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social medial effect on race and color

Inquiry Description

Throughout history, people have represented themselves and others through media (e.g. paintings, film, photos, song, social media, etc.). Artists and individuals make conscious and unconscious choices about how to represent a person using media and color. These representations are open to individual interpretation.

In this inquiry, students  develop awareness of different perceptions and expressive qualities of color through an examination of historical sources. The first formative task entails a student exploration of the attributes of color through the "Interpreting & Communicating Color" task using paint color samples. Students then apply this understanding while analyzing portraiture and various other media through the lens of how artists represent a songwriter, George Gershwin. The second formative task involves students discussing and supporting claims about how Gershwin is represented in a text, The Music in George's Head: George Gershwin Creates Rhapsody in Blue, and in his music and a portrait. Students then write and support claims about how Gershwin is represented in various media forms in the third formative task. The lesson concludes with a summative task during which students determine the best colors and media to represent their own identity within the creation of a self-portrait.

The 2017 NCSS Notable Trade Book, The Music in George's Head: George Gershwin Creates Rhapsody in Blue, is intriguing because the illustrator chose to represent Gershwin in shades of blue. This text is ripe for color analysis. This Gershwin biography provides background knowledge about Gershwin's personality, thus acting as a resource that students may use to develop claims about artist's color choices as representations of Gershwin's identity. After acquiring knowledge of Gershwin's personality traits, students apply perceptions about the expressive qualities of color to various media (portraits, sculpture, photo, etc.). Many of these historical sources are from the National Portrait Gallery, a Smithsonian Institution museum, and represent treasured elements of our national history.

This inquiry will consist of four class periods [approximately].

 

Structure of the Inquiry

NCSS's Theme 4 Individual Development and Identity and the C3 Framework (i.e. D2.His.6.3-5.) expect that students investigate how individual perceptions effect how people are represented throughout history. Throughout the formative tasks, students gradually build skills needed to interpret and communicate about artists' color and media representations of people as well as individual perceptions about color usage within artistic works. Students interpret several portraits, namely, Wormley's 1936 George Gershwin; Auerbach's 1926 Gershwin at the Piano; and a 1934 Gershwin self-portrait. Additionally, students examine other forms of portraiture: Noguchi's 1929 Gershwin sculpture and a 1936 Gershwin photo. After examining these historical sources, students make a determination as to which historical source best represents George Gershwin and provides evidence as to why it is the best representation of Gershwin.

Students are expected to develop their personal identity as related to their time and place in society as stated in NCSS Theme 4 Individual Development and Identity. In the summative task, students apply these understandings to create a new historical source, a self-portrait, by making intentional choices about how to represent themselves through color within media.  

Inquiry Questions for the Lesson:

Compelling Question: What factors influence how individuals are perceived by others and themselves?

Supporting Question: What are the attributes of  color?

Supporting Question: How do media and color effect one's representation of identity?

Supporting Question: How are media and color used to represent George Gershwin's identity?

Supporting Question: What do media and color reveal about you?


These NCSS C3 Framework History Standards are the basis for the lesson content:

D2.His.10.3-5 Compare information provided by different historical sources about the past.

D2.His.13.3-5. Use information about a historical source, including the maker, date, place of origin, intended audience, and purpose to judge the extent to which the source is useful for studying a particular topic.

#SmithsonianMusic

Rosemith Metayer
22
 

Bracero Program: Unveiling Stories

In this activity, students will examine photographs documenting the Bracero Program, the largest guest-worker program in US history. Started in 1942 as a temporary war measure to address labor demands in agriculture and railroads, the program allowed Mexican nationals to take temporary agricultural work in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and 24 other states. By the time the program ended in 1964, over 4.6 million contracts were awarded.

Using two Project Zero Global Thinking Routines - "Unveiling Stories" and "The 3 Ys" - students will analyze the stories these photographs tell about the experiences of braceros in this program, and the impact of these stories in multiple contexts. Additional resources (primary sources, a digital exhibition, and an article) and information on how to use these routines in the classroom can by found by clicking Read More ».

