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"Here's Your Clock, Cheers from M&Co."

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
"Here's your clock Cheers from M&Co."

"Hermaphrodites with Attitude" t-shirt

National Museum of American History

"Heroes Come with Empty Sleeves"

National Museum of American History

Curator Dr. Katherine Ott invited students in Dr. Samuel J. Redman's Museum/Historic Site Interpretation Seminar to explore the museum's disability history collections and write blog posts sharing their research. Read more posts by the students in our Disability History section.

Andrew Roy was 26 years old when Lieutenant Henry S. Farley lobbed the infamous first shot of the Civil War over Charleston Harbor on April 17, 1861. He answered President Lincoln's call for 75,000 volunteers by travelling north from his native Maryland and enlisting in a Pennsylvania regiment. The young man paid dearly for his zeal when he was gravely wounded at the Battle of Gaines Mill.

A private in Company F, Tenth Pennsylvania Reserves, Andrew Roy and his unit rushed forward to bolster the Union line against tenacious Confederate assaults. During the charge, he was felled by a shot that destroyed the left side of his pelvis. Roy was then captured when the field hospital he was kept in was overrun by Rebel forces a few days later. Upon returning home from a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp in Richmond, Virginia, his transition to civilian life was plagued by the wound's perpetual pain and numbness. Back home, despite holding a managerial position at a mine, Roy took weeks off from his job because of his health, relying on a disability pension for survival. Before his death in 1914, he lamented, "My lameness grows worse and the pain is more severe each year. ... My [left] foot seems dead." Doctors commented that he was, "wholly unfit to care for himself and demands constant attention."

Drawing on olive-colored paper. Dead and injured horses lay on ground. Some stand. Gun, carriage, a few men visible. White smears may indicate clouds, smoke, explosions.

Andrew Roy was one of over 275,000 northern soldiers wounded in the American Civil War—although he avoided amputation, unlike more than 20,000 fellow comrades who wore the Union blue. Following the death and destruction of the war, survivors faced the difficult task of finding significance in their suffering and sacrifice. Northern civilians and wounded veterans of the Federal Army offered an array of responses to the nation's anguish through ritualized commemorations in the ensuing decades. Two dominant portrayals of disabled veterans emerged: pitiful cripples and a more popular version depicting the wounded as the epitome of masculine patriotism. Scars, limps, and amputations were honorifics that symbolized the Union man's character as an individual who had sacrificed dearly to preserve the Union.

Religion helped to define public perceptions of wounded veterans, suggesting that a soldier's torment was ordained by a higher power for the national good. As Henry Palmer wrote in a handwriting competition for Federal soldiers who had lost a dominant hand:

"My right arm, as if conscious of approaching dissolution, seemingly bequeathed unto the left arm, all the properties of which it died, seized and possessed.  The seal of this Last Will and Testament was the bloodseal of amputation—Patriotism, Love and Country, and Equal Rights were the subscribing witnesses to the instrument—The body from which the arm was severed, was the Executor—In Heaven's Court, the will was proved, allowed and recorded."

Black and white portrait of man in military uniform with two sleeves pinned up.

A carte-de-visite featuring a wounded veteran of the Union army taken some time during the 1860s. Many veterans with a visible, permanent wound would pin their shirt and/or pant sleeves together instead of opting for free artificial limbs that were considered very uncomfortable.

Despite the misery, Union veterans attempted to demonstrate self-reliance. Perhaps the greatest example of independence was Major General Oliver Otis Howard, who rose to become the head of the Freedmen's Bureau after the war. Veterans argued that their injuries encouraged increased social and economic independence, and some used their wounds for political leverage. Lucius Fairchild, who received an amputation after being seriously wounded during the Battle of Gettysburg, won the Wisconsin gubernatorial election of 1866 and became a prominent veteran-affairs spokesperson for former members of the Federal Army. As such, scarred veterans as virtuous harbingers appeared in the popular culture for a public concerned about the profound effects of the war on wounded soldiers. "The Empty Sleeve: A Song with Chorus" by P.A. Hanaford and Reverend J.W. Dadmun of Boston, Massachusetts, was a popular sheet music written in 1866. Its chorus venerated Civil War veterans:

"Three hearty cheers for those who lost

An arm in Freedom's Fray

And bear about an empty sleeve

But a patriot's heart today."

