by I.F. Schleuen; other fasc. 11-14 plates unsigned.

Fasc. I: [9], 4-44 p., III pl.; fasc. II: 32 p., III pl.; fasc. III: 35, [1] p., IV pl.; fasc. IV: 23, [1] p., III pl.; fasc. V: [6], 34 p., V pl.; fasc. VI: [2], 36 p., V pl.; fasc. VII: [2], 42 p., VI pl.; fasc. VIII: 54 p., V pl.; fasc. IX: 86 p., V pl.; fasc. X: 41, [10] p., IV pl.; fasc. XI: 86 p., V pl.; fasc. XII: 71, [1] p., III pl.; fasc. XIII: 45, [1] p., pl. IV-VI of fasc. XII; fasc. XIV: xiv, 94 p., IV pl.

Index follows fasc. 10.

Also available online.

Elecresource

SCNHRB has four copies.

SCNHRB c. 1 (39088015065634) imperfect: fasc. 1-10 only.

SCNHRB c. 1 stamped on t.p.: Library, U.S. National Museum Smithsonian Institution Jan 7 1890 [ms. acc. no.] 134786.

SCNHRB c. 1 stamped on t.p.: Isaac Lea Collection.

SCNHRB c. 1 bound as 1 v. in green library buckram, title in gilt on spine, marbled edges.

SCNHRB c. 2 (39088015065675) imperfect: fasc. 2-6, 10-11 only.

SCNHRB c. 2 has pencilled bibliographical notes, including the Tucker collation note on t.p.

SCNHRB c. 2 has bookplates: 1) Jonathan Dwight Jr.; 2) Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Gift of Marcia Brady Tucker.

SCNHRB c. 2 half bound as 1 v. in calf and marbled paper boards, red sprinkled edges; with gilt armorial on front cover of John Henry Gurney; housed in an archival cardboard portfolio.

SCNHRB c. 3 (39088015065717) imperfect: fasc. 9-14 only.

SCNHRB c. 3 has bookplate: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia ("deposited by Dr. Wilson 1848") [and] booklabel: Ordered to be sold by the Acad. Nat. Sciences of Philada. April 25, 1882.

SCNHRB c. 3 stamped on t.p.: Library of Congress, Smithsonian Deposit Jun 26 1882 [ms. acc. no.] 117412.

SCNHRB c. 3 quarter bound in 1 v. in brown cloth; housed in an archival cardboard portfolio.

SCNHRB c. 4 (39088015065758) consists of plates to fasc. 1-10 only.

SCNHRB c. 4 plates are hand-colored.

SCNHRB c. 4 has pencilled bibliographical notes, unidentified ink inscription on 1st front free endpapers, and ink ms. note of Charles W. Richmond, dated Feb 10, 1911.

SCNHRB c. 4 half bound in sheepskin and marbled paper boards; housed in an archival cardboard box.

Program for a boxing match between Joe Frazier and George Foreman

National Museum of African American History and Culture
A thirty-two page program for a boxing match between Joe Frazier and George Foreman. The front cover features stylized images of George Forman and Joe Frazier's faces. Black and gold type on front of program reads: [THE SUNSHINE SHOWDOWN / JOE / FRAZIER / UNDEFEATED CHAMPION / VS / GEORGE FOREMAN / UNDEFEATED NO.1 CHALLENGER / JAN. 22 1973 / NATIONAL STADIUM / KINGSTON / JAMAICA]. The interior features advertisements for Jamaica travel and business, messages from political figures, features on Jamaican sports/athletes, profiles of Frazier, Foreman and other boxers Percy Hayles, Al Ford, Bunny Grant.