Keywords: mexican, immigration, work, migration, migrant workers, agriculture, reform, politics, government, leonard nadel, photojournalism, activity, inquiry strategy, global competency, global competence, latino, chicano, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Arkansas, 1940s, 40s, 1950s, 50s, 1960s, 60s

#LatinoHAC #EthnicStudies

Tess Porter
37
 

Bracero Program: Step In, Step Out, Step Back

In this activity, students will examine a painting of Mexican guest-workers, known as braceros, involved in the Bracero Program (1942-1964), the largest guest-worker program in US history.  Started as a temporary war measure to address labor demands in agriculture and railroads, the program allowed Mexican nationals to take temporary agricultural work in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and 24 other states. By the time the program ended in 1964, over 4.6 million work contracts were awarded. 

Using a Project Zero Global Thinking Routine - "Step In - Step Out - Step Back" - students will examine the perspectives of those depicted in the painting, consider what it means to take the perspectives of others, and explore avenues and methods to learn more about Braceros. Resources for learning more about the Bracero program are located at the end of the collection and include: Bittersweet Harvest, a digital exhibition about the Bracero Program; the Bracero History Archive, which includes oral histories, objects, and more; and a Learning Lab collection of photographs documenting the Bracero Program.

Keywords: laborer, immigration, work, migration, migrant workers, agriculture, reform, politics, government, photojournalism, activity, inquiry strategy, global competency, global competence, latino, chicano, 1940s, 40s, 1950s, 50s, 1960s, 60s

#EthnicStudies

Tess Porter
6
 

September 11, 2001

This is a Smithsonian Learning Lab topical collection, which contains images, text, and other multimedia resources that may complement the Tween Tribune feature, Battered bronze sphere returns to World Trade Center site. Use these resources to ask, where is 9/11 lie in our national memory? Is it recent event, or history?

Kelly Wall
57
 

Seeking equality: A brief history of the American women's fight for political rights to match their civic contributions.

This learning lab provides the preface and context for an in-class SAAM presentation on the ideology of republican motherhood as it influenced women during the years 1770 to 1920.  This lesson seeks to answer two questions:

  • To what extent did American women embrace the ideology presented by  republican motherhood?
  • In what ways and to what extent did women find the ideology to be confining, and thus, challenge it?

Preparing for the lesson:

The night before the first lesson, students will:

  • Study the document Women’s Suffrage Postcard and respond to the Claim-Support-Question activity built into the document. Look for the paper clip icon in the upper left hand corner.
  • Read the article: How women’s history and civil rights came to the Smithsonian; be sure to read my annotation attached via the paper clip icon.
  • Watch Dr. Berkin’s short presentation on republican motherhood; craft your own definition of republican motherhood and post it in the text entry box under the paper clip icon.

Day 1 – Jigsaw Activity


The class will break into 4 groups, each becoming an expert on a particular aspect and era in which the women’s rights movement made strides. As you study the listed resources, on the note taking worksheet, record the ways women embodied the principles of republican motherhood. Additionally, note the ways in which they challenged this philosophy.

Once each group has completed their research, students will break into jigsaw groups through which they will share the resources they students and their analysis of these resources. 

Day 2 – Video Conference with SAAM

Using artworks presented by  the Smithsonian American Art Museum and in conversation with a SAAM curator, students will analyze artworks from each era to extend their understanding of the ways through which women both accepted and challenged the ideology of republican motherhood.

Concluding activities (day 2 HW):

  • Study the Women’s Suffrage photography and respond to the Claim-Support-Question activity built into the document. Look for the paper clip icon in the upper left hand corner.
  • Read the article Women in World War Iand the Time Magazine article How World War I helped women gain the right to vote; watch the two video excepts imbedded in the Time article from PBS’s The Great War.
  • Study the photo / painting The Emancipation of Women, and synthesizing all of your knowledge, respond to the Claim-Support-Question activity built into the document. Look for the paper clip icon in the upper left hand corner.
Jill Stedman
21
 

Analyzing Oral History Interviews: Asian Indian Community of Cleveland, Ohio

This collection includes a series of oral history interviews the Asian Indian Community of Cleveland, Ohio from 2013. Ten Asian Indians who settled in the Greater Cleveland region during the 1950s and 1960s were interviewed by middle and high school students. These interviews document their unique immigrant experiences and focus on professional, family and religious life.

Complementary resources to the podcast files include: a National Museum of American History teachers' guide and images, Smithsonian Libraries' graphic organizers for evaluating historical sources, and a Smithsonian Folklife and Cultural Heritage guide to conducting your own oral history.