The lyrics correlate physical sacrifice and triumphant patriotism. This righteous empty sleeve iconography was not equally bestowed, however. African American veterans went unacknowledged, and were barred from most veterans' organizations. Veteran Will Thomas, who participated in the same contest as Henry Palmer stated, "I don't expect to win a position as a clerk, that being ascribed on count of my color." Thus, at least within the confines of northern society, the physical changes that black veterans like Thomas suffered were largely ignored by the community. Listen to the song here. This post's headline also comes from the song's lyrics.

Sheet music cover with fancy geometric border and text saying "The Empty Sleeve" in ornate typeface.

While many men spoke of their injuries in a variety of ways, many more remained silent about the nature of their wounds. While some wounded veterans celebrated personal success later in life, others endured a lifetime of hardship. Roy did not say how his wound affected his patriotism despite professing great esteem for the late Abraham Lincoln in a speech given several decades after General Robert E. Lee's surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant in Wilmer McLean's parlor. The stories circulated by thousands of northern veterans and civilians illustrated the complex post-war psyche that attempted to explain the presence of the permanently wounded soldiers who had served in "Mr. Lincoln's army."

Note: The phrase has been borrowed from the first book in Bruce Catton's trilogy chronicling the history of the Army of the Potomac.

Matt Coletti is a graduate student in the Public History Program at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. His academic interests include the public memory and contemporary collective interpretations of the American Civil War, as well as the psychological repercussions of war on individual and community life in a historical context.

Author(s): 
Matt Coletti, graduate student in the public history program in the Department of History, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
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"Heroes of Bunker Hill" Platter

National Museum of American History

"Heron" Fights Off Jap Planes

National Museum of American History

"Hesper"

Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
Plate with brown transfer-printed decoration on white ground in a triangular, geometric pattern.

"Hessian" Cloth

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.

"Hi-Ire" Fire-Box Or Bowl

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
Hi-ire are ceramic holders for ash and a small lit charcoal that can be used to light a pipe full of shredded tobacco.

"Hibachi" Brazier

NMNH - Anthropology Dept.

"Hidden Brain" Podcast Will Make You Think Twice About Your Unconscious Mind

Smithsonian Magazine

Why did I buy that set of steak knives I don't even need? Which online restaurant reviews can I trust? How come my number-loving friend opted out of AP math courses in high school?

These are the types of questions that social scientists tackle every day, trying to tease apart the complex and sometimes unexpected reasons humans do what they do. In 2005, journalist Shankar Vedantam reported a story for The Washington Post in which he explored unconscious bias and the social scientists working to understand it through implicit association tests. He became so fascinated by the influence of the unconscious mind on human behavior that he decided to dive further into the topic in a book called The Hidden Brain.

Vedantam then joined NPR as a science correspondent in 2011, and his radio reports on human behavior and social science quickly gained a loyal following. Now those listeners and podcast fanatics everywhere can hear more from Vedantam about the role the unconscious mind plays in their behavior in a new NPR podcast, aptly called Hidden Brain.

The first episode of the podcast drops on September 22, and a sneak peek is out now. We spoke with Vedantam to learn more about it. (The following has been edited for length.)

What is Hidden Brain?

The Hidden Brain has many different incarnations. If your question is specifically about the podcast, the goal of Hidden Brain really is to connect people’s everyday lived experiences with interesting and rigorous science. I think the great joy that I have in this work is finding moments when I can connect work that is rigorous and scientifically solid with the kind of experiences that people have in everyday life—the way they park their car, the way they read a restaurant review—and to basically say, look, there are ways in which science can illumine the life that you lead and help you think about your world with curiosity and freshness.

Where did you come up with the term?

So "hidden brain" is a term that I coined as I was writing my book a few years ago. It’s really a metaphor to describe the many things that happen in our minds that lie outside of our conscious awareness. And I think over the last 10 or 20 years there’s just been this explosion of research, empirically grounded rigorous research, that suggests that in everyday life, many of our perceptions and judgments and decisions are shaped by factors that lie outside of conscious awareness. Some of these hidden things are actually accessible if we try very hard to pay attention to them. But others are completely hidden and we actually have no ability to get at them even if we try very hard consciously.

What are some examples of topics you will cover in the podcast?

One of our early episodes, for example, is going to look at a pattern in communication where people are conversing with one another, but really talking past one another. This idea is called switch tracking. A couple of episodes later, we’re going to look at this idea that’s being explored in a lot of psychological research known as stereotype threat, which is this idea that if you believe that the world holds certain stereotypes about you, your concern that you’re the victim of those stereotypes is going to shape how you behave and how you see the world.

