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Found 4,769 Collections

 

Eleanor and Marian: Privilege and Race

This collection compares and contrasts the portraits of Eleanor Roosevelt and Marian Anderson, and explores the struggles Anderson experienced as a person of color in America and the dynamics of white privilege and race relations.

This collection was created in conjunction with the National Portrait Gallery's 2018 Learning to Look Summer Teacher Institute.

#NPGteach

Tamsen Brock
13
 

mythology

Alex Stall
1
 

The Things I Carry

These three objects somewhat describe the memories and emotions I carry with me on an daily basis. Albeit personal, these items represent the things that tie me to my town. Enjoy. 

astahl14
1
 

The Things We Carry

ASHLEY GILL
9
 

The Things We Carry

Identity, story, in the things we carry

Jeff Hudson
1
 

SSYAC 2018/2019 Meeting 1 - National Air and Space Museum

The first meeting of the third cohort of the SSYAC (2018-2019) will be held at the National Air and Space Museum on October 24, 2018. The meeting will be out of this world.  We'll begin by playing a "break-out box" game in the Moving Beyond Earth gallery. Can you help Dr. Skorton solve the space history clues to UNLOCK the mysteries of the universe? OR will we be lost in space? Next, we'll meet Dr. Ellen Stofan, Director (and Scientist), National Air and Space Museum (NASM). We'll hear about plans to renovate the museum--and what it takes to be the world's most visited museum. Next, since it's our very first meeting of the new SSYAC year, we'll take a moment to greet friends--both old and new. Secretary Skorton will discuss this year's SSYAC agenda, and answer some of the questions that you posed to him in your applications. Finally, we'll take a group photo. If you have any questions--do not hesitate to reach out to Tracie Spinale, tspinale(AT)si.edu or your Affiliate Coordinator. 

Tracie Spinale
18
 

SSYAC 2018/2019 Meeting 2 - Smithsonian American Art Museum

The second meeting of the third cohort of the SSYAC (2018-2019) will be held at the Smithsonian American Art Museum on November 19, 2018. 

We'll meet Stephanie Stebich, Director, SAAM and Renwick Gallery.  We'll hear about the history and function of the museum, and think about the role of science in the preservation of art. We'll visit behind-the-scenes at the Lunder Center for Conservation, where Amber Kerr, Chief of Conservation, will share her innovative research using infrared reflectography and ultraviolet-induced luminescence on the paintings of DC-artist Alma Thomas. Ms. Kerr will also talk to the group about the conservation of plastics which make-up the Renwick's Game Fish sculpture.

Our dialogue with the Secretary will focus on: 

 In today’s world, what are your concerns—both national and at a local community level? How can a cultural institution like the Smithsonian help to address those issues? 

Tracie Spinale
13
 

SSYAC 2018/2019 Meeting 3 - Smithsonian Institution Libraries - Cullman Natural History (Rare Books)

Leslie Overstreet, Rare Books Curator provides an overview of the Joseph F. Cullman 3rd Library of Natural History—its significance and purpose. We'll view up to ten rare books, and Leslie will provide an overview of their significance, focusing on how art books in this library support scientific research—not just for the natural history museum scientists, but for the entire field of natural history. A discussion with the Secretary follows:

  • What role do libraries have today—how has it changed? (SIL mission to save and share our stories for future generations) 
  • Are public libraries still relevant to teens? What about high school libraries?
  • How are libraries adapting themselves to be relevant to youth and teens in a digital world?
    Sara Cardello will share examples of youth engagement through the Unstacked Museum in a Box interactive, and Chaptour Guides Program. 
Tracie Spinale
46
 

SSYAC 2018/2019 Meeting 4 - Smithsonian Science Education Center

The fourth meeting of the third cohort of the SSYAC (2018-2019) will be held at the Smithsonian Science Education Center on February 6, 2019. Dr. Carol O'Donnell will lead the group in an activity which investigates How can we provide freshwater to those in need? 

Secretary Skorton and group will participate in a water activity based upon Smithsonian Science for the Classroom and will learn about the Smithsonian Global Goals project.

Tracie Spinale
10
 

Antique and Vintage Hole Punches

The Scaglione Antique and Vintage Office Museum

This collection features American made hole punches manufactured between the years 1874 and 1932. It is one of the the most complete collections of antique and vintage paper perforators in the world. It is interesting to note that some of the machines in this collection have not been seen in over 100 years. With the exception of wood block cuttings use in the advertisement process, these machines may be the last of their kind.

Hole punches have been around since the early 1870’s therefore, we have a great selection of antique and vintage machines for review and examination. The development of punches really took off in the early 1900’s and improvements followed. Many machines produced today are based on designs dating  to 1912.

Today, we refer to this office machine as a hole punch. During the period dating from 1874 to the 1930's these machines were known as paper punch,  hole punchers, perforators, or paper perforators. There was no real standard for a machine that punched hole.