Interviewees include: Ajeet Singh Sood, Batuk Modi, Dipti P. Roy, Elizabeth and Winfred Balraj,  Gulab Khandelwal,  Ivan Tewarson, Kul Bhushan, Om Julka, Paramjit Singh, P.K. and Virginia Saha,  Ramachandran Balasubramaniam, Ranajit Datta, Sam Rajiah, Shanta and Surinder Kampani, Shiv and Saroj Aggarwal, Vijay Rastogi, Vinay and Surinder Bhardwaj

#APA2018 #EthnicStudies

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center. 

Ashley Naranjo
10
 

"An Unnoticed Struggle: A Concise History of Asian American Civil Rights Issues" | Complementary Resources

This topical collection can be used as a complement to the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) Resource, "An Unnoticed Struggle: A Concise History of Asian American Civil Rights Issues" (https://jacl.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Unnoticed-Struggle.pdf). Each section of this collection aligns with the historical events, impactful legislation and profiles of individuals outlined within the JACL's resource. 

This collection can be used to support a deep dive into the featured topics and provides sources that will be helpful in answering compelling and supporting questions, taking into consideration multiple perspectives represented in the sources. 

#EthnicStudies *This collection was created to support Unit 1: Precious Knowledge--Exploring notions of identity and community, Historical Foundations and Civil Rights of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part A course.

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center. 

Ashley Naranjo
47
 

Analyzing an Oral History Interview: Grant Ichikawa

This collection includes an oral history interview with Grant Hayao Ichikawa (April 17, 1919- December 3, 2017). Ichikawa was a U. S. Army veteran who enlisted after he was relocated to a Japanese American incarceration camp with his family in 1942. The interview includes a first-hand account of the impact of the bombing of Pearl Harbor on Japanese Americans.

Complementary resources to the podcast audio file include: a National Museum of American History teachers' guide and images, Smithsonian Libraries' graphic organizers for evaluating historical sources, a Smithsonian Folklife and Cultural Heritage guide to conducting your own oral history, and additional video and audio oral histories with Grant Ichikawa from the Library of Congress American Folklife Center. 

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center. 

Keywords: Congressional Gold Medal, veteran, internment camps, World War II, commission, wartime, close listening

#APA2018 #EthnicStudies *This collection was created to support Unit 2: Culture and Resistance, oral history project assignment of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part B course.

Ashley Naranjo
23
 

Analyzing an Oral History Interview: Luis Jimenez

This collection includes an oral history interview clip from the Smithsonian Archives of American Art, with Mexican American artist Luis Jimenez (July 30, 1940-June 13, 2006) from Texas. Students can use the oral history to explore the essential question: What is the purpose and value of oral histories in relation to understanding immigration issues?  A complementary teacher guide from the Blanton Museum of Art (Austin, TX) is available here: https://blantonmuseum.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Critical-Analysis.pdf. Additional resources to the audio file include: Smithsonian Libraries' graphic organizers for evaluating historical sources, a Smithsonian Folklife and Cultural Heritage guide to conducting an oral history, and additional artworks, photographs, and videos highlighting Jimenez's life.

#EthnicStudies *This collection was created to support Unit 2: Culture and Resistance, oral history project assignment of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part B course.

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Latino and Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center and the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center. 

Keywords: family history, sculptor, close listening

Ashley Naranjo
18
 

Learning about the Unconstitutional Deportation of American Citizens in the 1930s through an Individual's Experience: Emilia Castañeda

This collection includes a video interview and testimonial with Emilia Castañeda (April 10, 1926). Castañeda was a young Mexican American girl when she and her family were forced to leave their home and deported to Mexico from the United States in the 1930s. The interview includes a first-hand account of the impact of the federal government's forced removal of Mexican Americans.

Complementary resources to the short film include: Smithsonian Libraries' graphic organizers for evaluating historical sources, a Smithsonian Folklife and Cultural Heritage guide to conducting an oral history, and additional articles, videos and podcast files highlighting this history.

Use this collection as an extension to the LA Plaza de Cultura y Artes' collection, Unconstitutional Deportation of American Citizens in the 1930s. *This collection was created to support Unit 1: Intersectionality of Economic, Politics and Policy, Judicial Issues of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part B course.