The tagline of the show is "A conversation about life’s unseen patterns." Can you give an example of an unseen pattern?

A central premise of Hidden Brain really is that once you identify these unconscious and hidden forces acting on us, it gives you some power and agency to actually do something about it. You can actually choose to make different choices once you’re aware that you’re being biased or once you’re aware that your judgments and perceptions are being subtly shaped by these factors that lie outside of your awareness.

Are there any studies or topics that your listeners have loved or hated?

I did a story a couple of years ago that connected the work of the philosopher Albert Camus with new research into why people get stuck in boring jobs. Camus had written this famous essay, The Myth of Sisyphus, about the man who rolls the boulder up and down the hill for all eternity. And the idea is Camus was dealing with this question of how we deal with drudgery and monotony and boredom in our lives, and how we actually should address this from a philosophical standpoint.

The new research was looking at why is it that many people are stuck in jobs that they find dissatisfying and boring … and it found that people sometimes choose occupations and professions and activities that are boring because they’re unwilling to take a chance on activities that might be more fulfilling, because they actually might carry more risk. And this idea of connecting the psychological research into people’s choices and their professions with this philosophical idea that Camus explained many decades ago really struck a nerve.

How much trust should people place in social science and human behavior studies?

I think there have been a lot of concerns raised in recent years about the accuracy and the reproducibility of scientific studies. Many of these concerns have been raised about studies that are in the social sciences, although I don’t think the social sciences are unique in terms having this problem. And the way that I think about many of these studies is I think of it is as being that each study sort of gives us a new picture to understand how the world works.

So when humans first looked up and saw the moon, they had theories about what the moon was. And several hundred years later, when we built telescopes and could look at the moon more closely, we could see different aspects of the moon that we hadn’t seen before, and we came up with new models of how the moon works. And then eventually when we sent satellites into space and astronauts to land on the moon, we saw the moon up close. Now each of these versions gives us a more accurate version of reality. It doesn’t necessarily mean that the previous version was wrong, it just means that it’s a different map.

What have you learned about yourself from reporting on human behavior?

I think my interest in the hidden brain stems from the fact that I think of myself as being a very rational and very deliberate person. I think I was drawn to it first of all because it seems so alien to me, so alien to the way I thought I lived my life. So part of the reason I think I continue to be fascinated with this whole field of the hidden brain is that at some fundamental level, I feel like it’s teaching me things about myself.

Is there any technology being developed that researchers might use to better study human behavior in the future?

I think there are a lot of interesting ideas that are being worked on right now. There’s research, for example, looking at whether you could study facial expressions as a window into people’s emotional states, and can those expressions tell us something that people are not able or willing to tell us when you just ask them the question. There’s a lot of work that looks at brain imaging that is trying to peer deeper and deeper into the way the brain works to say, can you understand from these brain and neurological processes how it is we think about the world. And in many ways I think some of these technologies are already providing us with very valuable tools to understand how the mind works.

I would argue that psychological techniques and experiments are also a technology. I would argue the implicit association test is a technology. It’s not a technology that uses a machine to peer inside the brain, but it’s a technology that really uses scientific techniques to say, how do we better understand what’s happening inside people’s heads. I am not personally enamored by the idea that the only technologies that are valuable are the technologies that come from machines. I think you can be very rigorous and base your work on empirical science even if you’re not using a brain scanner.

"Hide/Seek" 2012 Scholarly Symposium: Christopher Reed - National Portrait Gallery

National Portrait Gallery
Christopher Reed, presenting his paper " Imagining Identity: Sexuality, Regionalism, and Legacy in Mid-Twentieth-Century American Art" on January 29, 2011 at the Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery. His presentation was part of the scholarly symposium "Addressing (and Redressing) the Silence: New Scholarship in Sexuality and American Art" which presented papers from 11 scholars in the fields of art, art history, performance art, and social history. This symposium was presented in conjunction with the exhibition "Hide/Seek: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture." Christopher Reed teaches English and visual culture at Penn State University. He is author of the forthcoming Art and Homosexuality: A History of Ideas and co-author of the forthcoming If Memory Serves: Imagining Gay Pasts After AIDS..