In 1882 James Shannon filed for a patent for his paper file. While the patent is for a complete paper file, his patent described the paper punch that was part of his invention. After reviewing the patent one is left wondering if he was at a loss as to what to call his hole punch. As a result his invention is overlooked by many and the credit for the invention of the hole punch has been credited to someone else.

Even now, some examples are proving to be more desirable to collectors and are harder to find. The Globe No. 4 produced by Globe-Wernicke is one such machine that has a following of not only the punch collector, but by collectors of the machine age. This machine appears to draw the most interest from individuals wanting an old paper hole punch for the desk or collection. Another example is the early examples of the Tengwell which had a nicely scrolled plate and was mounted on a beautiful oak base.

Variants hold their own interest to many collectors. You will find the same machine, such as the Improved Hummer,  was produced by different companies. Research has shown that many companies or their assets changed hands more than once during the century and that the machines were never improved upon or only minor changes were introduced, usually just parts on the machine or the manufacturers name.

When examining the early machines, it is easy to see these machines are historic. They were developed and manufactured during the mechanical revolution, Simple in design yet dependable.  These  19th century designs are what you would expect of the era and this is where the concept of paper punches began. 

Many paper hole punches have been lost to time, because of modernization, workmanship or better material. Examples such as the Sam’l Tatum’s Samson, Eclipse, and the No. 27 are just a few of those machines that were lost or discontinued. These machines were the work  of Walter Mendenhall, long time employee of the Tatum Company. Compared to the punches today, these machines are complex and curious. Their mechanisms were unique in design and never copied by any other manufacturer. 

Curtis Scaglione
80
 

Antisemitism Through the Ages

In recent years, antisemitism is thought to be a relatively new phenomenon. However, its roots are found much deeper in history: back to Roman times.  The collection is based chronologically to follow Antisemitism from its source leading up until the 21st century A.D. My expectation is that these collections will serve as a means to deepen the understanding of Antisemitism found within the Christian culture.

In the first century B.C.E. Cicero (Lawyer, writer and orator) wrote his Pro L. Flacco in defense of his client L. Valerius Flaccus. In defending his client (the governor of Asia), who was accused of embezzlement as well as corruption, Cicero accuses the Jews as the foundations for the conspiracies against his client. Cicero claims that Jews are the "variance" and go directly against the pietas (family, gods and state) Roman culture embraced. Cicero further back up his claim by stating that Roman gods don't even care for them or else the Jews city of Jerusalem would not have been conquered by the Romans and made tribute. In his work Pro L. Flacco he coined the phrase "barbara superstitio." The insult was meant to directly oppose the meaning of pietas; to oppose Rome itself.  It wasn't until a century later, when Rome laid siege to Judea, that his anti-Jewish beliefs would take root. 

Nearly a hundred years after Cicero first wrote his poisonous anti-Jewish work did Judea rebel against Rome. Emperor Vespasian's son Titus, constructed an army that brutally attacked the city of Jerusalem. There are several explicit records that denote Titus' relentless starvation of Jews, burning of synagogues (while Jews remained inside), outright slaughter of Jews (approximately 600,000 to 1.1 million Jews), and the remainder were sold into slavery. The sacking of Judea was extremely important to the Romans, because it signified their dominance. In celebration of this monumental event, the Arch of Titus was created to depict the sacking of Judea. In the relief, the menorah that Titus took from the Second Temple is displayed as the focus of the sculpture. 

During the time of the rebellion, Tacitus constructed his Historiae (70 C.E.) where he demonized Jews for their sacrilegious views of Roman gods. Tacitus created the four pillars that formed the anti-Semitic beliefs. He stated that Jews were affluent, perverted, "out-breeding," and sacrilegious. The way in which Tacitus illuminated the Jews caused the creation of a "mythology". This anti-Jewish mythology deemed Jews as tempting people from their families, religions, and patriotism (all pietas of Roman culture) as a way of destroying all who were not Jewish.  

In addition to the Arch of Titus, commemorative coins were also issued as part of the celebration. The coins depict a Roman soldier hovering over a Jewish woman. The anti-Jewish propaganda (the Arch and the coins, among others) allowed this perpetual violence to become palatable among Romans. 

In light of the growing anti-Semitic violence, Titus Flavius Josephus, a Jewish scholar during the 1st century A.D., wrote his work Contra Apionem , where he attempted to combat the anti-Jewish propaganda being spewed by the Romans. Much of Josephus argument was founded on past rebellions by Jews (like that in Egypt) and combating agitated Greek philosophers (regarding the spread of Judaism). 

In the following century after the conquest of Rome, Jews revolted to take back Judea. Just as the Romans created commemorative coins, so did the Jews. The rebellion was led by Simon Bar Kokhba. However, the Jews took Roman coins and filled them down before being over-struck with their own rebellious images. 

