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Found 2,017 Collections

 

​Native Americans and Manifest Destiny

A collection of images focusing on the Native Americans and their vanishing cultures due to Manifest Destiny.

Lesson Concept

Travis Meserve

Bowling Green High School, Bowling Green, KY

Grade levels: 9-12

11th grade American Literature Focus for English Second Language Learners

Lesson Time: 50 minutes

Procedure:

1.  Show the students a copy of the painting “Westward the Course of Empire Makes Its Way” by Emanuel Leutze (1861). Ask the students to spend a few moments observing the work in silence, noticing any details that draw their eyes.  Ask the students to let their eyes touch every part of the canvas/picture.

2. Using the teaching strategy “See Think Wonder” ask the students to volunteer details in the work that they see.  Ask them to describe only what they observe in the work (e.g. “I see a man in a fur hat holding a gun”). After the student makes a factual observation, ask the student “What do you see that makes you say that?” if the student says something that is not immediately obvious (e.g. the student sees a wooden sailing ship trapped in sea ice but describes it as a cabin).  Do not correct the student.  Let other students make observations and possibly correct each other through observation and discussion.  After the student is satisfied with an observation, follow up with the question “What do you think about that?” Allow the student to offer any interpretations of what the detail means for the content of the work, the tone, the theme etc.  Avoiding any value judgements, summarize back to the student his or her interpretation and evidential observations supplying any vocabulary the student might lack, asking for the student’s approval of the final summary. Continue this procedure until the students exhaust their observations or the class time restraints are reached.  Finally, follow up with the question “What does this work (or specific observation) make you wonder about?”

3. At this point, ask the students to note anything that they do not see but would expect to be represented in the scene.  Second Language Learners who have been in the USA for 2-3 years would probably have some general ideas about the history of the USA and may be able to offer such absences.  If not, the teacher may need to point out that no Native Americans appear in the main scene.  If the students do not notice the border of the work, point out that there are small scenes in the border that add content/connections to the main scene. Point out that two Native Americans appear there, small and crawling.

4. Ask the students to make a journal entry writing their thoughts about the work, specifically noting the Americans who are represented as moving across the land and the Americans who are not represented.

Extensions:

  1. If the students have enough command of the language, the teacher can discuss representing fact versus propaganda.  Discuss the painting as advertisement for the movement west despite its factual inaccuracies (e.g. the painting depicts California as visible from the Rocky Mountains although it is actually 1,200 miles away).  Contrast this with a handbill distributed in the Dust Bowl areas advertising workers needed in California to pick crops (in reality the number of workers was greater than the jobs available). A possible literary connection could be to The Grapes of Wrath.

  2. Use the painting periodically through the course of American Literature.  Students’ reactions to the work may evolve as they expand their ideas of American history, manifest destiny, and the immigrant experience.  Allow students to write new journal entries each time they revisit the work with new knowledge.  Discuss the dialogue that gets created between the artist, the work, and the viewer based on what the viewer brings to the experience.

Purpose

Objective: The student will be able to make a factual observation about the painting and offer interpretation (where possible) citing evidence from the work.

Follow-up lessons: On subsequent viewing of the work, the student will be able to identify themes in the painting that connect to texts from American Literature (e.g. attitude toward nature, the west, immigration, manifest destiny, etc.)

Rationale for using this artwork: The painting by Leutze encapsulates many themes that permeate American Literature and lends itself to an introduction to the course as well as an anchor for the course that will bear repeated viewing.

Rationale for the the methodology: The English as a Second Language student often does not bring a lot of background knowledge about American history or art.  The See-Think-Wonder technique allows the student to engage with the work as an expert would: one who makes observations and interpretations that allow claims backed by evidence.

Skills:

Differentiating Observation (fact) from Interpretation (opinion).

Making claims based on evidence.

Practice speaking in front of peers using the target language of English.