"Hide/Seek" 2012 Scholarly Symposium: David Getsy - National Portrait Gallery

National Portrait Gallery
David Getsy, presenting his paper " Open Seating: Scott Burton, Performance Art, Public Art, and the 1970s " on January 29, 2011 at the Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery. His presentation was part of the scholarly symposium "Addressing (and Redressing) the Silence: New Scholarship in Sexuality and American Art" which presented papers from 11 scholars in the fields of art, art history, performance art, and social history. This symposium was presented in conjunction with the exhibition "Hide/Seek: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture." David Getsy is a Goldabelle McComb Finn Distinguished Associate Professor and director of undergraduate programs for the Department of Art History, Theory, and Criticism at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. He is also the author of Rodin: Sex and the Making of Modern Sculpture and Body Doubles: Sculpture in Britain, 1877--1905.

"Hide/Seek" 2012 Scholarly Symposium: Diana Linden - National Portrait Gallery

National Portrait Gallery
Diana Linden, presenting her paper " 'I Am a Man!': Race and Gender in William Christopher's Paintings in Honor of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr." on January 29, 2011 at the Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery. Her presentation was part of the scholarly symposium "Addressing (and Redressing) the Silence: New Scholarship in Sexuality and American Art" which presented papers from 11 scholars in the fields of art, art history, performance art, and social history. This symposium was presented in conjunction with the exhibition "Hide/Seek: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture." Diana Linden is a social historian of American art with expertise in art and politics, public murals, African American art, and Jewish visual culture. Currently, she is at work on two books:The City of Promises: The History of Jews in New York City, 1654 to the Present and Ben Shahn's New Deal Murals.

"Hide/Seek" 2012 Scholarly Symposium: Dominic Johnson - National Portrait Gallery

National Portrait Gallery
Dominic Johnson, presenting his paper " Jack Smith's Flaming Creatures, or the Burden of Disgust" on January 29, 2011 at the Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery. His presentation was part of the scholarly symposium "Addressing (and Redressing) the Silence: New Scholarship in Sexuality and American Art" which presented papers from 11 scholars in the fields of art, art history, performance art, and social history. This symposium was presented in conjunction with the exhibition "Hide/Seek: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture." Dominic Johnson is a lecturer in the Department of Drama at Queen Mary, University of London. He is editor ofFrankoB: Blinded by LoveandManuel Vason: Encountersand author of the forthcomingGlorious Catastrophe: Jack Smith, Performance and Visual Culture. He is an assistant editor of the peer-reviewed journalContemporary Theatre Review.

"Hide/Seek" 2012 Scholarly Symposium: Final Q & A - National Portrait Gallery

National Portrait Gallery
Final Q & A session of the scholarly symposium "Addressing (and Redressing) the Silence: New Scholarship in Sexuality and American Art" which presented papers from 11 scholars in the fields of art, art history, performance art, and social history. This symposium was presented in conjunction with the exhibition "Hide/Seek: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture." It occurred on January 29, 2011 at the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.

"Hide/Seek" 2012 Scholarly Symposium: James Boaden - National Portrait Gallery

National Portrait Gallery
James Boaden, presenting his paper " Jess' Imaginary Portraits " on January 29, 2011 at the Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery. His presentation was part of the scholarly symposium "Addressing (and Redressing) the Silence: New Scholarship in Sexuality and American Art" which presented papers from 11 scholars in the fields of art, art history, performance art, and social history. This symposium was presented in conjunction with the exhibition "Hide/Seek: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture." James Boaden is a lecturer in the history of art at the University of York, UK. He is an external adviser on the project ―"Surrealism and Sexuality "at the University of Manchester—for which he has organized the conferences The Convulsive Nursery: Surrealism and Childhood Sexuality and Sexuality and the Surrealist Sensorium, both in 2010.

"Hide/Seek" 2012 Scholarly Symposium: Jennifer Doyle - National Portrait Gallery

National Portrait Gallery
Jennifer Doyle, presenting her paper "Hold It Against Me: Difficulty, Emotion, and David Wojnarowicz" on January 29, 2011 at the Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery. Her presentation was part of the scholarly symposium "Addressing (and Redressing) the Silence: New Scholarship in Sexuality and American Art" which presented papers from 11 scholars in the fields of art, art history, performance art, and social history. This symposium was presented in conjunction with the exhibition "Hide/Seek: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture." Jennifer Doyle is the author of Sex Objects: Art and the Dialectics of Desireand co-editor of Pop Out: Queer Warhol. She has also written the forthcoming Hold It Against Me: Difficulty, Emotion and Contemporary Art.

