Found 424 Learning Lab Collections
My aunt remembers sitting at the kitchen table as a child while her parents, my grandparents, read the Yiddish newspaper, Der Tag. Often one would start crying, saying, nishta ("gone"), "this one nishta; that one nishta," in response to the paper's lists of towns in Europe overrun by the Nazis.
This collection examines the US response to the Holocaust, pairing historical documentation with four thinking routines from Harvard's Project Zero Global Thinking and Agency by Design materials - "Unveiling Stories," :Think, Feel, Care," "The 3 Y's," and "Circles of Action," - to prompt students to ask important questions about our individual and collective responsibility to humanity.
Included here are photographs, documentation, and resources from the National Museum of American History and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), including a teaching resource and USHMM's online exhibition, Americans and the Holocaust, which examines "the motives, pressures, and fears that shaped Americans’ responses to Nazism, war, and genocide." Examined with thinking routines from Harvard's Project Zero Global Thinking and Agency by Design materials, students will explore complex and deeply troubling issues that continue to have relevance today.
This collection complements chapter 14 ("World War II and America's Ethnic Problem") of Ronald Takaki's A Different Mirror for Young People: A History of Multicultural America, and supports Unit 1: Intersectionality of Economics, Politics, and Policy, and Unit 3: Local History and Current Issues, of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part B course.
The resources in this collection are pulled directly from the National Gallery of Art’s online course Teaching Critical Thinking through Art. Based on the popular Art Around the Corner professional development program for teachers in Washington, D.C., this five-unit online course provides everything you need to begin creating a culture of critical thinking and collaboration for any classroom, subject, or level. You do not need an art background or museum access to successfully integrate the course materials into your teaching. Your willingness to experiment with new teaching practices is all that is required.
Find demonstrations, lesson plans, and videos here on the edX platform! Now in English, Español, Français, and 简体中文
Image analysis of these photos can reveal how community life in the Tahoe area has changed over time, and with it so has the environment. This exercise can help students to understand how our lives are different from those who lived here in the past, and how they are similar. Students will also be able to differentiate between things that happened long ago and things that happened recently. This can provoke thought and discussion about how events from the past still have an effect on the landscape today. Simply click the paperclip in each image to see the questions or prompts pertaining to the time period in which the photo was taken.
Digital Museum Resources for the High School Ethnic Studies Classroom (City of Austin Parks & Recreation)
This collection includes digital museum resources and replicable activities that will serve as a springboard for discussion during the Exploration of Ethnic Studies workshop at the City of Austin Parks & Recreation Department on October 29-30, 2019. The collection models how digital museum resources can be leveraged to support critical thinking and deeper learning for high school Ethnic Studies curricula. The collection can be copied and adapted for use in your own classroom.
This collection was co-created with Ashley Naranjo. This program received Federal support from the Latino and Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pools, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center and the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.
This collection includes digital museum resources and replicable activities that will serve as a springboard for discussion during the Exploration of Ethnic Studies workshop at the Irving Arts Center on October 16, 2019. The collection models how digital museum resources can be leveraged to support critical thinking and deeper learning for high school Ethnic Studies curricula. The collection can be copied and adapted for use in your own classroom.
This program received Federal support from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center.
Keywords: Ethnic Studies, Mexican American Studies, MAS
Use this collection to help jumpstart your brainstorming process. As you examine how two designers went from brainstorm to final product, you'll practice three brainstorming strategies:
- Generating as many ideas as you can
- Keeping the flow going by saying "Yes, And..."
- Generating new ideas by combining 2 existing ideas
The theme of TIME can be explored in art using key concepts throughout the semester or year. Explore various concepts related to the idea of TIME by playing the Connections Card Game. The mind maps made after playing the game can be used as a reference throughout the course.
- Download and print images on card stock (resource attached to this collection). Create multiple sets for small groups to play the game.
- Print Key Concept Cards (resource attached to this collection)
- Take turns choosing a card and connecting it to a key concept by placing it near an appropriate Concept Card.
- Defend choice with evidence in the image.
- After all cards have been played, students make inferences about how people experience, measure or represent time.
- Small groups collaborate to draw a mind map to illustrate their ideas.