Playbill for A Raisin in the Sun with insert essay ‘Sweet Lorraine'

National Museum of African American History and Culture
Playbill magazine (2015.61.14.1), April 2014, featuring the play, "A Raisin in the Sun" written by Lorraine Hansberry, directed by Kenny Leon, starring Denzel Washington, LaTanya Richardson, and Sophie Okonedo, and performed at the Ethel Barrymore Theater, New York 2014. The top third of the cover is the masthead, a yellow rectangular field with black type with the magazine's title, [PLAYBILL ®] above the text [ETHEL BARRYMORE THEATER]. Below the masthead and outlined with a Kente cloth border, is a black-and-white image tinted blue of a young boy on a street. The boy walks past a row of receding buildings seen in the upper right quadrant to the upper left. The boy is pictured on the right side near the lower corner. He holds something to his mouth in his proper left hand and holds books under his proper right arm. Behind him, centered in the image, is a woman wearing a long coat, carrying an umbrella on her proper left arm. Overlaying the image is a narrow, a Kente cloth outline of a circle. In the lower third of the image, justified on the left side, is orange text with the title of the play, which is also the main coverline, [a RAISIN / in the SUN]. Below the image at the bottom is a small yellow rectangle with a website in black text. The back cover features an ad for Gucci cologne. The magazine has fifty-two (52) pages.

A tri-folded pamphlet of the essay "Sweet Lorraine" (2015.61.14.2) about Lorraine Hansberry, written by James Baldwin. Printed on semi-gloss paper, the pamphlet is navy blue with stylized, Kente cloth borders throughout. On the front in the upper right corner is a circular, black-and-white image of Lorraine Hansberry. Overlapping the image is white block text [SWEET / LORRAINE]. Below the title is the byline in orange text, [BY JAMES BALDWIN] followed by a line of white text that reads [THAT'S THEY WAY I ALWAYS FELT ABOUT YOU, AND SO / I WON'T APOLOGIZE FOR CALLING HER THAT NOW.]. Below the text and byline is the beginning of Baldwin's essay in white text. The inside of the pamphlet the essay continues and features four (4) circular black and white images of cityscapes. In the lower left corner of the back page is an additional black-and-white image of Hansberry. Above and around the image are the final paragraphs of the essay.

A narrow cell phone reminder flyer (2015.61.14.3) with navy blue background with a narrow, stylized Kente cloth border, printed on glossy paper. Covering the whole of flyer is block text of varying sizes. The text is in orange and white, justified on the right side and reads [DEAR FRIENDS, / PLEASE / PROTECT YOUR / OWN GOOD TIME / AND THAT OF YOUR / NEIGHBOR BY / TURNING / OFF YOUR / CELL/ PHONE / NOW. / THANK YOU.]. The reverse is blank.

Set of twenty molded heads in the form of a caricatured men and women

National Museum of African American History and Culture
A set of twenty (20) molded heads in the form of a caricatured men and women, ten (10) male heads and ten (10) female heads.

The male heads (2007.7.268.1, .3, .5, .8, .9, .11, .13, .15, .17, .19), faces and hair have been painted black. They have round faces with large, round blue eyes, wide smiling mouths, red lips and white teeth. They are depicted wearing yellow hats placed slightly askew and have blue collars. The heads are hollow with opening at the bottom of the necks. The molded shape of the heads are identical for all ten (10) male dolls, but the painted features slightly vary from head to head.

The female heads (2007.7.268.2, .4, .6, .7, .10, .12, .14, .16, .18, .20), faces and hair have been painted black. They have pointed chins, wide, blue eyes, white teeth and red lips. They are depicted wearing red caps with white polka dots and a ruffle halo brim and a red collars around the necks. The heads are hollow with opening at the bottom of the necks. The molded shape of the heads are identical for all ten (10) female dolls, but the painted features slightly vary from head to head.

Radical Members of the South Carolina Legislature

National Museum of African American History and Culture
A composite photograph of the allegedly radical members of the South Carolina legislature. The photo is titled beneath the image, and print appears at bottom. There is also text printed on the back listing the last names of the sitters along with the designation "white" or "colored."

Straw sombrero hat associated with Civil Rights campaign, Camden, Alabama

National Museum of African American History and Culture
A woven straw sombrero hat with a rounded crown and wide brim with rolled edges. The ends of some straw pieces are loose on the brim. The hat has writing in brown marker on the crown and underside of the brim. The words [Peace] and [Love] are written around the base of the crown. A floral design and additional text is found on the top of the crown. The underside of the brim is filled with additional writing. It includes names: [Carl], [Sophia], [Lena], and [Estella]. It also includes word and phrases: [Soul], [Sister], [Brother], and [Can you dig it]. The hat was worn by Lena Jo Anderson during the Civil Rights campaign in Camden, Alabama.
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