"Hide/Seek" 2012 Scholarly Symposium: Joe Lucchesi - National Portrait Gallery

National Portrait Gallery
Joe Lucchesi, presenting his paper "The Body's Shadow: On Archives, Photographs, and Queer Desire" on January 29, 2011 at the Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery. His presentation was part of the scholarly symposium "Addressing (and Redressing) the Silence: New Scholarship in Sexuality and American Art" which presented papers from 11 scholars in the fields of art, art history, performance art, and social history. This symposium was presented in conjunction with the exhibition "Hide/Seek: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture." Joe Lucchesiis associate professor and chair of the Department of Art History at St. Mary's College of Maryland. His current research focuses on issues of history and memory in photography and on images of the American soldier in World War II--era advertising campaigns.

"Hide/Seek" 2012 Scholarly Symposium: Jonathan D. Katz - National Portrait Gallery

National Portrait Gallery
Jonathan D. Katz, presenting his paper The Sexuality of Abstraction: Agnes Martin " on January 29, 2011 at the Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery. His presentation was part of the scholarly symposium "Addressing (and Redressing) the Silence: New Scholarship in Sexuality and American Art" which presented papers from 11 scholars in the fields of art, art history, performance art, and social history. This symposium was presented in conjunction with the exhibition "Hide/Seek: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture." Jonathan D. Katz is director of the doctoral program in visual studies at the State University of New York—Buffalo; an honorary research faculty member at the University of Manchester, UK; co-curator of the exhibition ―Hide/Seek‖; and co-author of its accompanying book. He was founding director of the Larry Kramer Initiative for Lesbian and Gay Studies at Yale University and founding chair of the very first department of lesbian and gay studies in the United States, at City College of San Francisco. Here, he also co-founded the activist group Queer Nation, San Francisco, and founded both the Queer Caucus of the College Art Association and the Harvey Milk Institute.

"Hide/Seek" 2012 Scholarly Symposium: Jonathan Weinberg - National Portrait Gallery

National Portrait Gallery
Jonathan Weinberg, presenting his paper "Lost and Found: Searching for the Lesbian and Gay Presence in the Archives of American Art" on January 29, 2011 at the Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery. His presentation was part of the scholarly symposium "Addressing (and Redressing) the Silence: New Scholarship in Sexuality and American Art" which presented papers from 11 scholars in the fields of art, art history, performance art, and social history. This symposium was presented in conjunction with the exhibition "Hide/Seek: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture." Jonathan Weinberg is a painter and author of several books, including Male Desire: The Homoerotic in American Art and Ambition and Love in Modern American Art. He is a visiting critic at the Yale University Art School and the Rhode Island School of Design. He is recipient of the 2002 Guggenheim Fellowship and a 2009 grant from the Creative Capital/Andy Warhol Foundation.

"Hide/Seek" 2012 Scholarly Symposium: Q & A on "Desire at Midcentury" - National Portrait Gallery

National Portrait Gallery
James Boaden, Jonathan D. Katz and Dominic Johnson take questions on their papers given at the scholarly symposium "Addressing (and Redressing) the Silence: New Scholarship in Sexuality and American Art," January 29, 2010. The symposium presented papers from 11 scholars in the fields of art, art history, performance art, and social history. It was presented in conjunction with the exhibition "Hide/Seek: Difference and Desire in American Portraiture." James Boaden is a lecturer in the history of art at the University of York, UK. He is an external adviser on the project ―"Surrealism and Sexuality "at the University of Manchester—for which he has organized the conferences The Convulsive Nursery: Surrealism and Childhood Sexuality and Sexuality and the Surrealist Sensorium, both in 2010. Jonathan D. Katz is director of the doctoral program in visual studies at the State University of New York—Buffalo; an honorary research faculty member at the University of Manchester, UK; co-curator of the exhibition ―Hide/Seek‖; and co-author of its accompanying book. He was founding director of the Larry Kramer Initiative for Lesbian and Gay Studies at Yale University and founding chair of the very first department of lesbian and gay studies in the United States, at City College of San Francisco. Here, he also co-founded the activist group Queer Nation, San Francisco, and founded both the Queer Caucus of the College Art Association and the Harvey Milk Institute. Dominic Johnson is a lecturer in the Department of Drama at Queen Mary, University of London. He is editor ofFrankoB: Blinded by LoveandManuel Vason: Encountersand author of the forthcoming Glorious Catastrophe: Jack Smith, Performance and Visual Culture. He is an assistant editor of the peer-reviewed journalContemporary Theatre Review.
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