- Present maps in a "Carousel Interview." One group member stays with the mind map to answer questions; other group members visit tables to explore mind maps and ask questions.
- Return to original group. Encapsulate overarching ideas and record them on your group's mind map.
This collection supports the free Smithsonian Science How webcast, "What's a Lichen? How a Smithsonian Scientist Studies a Unique Symbiosis," scheduled to air on November 14, 2019. Manu is a scientist at the Smithsonian who studies lichens, a lichenologist. She collects lichens from all over the world, depositing them into the U.S. National Herbarium, which is located at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History. Manu identifies the lichens she collects with observations of how the lichen looks, their DNA data and where they were found.
Lichens are a symbiotic relationship between algae and fungus. They have been on earth for millions of years, living on rocks, trees, and soil in all different habitats on all seven continents. Even though lichens are all around us, scientists are still learning about what they are, where they live, and how many different species of lichens there are.
Fungus is any group of spore-producing organisms feeding on organic matter, and include molds, yeast, mushrooms, and toadstools. Algae is a simple, non-flowering plant. Algae contain chlorophyll and produce sugar through photosynthesis, like other plants, but do not have true stems, roots, leaves, or vascular tissue like most other plants. Lichenization is a fungal lifestyle, and therefore the name of lichen is the name of the fungus component.
When you look at a lichen, what you’re looking at is the “house” that the fungus and algae grow together. Scientists call this house a “thallus.” When algae and fungus come together to form this house, we see a lichen. This partnership is called a symbiotic relationship, because it helps both the fungus and algae survive. Research has shown that lichens are not a natural biological group, meaning they do not all come from a single common ancestor, in other words, lichens have many origins. Currently there are almost 20,000 species of lichenized fungi known.
In this symbiotic relationship, the fungus and algae benefit from being associated with each other. The fungus provides the house, its shelter (the thallus). This shelter helps the algae survive in habitats where it would otherwise be exposed to the elements and possibly could not survive. The algae provide food for the fungus, in the form of sugar. The sugar is a byproduct of photosynthesis that occurs within the algae.
Lichens are very important for the environment. They are an important food source for many animals, provide nest materials for birds, and provide habitat and material for biomimicry for insects and other organisms.
Lichens are also important for humans by providing natural dyes, perfumes, litmus paper, and even food. Humans even use lichens as bio-indicators, organisms that help humans monitor the health of the environment. Some species of lichens are sensitive to environmental pollution, so their presence or absence can help us understand more about the health of the environment, like air quality.
Lichens produce over one thousand different chemical compounds, most of them unique to lichens. These compounds include acids and pigments. Some chemicals may even fluoresce under UV light, making them important components for lichen identification.
Lichens have DNA, which is used to identify lichen and compare relationships amongst and within species. DNA analysis has been an important tool for lichenologists in identifying and understanding the biodiversity of lichens.
Sign up for the Smithsonian Science How webcast to introduce your students to Lichenologist Manuela Dal Forno! The program airs at 11am and 2pm on November 14, 2019. Sign up and view the program here: https://naturalhistory.si.edu/...
Introductory Activity: Print image cards for small group collaboration. Students will sort images into three categories:
- Representational Art (realistic imagery)
- Abstract Art (recognizable imagery that does not reflect actual appearance)
- Nonrepresentational Art (does not represent a depiction of the physical appearance of people or objects)
Formal Analysis Activity:
Choose a few images to compare and contrast: How did the artist use line, shape, color, balance, repetition, or overall composition to convey
- The illusion of movement or rhythm
- Visual tension
- A mood or feeling
At Rutgers University-Newark and within the Graphic Design Program, we offer two courses that focus on community-based (the Design Consortium) and research-oriented (Visual Means) activities. These classes are part of a larger initiative, and art incubator called Express Newark, where community and the university interact, collaborate and co-create.
In addition to the DC and VM courses, we offer an advanced design studio course that focuses on unique design applications through the use of the letterpress printing process, also located at Express Newark. This coming spring, I will be teaching the letterpress course, and in the following fall, I will teach the Visual Means course. Within both classes, I will be looking to develop different ways of visualizing gun violence.