#EthnicStudies

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Latino and Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center and the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center. 

Keywords: unconstitutional deportation, Mexican Americans, repatriation, Great Depression, close listening


Ashley Naranjo
20
 

Russian Coinage and Grand Duke Georgii Mikhailovich

The Grand Duke Georgii Mikhailovich collection of approximately 11,400 Russian coins and medals is among the most comprehensive Russian numismatic collections outside of Russia. Mikhailovich had a lifelong commitment to collecting and documenting Russian coinage and published extensively on the topic. Following the Russian Revolution, Mikhailovich was executed in 1919. His wife and daughters went into exile and eventually sold the collection at auction. It changed hands a number of times before it was purchased by Lammot du Pont, whose son donated it to the National Numismatic Collection in the 1950s. This collection is a rich resource for the study of Russia, Europe, and numismatics more broadly.

 

A small portion of the Mikhailovich collection is on display in The Value of Money exhibition at the National Museum of American History.


Text adapted from The Value of Money by Ellen R. Feingold, Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 2015.

Jennifer Gloede
35
 

Snapshots & Social Change: A Collection of Photographs by Elizabeth Howe Bliss

A collection of photographic prints made between 1915 and 1919 by a social worker named Elizabeth Howe Bliss. She traveled to the American South on behalf of the National Child Labor Committee, writing reports and documenting through photographs child laborers and their challenges accessing education. She also utilized her camera in New York City and in the French department of the Somme during WWI. These images currently reside within the Photographic History Collection at the National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center, Smithsonian Institution. 
[This collection is presently under construction as content is being added.]

Kate Fogle
6
 

The Industrial Revolution, changes in consumerism, labor and community.

This lesson will examine how innovation in the distribution of food had a lasting effect on the consumer, the worker and the community.

Students will be invited to study Ralph Fasanella's Iceman Crucified. They will start  by examining the painting with the VTS method: What’s going on in this picture?, What do you see that makes you say that? and What more can we find?

Students will then be introduced to our set of supporting documents. At the conclusion of studying these sources we will revisit Iceman Crucified using the Step Inside: Perceive, Know about, Care about. This will include questions: What can the person or thing perceive? What might the person or thing know about or believe? What might the person or thing care about?

Students will end with a creative assignment that will ask them to give a Eulogy on the iceman

RONALD MAGNUSSON
6
 

Connecting to Great Gatsby's Appearance vs. Reality in Self Portraiture

This lesson, integrated halfway through F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby, will address both character analysis and the ever present theme of appearance vs. reality in the text.  By using Thomas Hart Benton's "Self Portrait with Rita" as a starting point students will study the specifics of a self portrait from the 1920s which highlights American dream centered ideals.  As a second step, students will make connections between the painting and the characters from our text.  As a final extension activity, students will further explore the inspiration, the biography, or another work by Benton.

#NPGteach

Molly Boehler
15
 

Sustainable by Design

Students identify needs in their community and design a building to fit that need using Agency by Design framework and protocols. Designed for a collaborative unit with Environmental Science and Sculpture High School students. #goglobal

Ashley Beck
33
 

From One Artist to Another: "Rudolfo Anaya" by Gaspar Enríquez

Students use a Global Thinking Routine to explore both a portrait and a work of literature that together offer a  rich view of the Chicano experience in the American southwest in the middle of the 20th century. 

This teaching collection features Gaspar Enríquez's portrait of Rudolfo Anaya. It is the first commissioned portrait by the National Portrait Gallery of a Latino sitter by a Latino artist. Both artists address the Chicano experience and confluence of cultures in the American southwest.

Included here are the portrait, a bilingual video with National Portrait Gallery curator Taína Caragol, the "Step In - Step Out - Step Back" Thinking Routine from Harvard's Project Zero Global Thinking Strategies, two other works by Gaspar Enríquez, and some links to National Portrait Gallery supporting materials. 

Teachers and students can pair the portrait and read Rudolfo Anaya's coming of age novel "Bless Me Ultima," first published in 1972 and reflecting Chicano culture in rural New Mexico in the 1940s, to gain a deeper understanding of the Chicano experience in the American southwest.