#SAAMteach


Travis Meserve
28
 

Αρχαία παιχνίδια

My first collection of ancient games.
Ourania Doula
7
 

Αλφαβητάρια

A collection of alphabet books to inspire students to create their own. Alphabet books can be created using any subject and completed with any grade. They can be completed individually (one student makes a page for each letter of the alphabet) or as a group or class (each student takes one letter). Here are some ideas for topics or use with your students:
Kindergarden-1st--Pick a letter, write a sentence using that letter and illustrate.
2nd-4th--The class takes a topic such as insects and each student takes a page, researches and illustrates it.
5th-12th--Students take a topic (biography, historical topic, memoir about themselves, book that they've read) and creates an alphabet book with each page telling the story or giving information about the subject.
Met Kous
13
 

Zozobra in Santa Fe: A Contemporary Reckoning of a Local Tradition

This teaching collection encourages students to think about all sides of an issue - in this case a cultural event - and then make connections to related issues of identity and nationalism locally, nationally, and internationally. The collection uses an article by Eduardo Díaz, director of the Smithsonian Latino Center, and Kevin Gover (Pawnee), director of the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian, as a jumping off point to explore changes to Santa Fe's annual Fiesta de Santa Fe, described by organizers as “the oldest, most colorful community celebration in the nation,” as part of an ongoing conversation across the country about how we choose to honor our "history, multicultural legacies and unique blend of traditions."

The exercise is scaffolded with global competence strategies to help students explore the Fiesta in successive detail, consider the various perspectives of the communities involved, and make connections to similar conversations happening across the US today. Students can share ideas in groups or through writing assignments, adding in outside research  if desired. 

Keywords: American Indian, Native American, Pueblo Indians, Hispanic, Latino, Entrada

#LatinoHAC


Philippa Rappoport
6
 

Zora Neale Hurston: Author, Anthropologist and Folklore Researcher

This teaching collection includes introductory resources to begin a study of Zora Neale Hurston, as an author, anthropologist and folklore researcher during the Harlem Renaissance.
Ashley Naranjo
11
 

Yup'ik Parka: Object Analysis

This introductory student activity explores the Yup'ik gut parka, a type of garment created from the intestines of sea mammals to protect sea hunters from wind, rain, and stormy seas. The Yup'ik, native to Alaska and coastal Canada, used these not only for hunting but also spiritual occasions, such as religious ceremonies. Collection includes: two parkas, one for hunting and one for ceremonies; a map of the geographic boundaries of the Yup'ik before the arrival of Euro-American settlers; and a video of modern Yup'ik discussing the traditional process of creating these garments and the importance of conserving and continuing this tradition today.

Collection can be used as an introductory activity to an investigation of: Yup'ik culture, Yup'ik relationships to their environment, Arctic cultures, Native American innovations, or the importance of continuing traditions.

Keywords: eskimo, native american, american indian, sea mammals, gutskin, conservation, yupik

Tess Porter
5
 

WWII Intervention

To Intervene or not to Intervene? That is the question.

In WWI, President Woodrow Wilson famously "Kept Us Out of War" during his first term before eventually leading the country into Europe's war. More than two decades later, are Americans considering themselves isolationists? Should we intervene in WWII? How would different historical figures weigh in on the matter?

Amy Kerr
10
 

WWII and Tuskegee Airmen

Before 1941, there weren't any African American pilots in the United States armed forces. The Tuskegee Airmen changed that. With the United States' entry into World War II imminent, the U.S. Army Air Corps (the predecessor to the U.S. Air Force) decided to offer training to African Americans as pilots and mechanics. Called the Tuskegee Airmen because they trained in Tuskegee, Alabama, these airmen made a pioneering contribution to the war and the subsequent drive to end racial segregation in the American military. This episode of STEM in 30 will look at the role African Americans played during the war and how World War II changed aviation history

February 24, 2016

STEM in 30 at National Air and Space Museum
9
 

WWII

Christina Ratatori
10
 

WWI: War Technologies

Lisa Koch
49
 
 

WWI: How History Shaped Technology

98 years ago this week, the United States entered World War I. The Wright brothers had only taken to the sky 14 years before, but airplanes still played a vital role in the war effort. Because of the events of WWI, airplane technology developed at an incredible rate. This fast-paced webcast will look at how airplanes changed in this short timeframe, how other technology advanced, and how airplanes were used throughout WWI.