Gun violence is one of the most critical and complex issues we currently face in the United States. Rutgers University has recently created the New Jersey’s Center on Gun Violence. The center’s mission looks to “conduct interdisciplinary research on the causes, consequences, and solutions to gun-related violence while respecting the rights of legal, safe gun ownership and use.” Within the Visual Means course, I plan to work with researchers from this center on developing ways of visualizing the complicated and overwhelming data disconnect between research and public understanding of gun rights, safety, and violence.
What I plan to do with this Learning Lab is to use it as a repository of images, concepts, facts, texts, and web-based information. In the coming months, I will develop a pedagogical approach that weaves together methods of research, visualization, and implementation into various applications of visual communication and graphic form. The Learning Lab will grow as our knowledge about this subject increases and while documenting our process of research, visualization, and implementation.
Step 1 - Learning Lab
We will use the Learning Lab as a repository for our impressions and image collections that show the different ways in which guns have been woven into the mythology of America and seen in our collective culture. Using different lenses such as art, film, photography, sculpture, advertising, satirical cartoons, comics, pop culture, propaganda, and protest, my students and I will attempt to take apart and reconstruct our understanding of the many issues surrounding this divisive topic.
Visualization and typographic experimentation
Step 2 - Weather Report
Dan Friedman, American, 1945–1995
While teaching at Yale University, Dan Friedman developed a teaching method that is still used in many schools today—the Weather Report. Through a series of detailed parameters, students will be asked to create different permutations that experiment with various interpretations and hierarchies. As students advance through this assignment, the limitations are slowly lifted, and students begin to generate solutions that are more and more expressive, dynamic, and experimental. Using this method, students will experiment with various hierarchies and typographic solutions—setting the stage for the letterpress printing process.
Step 3 - Letterpress process
Working with content generated from our research, relevant information, thought-provoking content, quotes, or statistics, students will explore various methods of experimenting with typographic structure and syntax. Using the Learning Lab, students will be exposed to the dynamic work of the Futurists, Constructivists, the Bauhaus, late Modernists, and the explosive typography of the New Wave designers.
Designers would include:
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Italian, 1876–1944
The Futurists were known (amongst other things) for the emotive and expressive typography.
El Lissitzky, Russian, 1890–1941
Russian Constructivism who experimented with developing a universal language based on simple shapes and reductive color.
Ladislav Sutnar, Czechoslovakian, 1897–1976
Sutnar’s visual communication often explains complex information and concepts unambiguously and with a spartan efficiency. The Constructivist brought great structure and organization to their typographic messages through minimal means in an attempt to generate a universal visual vocabulary.
Herbert Bayer, Austrian, 1900–1985
Jan Tschichold, German, 1902–1974
Max Bill, German, 1908–1994
At the Bauhaus and through its influences, designers brought together various conceptual approaches to the organization and implementation of articulate typographic applications.
Alvin Lustig, American, 1915–1955
American designer Alvin Lustig (along with Paul Rand, Bradbury Thompson, Lester Beall, Ladislav Sutnar, and others) was instrumental in developing a mature, Modern approach inspired by Europe to American graphic design and typography.
Wolfgang Weingart, German, 1941–
Teaches at the Basel School of Design and separating himself from some of Late Modernist’s more restrictive characteristics while redefining for himself an expressive typographic approach through experimentation and practice.
April Greiman, American, 1948–
Inspired by Armin Hofmann and Wolfgang Weingart and her experiences in Europe at the Basel School of Design, Greiman brought a fresh and unique perspective to graphic design within the United States.
Bruce Licher, American, 1958–
American typographer and letterpress designer that works within the traditions of letterpress printing while pushing the edges of typography, unique form, and graphic design applications.
Professor Ned Drew
Graphic Design Faculty
Founding Director of The Design Consortium & XPress | Center for Typography initiatives at Express Newark
Women’s Right to Vote
Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
2020 marks the 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment.
The suffrage movement of the mid-nineteenth century, recognized today as the first wave of “feminism,” continues to influence and inspire the ongoing struggle for women’s rights. Many of the methods and strategies of our early pioneers serve not only as inspiration, but, as a model for effective communication that is still relevant today.