#LatinoHAC #EthnicStudies

Philippa Rappoport
10
 

Native American Policy Overview

During the late 19th century, reformers in the United States like Helen Hunt Jackson pushed for a change in attitude towards Native Americans. Rather than simply viewing them as enemies from whom land could be gained, these reformers promoted the concept of assimilation, or helping Native Americans adopt the characteristics of white culture that would allow them to be successful in American society. One of the ways they did this was through the use of Christian boarding schools for Native American children. Federal laws, like the Dawes Act of 1887, also supported this goal.

As you investigate the artifacts, images, and readings in this collection, consider whether you think assimilation was a beneficial policy for Native Americans. How did Native American families respond to assimilation?

Tags: point of view, assimilation, assimilate, American Indians, Carlisle, Jim Thorpe, allotment

Kate Harris
14
 

Identifying Characteristics of Renaissance Art

This collection will teach you about how Renaissance artists changed the style and focus of art in the period between 1300 and 1600 CE. When you are done, you should be able to thoroughly answer the question: How did the art of the Renaissance reflect the new emphasis on humanism and science?

First, review the painting, Raphael's School of Athens, and learn about the new techniques used.
Then study the additional works in the collection and try to use them as examples of the different techniques. Some of the works are from the Renaissance period and others are more modern interpretations. A worksheet is included at the end of this collection to record your work.
Finally, test your knowledge with a quick quiz. Use your worksheet to help!
Robin McLaurin
11
 

Irish Music

This collection includes a wide range of Irish contemporary and traditional music in the Smithsonian collections, with two lesson plans for grades 3-5 from the Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage.

#SmithsonianMusic

Robin McLaurin
15
 

Pictographs

Native American Pictographs
Robin McLaurin
3
 

Pocahontas: Comparing and Contrasting Portrayals

In this collection, we explore various portrayals of Pocahontas over 400 years. Students can compare and contrast two or more artistic renderings of Pocahontas, using the provided strategies and historical context with guidance from the teacher. By using portraits of the same sitter by different artists, students consider historical accuracy and changing cultural and historical perspectives. 

This collection was adapted from National Portrait Gallery educator, Briana White's collection, "Compare and Contrast Looking Strategy: Learning to Look with the National Portrait Gallery " and supplemented with the National Museum of the American Indian's Americans online exhibition. Sources for the approach include Compare and Contrast, the National Portrait Gallery's Reading Portraiture Guide and Project Zero's Artful Thinking Routines. 

#historicalthinking


Robin McLaurin
21
 

Pocahontas: Comparing and Contrasting Portrayals

In this collection, we explore various portrayals of Pocahontas over 400 years. Students can compare and contrast two or more artistic renderings of Pocahontas, using the provided strategies and historical context with guidance from the teacher. By using portraits of the same sitter by different artists, students consider historical accuracy and changing cultural and historical perspectives. 

This collection was adapted from National Portrait Gallery educator, Briana White's collection, "Compare and Contrast Looking Strategy: Learning to Look with the National Portrait Gallery " and supplemented with the National Museum of the American Indian's Americans online exhibition. Sources for the approach include Compare and Contrast, the National Portrait Gallery's Reading Portraiture Guide and Project Zero's Artful Thinking Routines. 

#historicalthinking


Ashley Naranjo
21
 

American Revolution, Investigation 1, Events of the Revolution

This collection is intended to accompany a study of the major events of the American Revolution. In this study the following goals are targeted: 

Big Ideas: 

  • We must be alert, questioning, and thoughtful readers of history. 
  • All retelling of history is an interpretation. 
  • Historical context is critical for understanding artifacts and historical interpretations. 
  • History is multifaceted and can be understood differently from multiple perspectives. 
  • Historical events are connected to current events.

Expert Thinking: 

  • Analyze primary and secondary sources for relevant historical details.
  • Synthesize details to understand the story of America’s founding.
  • Explain and analyze cause and effect relationships across historical events. 
  • Interpret history using a variety of sources and understanding of perspectives, including: personal stories, events, and factual knowledge.

Guiding Questions: 

  • What forces affect historical change? (i.e. people, events, and ideas)
  • What are the important historical facts in the American Revolution? 
  • What events led to the American Revolution?