April 8, 2015

STEM in 30 at National Air and Space Museum
11
 

WWI Propoganda

This collection focuses on some of the propaganda posters that were used during WWI,

SHERRI KELLER
8
 

WWI Propaganda

This student activity includes a variety of types of propaganda related to World War I. The United States government took great action when it came to World War I—they helped organize workers, recruit military members, and regulate the economy so that American could have a successful impact on the war. The Committee of Public Information formed by George Creel and other propaganda-producers used advertising techniques from businesses to make appeals to the average citizen and encourage them to make a difference. This assignment will ask you to connect each piece of propaganda to one of four major goals of the U.S. government during the war and to analyze a few specific pieces for author, audience, purpose, and even the medium/form.

Essential questions include:

  • What are the four main goals of the government during World War I?
  • Why and how did propaganda creators target specific audiences with their messages?
  • What are the effects of changing the medium or form of propaganda on how it might be received?

Tags: World War I, WWI, selective service, draft, liberty bonds, propaganda, music, Uncle Sam, persuasive writing, cause effect

Kate Harris
14
 

WWI Propaganda

Anna Parker
16
 

WWI Propaganda

This student activity includes a variety of types of propaganda related to World War I. The United States government took great action when it came to World War I—they helped organize workers, recruit military members, and regulate the economy so that American could have a successful impact on the war. The Committee of Public Information formed by George Creel and other propaganda-producers used advertising techniques from businesses to make appeals to the average citizen and encourage them to make a difference. This assignment will ask you to connect each piece of propaganda to one of four major goals of the U.S. government during the war and to analyze a few specific pieces for author, audience, purpose, and even the medium/form.

Essential questions include:

  • What are the four main goals of the government during World War I?
  • Why and how did propaganda creators target specific audiences with their messages?
  • What are the effects of changing the medium or form of propaganda on how it might be received?

Tags: World War I, WWI, selective service, draft, liberty bonds, propaganda, music, Uncle Sam, persuasive writing, cause effect

Lisa Major
32
 

WWI Propaganda

This student activity includes a variety of types of propaganda related to World War I. The United States government took great action when it came to World War I—they helped organize workers, recruit military members, and regulate the economy so that American could have a successful impact on the war. The Committee of Public Information formed by George Creel and other propaganda-producers used advertising techniques from businesses to make appeals to the average citizen and encourage them to make a difference. This assignment will ask you to connect each piece of propaganda to one of four major goals of the U.S. government during the war and to analyze a few specific pieces for author, audience, purpose, and even the medium/form.

Essential questions include:

  • What are the four main goals of the government during World War I?
  • Why and how did propaganda creators target specific audiences with their messages?
  • What are the effects of changing the medium or form of propaganda on how it might be received?

Tags: World War I, WWI, selective service, draft, liberty bonds, propaganda, music, Uncle Sam, persuasive writing, cause effect

Edward Elbel
30
 

WWI Propaganda

What are the stories being told in these primary sources?

Lisa Koch
55
 

WWI Propaganda

This student activity includes a variety of types of propaganda related to World War I. The United States government took great action when it came to World War I—they helped organize workers, recruit military members, and regulate the economy so that American could have a successful impact on the war. The Committee of Public Information formed by George Creel and other propaganda-producers used advertising techniques from businesses to make appeals to the average citizen and encourage them to make a difference. This assignment will ask you to connect each piece of propaganda to one of four major goals of the U.S. government during the war and to analyze a few specific pieces for author, audience, purpose, and even the medium/form.

Essential questions include:

  • What are the four main goals of the government during World War I?
  • Why and how did propaganda creators target specific audiences with their messages?
  • What are the effects of changing the medium or form of propaganda on how it might be received?