“Man was given an eye for an ear.”
— Marshall McLuhan, The Medium is the Massage
The pioneers of the suffrage understood the power of the visual message. Their use of color, branded collateral, such as badges, banners, ribbons, and the promotion of their political messages, through the traditional means of posters and postcards, drew attention and created a precedent for protesting copied around the world by other political movements, including today.
These pioneering women used simple language and ‘conversations’ in an attempt to educate people about the injustices of the legal system. These messages were often hand generated in a vernacular manner. The poster, in particular, proved informative, accessible, and an effective medium for the dramatization of a specific point of view.
This collection serves as a brief visual research of language and methods of communication of the suffrage. Through a formal and conceptual investigation of hierarchy and composition using the timely messages of the suffrage, students will explore the process and historical method of poster making, the letterpress printing process.
Students will explore the vocabulary of the Women’s Voting Rights Movement through a series of typographic letterpressed permutations. Students will identify and explore themes that are different, as well as those that have remained the same for any disenfranchised individuals in the United States.
Each student is to choose one of the quotes provided in the presentation or find a relevant quote of the time. This will serve as the content for the typographic studies. Depending on the students’ concept for the poster, additional research and text may be required.
PHASE 1: Typographic Interpretations
Design a poster representing one of the historic statements of the suffrage. Your poster can remind people of the amendment’s original purpose and importance and/or raise awareness about a particular issue related to the amendment. There are plenty of high profile issues in the news now that directly relate this amendment. Your audience is college students.
“ All typefaces serve fundamentally the same purpose: to communicate. The purpose behind the communication –
for example, to inform, to entertain, or to persuade – is expressed, in part, by the typeface chosen. As the
communication objectives change, so might the typeface.” – Willi Kunz
Typographic Process and Checklist
1 review content – reading/understanding.
2 search for inherent structure/patterns/rhythms within the text.
3 develop preliminary plans for hierarchical structures.
4 sketches – create quick but meaningful “road maps” of your thoughts.
5 develop concepts of “center and support” configurations.
6 construct preliminary, secondary & tertiary alignments.
7 form constellations that house sub-thoughts within the text (grouping info.).
8 consider/reconsider overall composition while thinking about “activating the edge.”
9 play against the viewer’s expectations.
10 legibility (clarity and efficiency in reading) vs. readability (pleasure and interest in reading)– Willi Kunz
PHASE 2: Type & Image Interpretations
+ Integrate text + image using the four methods described in the book Type, Image, Message by Skolos + Wedell
+ Recognize the design opportunities that come with using type as an image
Type, Image, Message by Skolos + Wedell
Separation, Fusion, Fragmentation & Inversion
Separation – when the type & image operate independently. Reinforce messages. Type spaces & image spaces.
Fusion – when the type and image blend to form a unit. Type & image connected by perspective—blend 2 plus things that aren’t usually associated. Conceptually connected. Political or poetic statement. Metaphor
Fragmentation – when the type & image disturb or disrupt each other. Torn, divided, uneven, disparate. Scale, color, complication. Unpredictable, random, animated, energized message.
Inversion – form of fusion when type & image trade places & the type takes on pictorial properties or the image takes on type qualities. Harmonious. Type as photo, or hyper-realistic. Letters as frames for images.
• Two 14 by 17 inch letterpressed posters. One typographic solution. One type and image solution.
• Printed in 2- 3 color
• Quote selected must be included (but does not need to be the primary read)
Assistant Professor | Art Department | Pace University-NYC
The postage stamp has a long and rich history within our visual culture. It is a carefully crafted micro-narrative, which often exhibits everyday representations or the spirit of a nation. A good micro-narrative can have a substantial impact in a quick timeframe. They often come from our shared culture – they are parts of stories we communicate, that mark our achievements, struggles, and understanding of our collective culture. They are concise and lead us quickly into making better sense of the world we are in and designing for.
The postage stamp in its limited real estate, is a wonderful study of a carefully crafted micro-narrative. It can build a shared sense of national belonging amongst humans or a sense of tribalism through national identity. They are composed of three essential pieces of information in their design: subject, stamp value, and country of origin. The reference of the country provides context for the subject, which often reflects the country’s national and cultural identity.