Standards: 

Section 1:  Colonial America and the French and Indian War

  • 4.7.1. Locate and identify the first 13 colonies and explain how their location and natural environment influenced their development. 
  • 4.7.10. Explain how the British colonial period created the basis for the development of political self-government and a free-market economic system. 
  • 4.8.2 Explain how political, religious, and economic ideas and interests brought about the Revolution. 

Section 2: Conflicting Interests 

  • 4.8.2 Explain how political, religious, and economic ideas and interests brought about the Revolution (e.g., resistance to imperial policy, the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, taxes on tea, and Coercive Acts). 
  • 4.8.3. Describe the significance of the First and Second Continental Congresses and of the Committees of Correspondence.

Section 3: Declaring Independence 

  • 4.8.4. Identify the people and events associated with the drafting and signing of the Declaration of Independence and the document’s significance, including the key political concepts it embodies, the origins of those concepts, and its role in severing ties with Great Britain. 
  • 4.9.6. Explain how the ideals set forth in the Declaration of Independence changed the way people viewed slavery.

Section 4: The Revolution, Briefly 

  • 4.9 Describe the course and consequences of the American Revolution. 
  • 4.9.1. Locate and identify the major military battles, campaigns, and turning points of the Revolutionary War. 
  •  4.9.2. Understand the roles of the American and British leaders, and the Indian leaders’ alliances on both sides. 
  • 4.9.3. Understand the roles of African Americans, including their alliances on both sides (especially the case of Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation and its impact on the war).

Section 5: Building the New Nation 

  • 4.10. Students describe the people and events associated with the development of the U.S. Constitution. 
  • 4.10.1. Describe the significance of the new Constitution of 1787, including the struggles over its ratification and the reasons for the Bill of Rights.  
  • 4.10.2. Describe the direct and indirect (or enabling) statements of the conditions on slavery in the Constitution and their impact on the emerging U.S. nation-state. 
  • 4.10.3. Describe how the Constitution is designed to secure our liberty by both empowering and limiting central government. 
  • 4.10.4. Understand the meaning of the American creed that calls on citizens to safeguard the liberty of individual Americans within a unified nation, to respect the rule of law, and to preserve the Constitution.

Usage: 

These artifacts are intended to provide students with a consistent opportunity to examine historical artifacts in order to make observations and connections to events of the time period. it is suggested that students examine 1-2 items at a time on a regular basis in order to evaluate each item as a historical source using a See-Think-Wonder routine. 

#LearnwithTR



Kathryn Mancino
27
 

Mythologizing America

This collection is intended to follow a study of the major events of the American Revolution. Students will examine a set of 1860s era renderings of the major events of the American Revolution and consider what story these images were intended to tell about the creation of America. Students are expected to compare and contrast the images with their gained knowledge of major historical events to consider what goals a creator may have had in creating this particular set of images and whether or not these images fairly portray the founding story. In this study the following goals are targeted: 

Big Ideas: 

  • We must be alert, questioning, and thoughtful readers of history. 
  • All retelling of history is an interpretation. 
  • Historical context is critical for understanding artifacts and historical interpretations. 
  • History is multifaceted and can be understood differently from multiple perspectives. 
  • Historical events are connected to current events.

Expert Thinking: 

  • Analyze primary and secondary sources for relevant historical details.
  • Synthesize details to understand the story of America’s founding.
  • Explain and analyze cause and effect relationships across historical events. 
  • Interpret history using a variety of sources and understanding of perspectives, including: personal stories, events, and factual knowledge.

Guiding Questions: 

  • What criteria should be used to evaluate a historical interpretation? 
  • How can we interpret events to accurately retell history? 
  • When is an interpretation of history "fair"? 
  • What tools can creators use to convey meaning when retelling history? Why might they choose to present a certain perspective? 

Standards: 

  • 4.8.5. Identify the views, lives, and influences of key leaders during this period (e.g., King George III, Patrick Henry, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams).
  • SSA.3. Students explain how the present is connected to the past, identifying both similarities and differences between the two, and how some things change over time and some things stay the same. 
  • SSA.5. Students distinguish cause from effect and identify and interpret the multiple causes and effects of historical events
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.5.5 Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.
  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.5.6 Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.
  • CCSS.ELA.LITERACY.RL.5.4 Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.


#LearnwithTR

Kathryn Mancino
8
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