Tags: World War I, WWI, selective service, draft, liberty bonds, propaganda, music, Uncle Sam, persuasive writing, cause effect

Adam Baer
20
 

Writing Inspiration: Using Art to Spark Narrative Story Elements

The Smithsonian museum collection inspires many to research the history behind artifacts, but this collection explores the use of art and artifacts to spark creative story writing. Students will choose artifacts to craft characters, a setting, and a plot conflict to create and write a narrative story.

Targeted Vocabulary: Narrative, protagonist , antagonist, character, character traits, setting, plot, climax, and conflict.

After reading and analyzing several narrative stories for story elements such as character, setting, plot, climax, and conflict, students will use this collection to begin planning their own narrative stories.
Individuals or partners will first view the portraits and discuss possible stories behind each face before choosing a protagonist, antagonist, and supporting characters. They may begin to discuss and imagine character traits for each subject.
Next, the student will select a landscape setting in which the story may take place. The writer will describe the landscape, imagine a time period, and name the location.
Finally, the student will either choose an action artifact around which to build a major plot event, or have that slide as a minor scene in their story.
Students may use the Question Formulation Technique to garner ideas for background stories behind the faces. http://rightquestion.org/
Once the story elements are in place, the students may begin to draft narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

With the artifacts selected as the major story elements, the students may begin crafting their narrative story. The artifacts can then be displayed as illustrations in the published narratives.
Kathy Powers
66
 

Writing Inspiration: Using Art to Spark Narrative Story Elements

The Smithsonian museum collection inspires many to research the history behind artifacts, but this collection explores the use of art and artifacts to spark creative story writing. Students will choose artifacts to craft characters, a setting, and a plot conflict to create and write a narrative story.

Targeted Vocabulary: Narrative, protagonist , antagonist, character, character traits, setting, plot, climax, and conflict.

After reading and analyzing several narrative stories for story elements such as character, setting, plot, climax, and conflict, students will use this collection to begin planning their own narrative stories.
Individuals or partners will first view the portraits and discuss possible stories behind each face before choosing a protagonist, antagonist, and supporting characters. They may begin to discuss and imagine character traits for each subject.
Next, the student will select a landscape setting in which the story may take place. The writer will describe the landscape, imagine a time period, and name the location.
Finally, the student will either choose an action artifact around which to build a major plot event, or have that slide as a minor scene in their story.
Students may use the Question Formulation Technique to garner ideas for background stories behind the faces. http://rightquestion.org/
Once the story elements are in place, the students may begin to draft narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

With the artifacts selected as the major story elements, the students may begin crafting their narrative story. The artifacts can then be displayed as illustrations in the published narratives.
Susan Stokley
66
 

Wounded Knee, Past and Present

Wounded Knee is often portrayed as the closing point of the wars between Native Americans and the United States government in the late 19th century. However, the place also marks a moment of historic protest. This collection can be used to explore the importance of place in protest movements as well as the history of violence and resistance for indigenous people in the United States.

  • How should the site of Wounded Knee be remembered?
  • Why did the activists choose to occupy Wounded Knee? What is the significance of that place?
  • How were the actions of the American Indian Movement activists similar or different to their ancestors? Consider motives, strategies, and successes, and partnerships.
tags: Sitting Bull, Oglala, Sioux, Lakota, occupation, massacre, DAPL, Dakota Access, Red Cloud, Kicking Bear, Ghost Dance, cavalry
Kate Harris
9
 

World Water Day: Highlights Collection

This is a Smithsonian Learning Lab topical collection, which contains images, text, recordings, and other multimedia resources that may complement the Tween Tribune feature, Billions of pieces of plastic spread disease in coral reefs. Use these resources to introduce or augment your study of this topic. If you want to personalize this collection by changing or adding content, click the Sign Up link above to create a free account.  If you are already logged in, click the copy button to initiate your own version. Learn more here

Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access
38
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