This collection serves as a visual aid to expose and explore the design principles and techniques necessary to communicate a concise message within a restricted space.
CONSIDERATIONS: use of visual components in a formal, conceptual, and systematic method
The design and arrangement, or appearance of typeset matter.
+ Type as a system and vehicle for communication.
+ Type used as image, type as form, typographic color, typographic structure, typographic systems
and hierarchy, active white space as punctuation, tempo, and rhythm.
A tangible or visible representation and/or a vivid or graphic representation or description.
+ Images used as a vehicle for communication and storytelling.
+ Photographs, illustrations, and visual representations like icons, indexes, and symbols. Images
used as type, images used as form, images used as color, and images used as structure.
+ The Hierarchy of images, i.e. alpha, beta, infra.
The shape and structure of something as distinguished from its material. Geometric and organic form, graphic simplification, patterns, textures, abstractions, reductions.
+ Form used as type, form used as image, form used as color, and form used as structure.
+ Form/counter investigations, navigation and direction, active white space.
A phenomenon of light or visual perception that enables one to differentiate otherwise identical objects.
+ Color can be used in both a functional and symbolic role.
Something arranged in a definite pattern of organization. Grid systems, visual organizations, and compositions.
+ Structure used as type, structure used as image, structure used as form, and structure used
Formal (syntax) and conceptual (semantics) connections.
Information to be communicated or “story being told.” Thematic cultural, social, and historical reflection. Conceptual story, metaphor, or message.
Semiotics - se.mi.ot.ics: a general philosophical theory of signs and symbols that deals primarily with their function in both artificially constructed and natural languages and comprises syntactic, semantics, and pragmatics.
• Semiotic theory is a branch of linguistics that has become a useful tool in two-dimensional design for understanding the relationships between the viewer/user, the form that conveys a message, and the message’s meaning.
Syntactics – syn.tac.tics: A branch of semiotics that deals with the formal relationship between signs or expressions in abstraction from their signification and their interpreters.
• Syntactic refers to the formal relationship among elements in a composition or among related forms. When analyzing a form for its syntactic qualities, you might ask yourself: Are all the parts of the form arranged to appear unified?
Semantics – se.man.tics: a branch of semiotics dealing with the relationship between signs and what they refer to and including theories of denotation, extension, naming, and truth: the meaning or relationship on meaning of a sign or set of signs.
• Semantic refers to the relationship between form and its meaning. When analyzing a form for semantic qualities, you should ask yourself: Does the form adequately reflect its meaning? Is the meaning singular or multiple, ambiguous or clear? Which of these is more desirable?
Pragmatics – prag.mat.ics: relating to matters of fact or practical affairs often to the exclusion of intellectual or artistic matters: Practical as opposed to idealistic.
• Pragmatic refers to the relationship between a form and its user. This aspect examines a sign when it is applied. When analyzing a form for its pragmatics, consider these questions: Is the form related to its context? Is it understandable in its context?
• Excerpts from Introduction to Two-Dimensional Design: Understanding Form and Function by John Bowers, pg. 22
Assistant Professor | Art Department | Pace University-NYC
Is American Culture always perceived in the same way by everyone or does it differ from person to person?
Learning about the Unconstitutional Deportation of American Citizens in the 1930s through an Individual's Experience: Emilia Castañeda
This collection includes a video interview and testimonial with Emilia Castañeda (April 10, 1926). Castañeda was a young Mexican American girl when she and her family were forced to leave their home and deported to Mexico from the United States in the 1930s. The interview includes a first-hand account of the impact of the federal government's forced removal of Mexican Americans.
Complementary resources to the short film include: Smithsonian Libraries' graphic organizers for evaluating historical sources, a Smithsonian Folklife and Cultural Heritage guide to conducting an oral history, and additional articles, videos and podcast files highlighting this history.
Use this collection as an extension to the LA Plaza de Cultura y Artes' collection, Unconstitutional Deportation of American Citizens in the 1930s. *This collection was created to support Unit 1: Intersectionality of Economic, Politics and Policy, Judicial Issues of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part B course.
This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Latino and Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center and the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.
Keywords: unconstitutional deportation, Mexican Americans, repatriation, Great Depression, close listening
This collection explores the necessity, logic, and fairness of the inclusion and/or exclusion of people of history based on gender and/or race.
Looking Using the Puzzle Strategy
Looking using several various strategies.
Easily customization by simply using as an individual or group lesson or by requiring all, some, or one of the additional group portraits.
Researching People and Inventions
Recognizing Bias and Objective Analysis
Understanding the Difference Between Bias and Prejudice
Argumentative Essay Writing (Designed as a timed writing for AP Lang, but the prompt could easily be turned into a formal writing assignment.
This collection includes an oral history interview with Grant Hayao Ichikawa (April 17, 1919- December 3, 2017). Ichikawa was a U. S. Army veteran who enlisted after he was relocated to a Japanese American incarceration camp with his family in 1942. The interview includes a first-hand account of the impact of the bombing of Pearl Harbor on Japanese Americans.
Complementary resources to the podcast audio file include: a National Museum of American History teachers' guide and images, Smithsonian Libraries' graphic organizers for evaluating historical sources, a Smithsonian Folklife and Cultural Heritage guide to conducting your own oral history, and additional video and audio oral histories with Grant Ichikawa from the Library of Congress American Folklife Center.
This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.
Keywords: Congressional Gold Medal, veteran, internment camps, World War II, commission, wartime, close listening
#APA2018 #EthnicStudies *This collection was created to support Unit 2: Culture and Resistance, oral history project assignment of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part B course.
In this collection, students will learn about Asian American history in Austin. Austin is home to many Asian Americans along with their rich history, culture, and traditions that are preserved and passed on to future generations by their families and communities. This exhibit showcases some of the history that is lesser known but nevertheless important to document and remember. All of the images can be found at the Austin History Center, which houses an Asian American Archival Collection of manuscript collections, photographs, clippings, books, periodicals and other items.
This exhibit was developed by the City of Austin's Asian American Resource Center and the Austin History Center.
Educators and students may use this online exhibit to supplement Texas History lessons and as a supplement to the full exhibit stored at the City of Austin's Asian American Resource Center (AARC). Currently, Waves of Hope is not on display at the AARC. Please contact the site at 512-974-1700 or firstname.lastname@example.org with any questions.
keywords: texas history, asian american, Texas asians, austin, austin history, austin history center, immigration
This teaching collection helps students to think critically and globally by using two Thinking Routines to explore the painting, "Shifting States: Iraq," by Cuban American artist Luis Cruz Azaceta. The work is a metaphorical representation of the unrest taking place in Iraq, and more broadly, an exploration of the human condition during times of crisis.
Included here are the work itself from the Smithsonian American Art Museum, a video with curator E. Carmen Ramos, another video from Articulateshow.org, two suggested Thinking Routines - "Colors, Shapes, Lines" and "The 3 Y's" - from Harvard's Project Zero Artful Thinking and Global Thinking materials, and three other works by Azaceta in the Smithsonian collections.
For use in Social Studies, Spanish, English, American History, Art History classes
An innate function of being human is to preserve and share our experiences and stories. African American men and women have researched and recorded their history despite enslavement, racism, segregation, sexism, and opposition. Their research helped expand the known narratives of American and international history through the African American perspective and interpretation of historical sources. This Learning Lab explores selected African American historians of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Their research and works were critical to the foundation of African American studies and their activism helped open doors for future African Americans to enter and contribute to the field of history. The Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and Culture, situated in the heart of the nation’s capital, serves as the physical manifestation of the efforts of African American historians featured in this lab.
Keywords: NMAAHC, NMAAHC Education, African American, historians, history, primary sources, stories
HOW TO USE THIS LAB:
Use the book excerpts, documents, images, objects, and media related to a highlighted historian in the Learning Lab to answer the questions provided in the Discussion Question page and/or or use them comparatively with information in your history textbook about the highlighted historical period.
- Revolutionary War (Squares 3 - 10)
William Cooper Nell (1816 – 1874) was born to a prominent African American abolitionist family in Boston, Massachusetts. As a young man, he was mentored by William Lloyd Garrison, wrote for Garrison’s abolitionist newspaper the Liberator, and was influential in the fight against segregation in Boston’s public transportation and accommodations during the 1840s and 1850s. In 1855, Nell authored The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution, making it one of the first historical works to focus on African Americans.
- Civil War (Squares 11 - 18)
George Washington Williams (1849 – 1891) was born in Bedford Springs, Pennsylvania. At the age of 14, he joined the Union Army during the Civil War. After the war, he finished his education in Massachusetts, became a minister, and founded a newspaper, The Commoner. By 1880, Williams moved to Ohio and became the first African American elected to the Ohio General Assembly. As a historian, Williams is most famous for writing the first comprehensive history of African Americans in the United States, a two-volume work called the History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880; as Negroes, as Slaves, as Soldiers, and as Citizens (1882). In 1887, he published A History of the Negro Troops in the War of the Rebellion.
- Reconstruction (Squares 19 - 25)
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (1868 – 1963) was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. His studies, which focused on African American history, anthropology, and sociology, took him to study in Tennessee, Germany, and finally back to Massachusetts where he became the first African American to graduate with a PhD from Harvard. In the quest for civil rights, Du Bois helped established the Niagara Movement, and its successor, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). As a historian, he wrote widely on the African American experience, but one of his best-known works was Black Reconstruction in America (1935). While Black Reconstruction was refuted during the early twentieth century, the work is now considered one of the foundational texts of how Reconstruction is interpreted by today’s mainstream historians.
- Women and Gender History (Squares 26 - 31)
Anna Julia Cooper (1858 – 1964) was born to her enslaved mother and her white slaveholder father in Raleigh, North Carolina. She pursued education from an early age, as well as fought for women’s rights and gender equality. As a scholar at Oberlin College, she protested sexist treatment of women by taking courses and gaining degrees in subjects typically designated for men. She became an influential educator in Washington D.C. who saw her students attend some of the most prestigious colleges in the country. In 1925, Cooper completed her graduate studies at Sorbonne, University of Paris. She became the fourth African American woman to earn a PhD in History. In 1892, she wrote, A Voice from the South by a Black Woman of the South, focusing on the history and experiences of African American women in the South, and the need for their education to uplift the African American community as a whole.
- The First World War (Squares 32 - 37)
Carter Godwin Woodson (1875 - 1950) was born in New Canton, Virginia. He is known as the “Father of Black History” because of his numerous contributions to the field. Woodson was the son of poor, but land-owning former slaves. As he worked to support his family’s farm he did not enter high school until age twenty. Woodson earned his first degree from Berea College in Kentucky. He then worked, studied, and taught internationally before receiving his Bachelors and his Masters from the University of Chicago, and later his PhD from Harvard University. In 1915, he founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (now the Association for the Study of African-American Life and History), and in 1916 published the Journal of Negro History (now the Journal of African American History). In 1926, he established Negro History Week, which would later become Black History Month. In 1922, Woodson wrote The Negro in Our History, which covered African American history from African origins to the First World War. Woodson believed that history should not be a mere study of facts but the analyzation and interpretation of historical evidence for a deeper meaning.
- African American History: Slavery and Freedom (Squares 38 - 46)
John Hope Franklin (1915 – 2009) was born in Rentiesville, Oklahoma. In June 1921, the Franklin family endured and survived the deadly Tulsa Race Riots. Franklin earned his Bachelors from Fisk University, and would complete his Masters and PhD at Harvard. In 1949, he became the first African American historian to present at the Southern Historical Association. He was also the only African American to serve as the president of the American Historical Association and the Organization of American Historians. Franklin wrote widely on the African American experience, with his most notable work being the 1947 publication of From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans. Today, the work is in its tenth edition and is a staple of American history courses.
Martin Luther King Jr.’s fight for equality did not end with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In his last years, King’s focus shifted toward achieving economic equality and combating poverty in the United States, denouncing the United States’ involvement in the Vietnam War, and contending with the rise of The Black Power Movement.
This Learning Lab highlights documents, images, objects, and media from the National Museum of African American History and Culture and other Smithsonian units that help to tell the story of Martin Luther King Jr.’s final years, his assassination, and his enduring legacy.
Keywords: nmaahc, Martin Luther King Jr, MLK, Jr., African American, civil rights, last years, Chicago, Vietnam, poverty, Poor People's Campaign, Resurrection City, Memphis, assassination, legacy, Coretta Scott King, Reverend
In 1852, Solomon G. Brown of Washington D.C. became the first African American employed by the Smithsonian Institution. He was an unusual man of his time, as he was a literate free person of color in Washington D.C., where slavery was legal until 1862. Additionally, Mr. Brown was an influential member of the African American community in Washington D.C, before and after the Civil War. For 54 years, Mr. Brown worked at the Smithsonian Institution in a variety of positions. He saw the institution change and grow. In 1902, the Smithsonian honored Mr. Brown for his time and service.
This Learning Lab explores the experience of Solomon G. Brown and his work at the Smithsonian Institution. Exploring his career can highlight the complexities of slavery, freedom, race, and citizenship that African Americans experienced in Washington D.C. through the latter half of the nineteenth century, which included the late Antebellum Period, the Civil War, the Gilded Age and the beginnings of the Jim Crow Era. His life poses an interesting contrast to the more normative narratives of African Americans during the mid to late nineteenth century.
Discussion questions are included at the beginning of the Learning Lab.
Keywords: nmaahc, African American, Smithsonian, Institution, museum, castle, secretary, freedom, slavery, Washington D.C. DC, district, Columbia, research, pioneer, Solomon, Brown, first, civil war, antebellum, reconstruction, Jim Crow, 19th century, 20th century
"Hyphenated Americans": When “Bricklayer Bill” Won the 1917 Boston Marathon, It Was a Victory For All Irish Americans
This collection explores the notion of hyphenated Americans, through the story of one man, William Kennedy, an American of Irish descent, born in New York in the late 19th century, who went on to win the Boston Marathon in 1918. Bill's nephew, in writing about his uncle, said, "When “Bricklayer Bill” Won the 1917 Boston Marathon, It Was a Victory For All Irish Americans." What did he mean?
To aid discussion, included in this collection are images, a cartoon, several articles, a story fro WBUR, and one thinking routine from Harvard's Project Zero Global Thinking - "Step In, Step Out, Step Back" - to "encourage learners to take other people’s perspectives, recognize that understanding others is an ongoing process, and understand that our efforts to take perspective can reveal as much about ourselves as they can about the people we are seeking to understand."
This collection complements chapter 6 ("The Flight From Ireland") of Ronald Takaki's A Different Mirror for Young People: A History of Multicultural America, and supports Unit 2: What is the history?, and Unit 3: Local History and Current Issues, of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part B course.
Subject: AP Language, Rhetorical Analysis
This collection features portraits (some that can be used for comparing and contrasting) for studying and practicing usage of the rhetorical triangle. Students may also SOAPSTone the images.
- Students will observe different portraits.
- Students will analyze different portraits using the rhetorical triangle.
- Students will recall lessons from history to apply background knowledge to the analysis.
This collection was created in conjunction with the National Portrait Gallery's 2018 Learning to Look Summer Teacher Institute.
Domingo Ulloa's "Bracero": and "Bittersweet Harvest": Using Art and Historical Documentation to Deepen Understanding
This teaching collection helps students to look closely and think critically by examining Domigo Ulloa's painting, Braceros, and historical documentation related to the bracero program, a series of short-term labor contracts from 1942-1964 in which an estimated two million Mexican men came to the US to work on farms and roads. The collection prompts students to consider the program from a variety of perspectives, including individual, collective, social, economic, and political.
Included here are the painting, a bilingual video with Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM) curator E. Carmen Ramos, four suggested Thinking Routines - "See, Think, Wonder," "Step In, Step Out, Step Back," "The 3 Y's," and "Think, Feel, Care" - from Harvard's Project Zero Artful Thinking and Global Thinking materials, supporting digital content from the National Museum of American History, and a blogpost from SAAM of two DC student's written responses to the prompt, "What Domingo Ulloa's Braceros Means to Me."
For use in Social Studies, Spanish, English, and American History classes
This collection supports Unit 1: Intersectionality of Economics, Politics, and Policy, of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part B course.
This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center.