Our journey of Antisemitism during the Medieval period starts with the First Crusade in 1095 through 1099. During the First Crusade Christians attacked the Jew's sacred city, Jerusalem, taking the city as theirs. The First Crusade began to recall (if it ever went away) the Roman pillars against Jews. Until the year 1100 Jews were indistinguishable from Christians in artwork. In the early 1100's Jews were given pointed hats to differentiate them in paintings. 

The hatred of Jews began to rise in England with the mutilated dead body of William of Norwich in 1144. The crazy rumors surrounding his mutilation formed the myth known as Blood Libel. The myth of the blood libel was seen as the slaughter of young Christian children, where Jews used their blood for religious rites. Not long after, starting in 1150, Jews were demonized in art as well. 

The fear of Jews ran rampant throughout Europe. Christians even began to publicly display their hatred on the churches themselves. In 1240, the construction of Notre Dame included statues of Synogoga and Ecclesia, latin for Synagogue and Church. The two women represented more than just the names, they also represented the Christians view on the Jewish religion. Synogoga is depicted as wearing a helmet that covers her eyes (for her inability to "see" the truth), slouching, holding a broken spear (represent the death of Christ; blaming Jews for Christ's death), and the Torah (which she is barely hanging on to). In contrast, Ecclesia is standing straight with a crown (assuming the Christians are now the ones with the royal blood line), a cross staff, as well as a grail or chalice. The grail or chalice is perhaps in representation of the Holy Grail, the vessel believed to catch the blood of Christ during his Crucifixion. 

In 1267 two church councils order Jews to wear the pointed hats (as they did in paintings). Around the same time Jews were beginning to be depicted with abnormally large noses as well as with beards. This change of style is easily noted in the illuminated manuscript produced in 1275, called "Jesus before Caiaphas," Jesus (although a Jew) is not pictured with the Jewish nose as the four other men in the illumination are. Also note the two men in the front with the pointed hats. 

Churches continued the theme of degradation of Jews in their facades. However, in 1305 they reached an all time low, the Judensau was born. The Judensau is the depiction of Jews suckling a pig. According to Jewish law, pigs are considered to be unclean (not for consumption) and furthers the insult, comparing Jews to swine and claiming they are dirty and unclean peoples. 

As the style of art transitioned into the High Renaissance style, the depictions of Jews became further demonized. A late Renaissance painting by Albrecht Durer called "Christ Among the Doctors" notes this demonetization. The Jews are easily noticeable by their horrid appearance.  

The persecution of Jews continued across the continent. In Bildchronik of Diebold Schiling illuminated manuscript page, Jews are wearing the pointy hats as well as yellow identifying badges on their clothing while being burned alive at the stakes. One of the many reasons that this hatred was so easily accessible was the invention of the printing press. In a printing from 1596 we can see the reproduction of Martin Luther's 1543 Judensau article, which he pinned on his church door in Wittenberg, Germany. 

Jews were being "attacked" by rumors of blood libel, portrayed as wicked in art, portrayed as blind/dumb and unclean on church facades, as well as literature being spread against them, all over the span of 500 years. 

 #AHMC2019 #antisemitism #medieval #EcclesiaSynogoga #Judensau #JesusBeforeCaiaphas #ChristAmongDoctors #BildchronikofDieboldSchiling #PrintingpressJudensau #AntisemitismRomans #Cicero #ArchofTitus #BustofJosephus #RomanCommerorativeCoins #Tacitus #Barkokhbacoins

Jacquelyn Lopez
13
 

Saul Steinberg Smithsonian Letterhead Doodles

Saul Steinberg created these drawings in the 1960s. A complete story of his time in residence at the Smithsonian is available from Smithsonian Archives.

Darren Milligan
32
 

Monumental Sculptures by Latin Artists

Powerful and Colorful Dynamic 3D Works of art
Renee Mills
5
 

"Explore with Smithsonian Experts" Film Series

This video series, Explore with Smithsonian Experts, connects students and teachers with the skill and technique of Smithsonian experts who describe their work at our nation's museums. In each short film, experts introduce new ways to observe, record, research and share, while using real artifacts and work experiences.

Keywords: entomology, arthropod, insects, beetles, ants, scientific method, verification, President Abraham Lincoln, March on Washington, The Wright Brothers, Orville and Wilbur Wright, flight, astrophotography, cosmos, astronomy, abstract art, El Anatsui, portraits, portraiture, President George Washington, Gertrude Stein, Gordon, Pocahontas, LL Cool J, Kehinde Wiley, Nicholasa Mohr, Dolores Huerta, Puerto Rico, Luis Muñoz Marín, Rudolfo Anaya, urban photography, Shifting States: Iraq, Luis Cruz Azaceta, choreography, dance, Japanese American incarceration (internment) camps, World War II, Queen Kapi'olani, Hawaii, diplomacy

Ashley Naranjo
36
 

Analysis of an Artwork by Maya Lin

Chinese American designer and artist Maya Lin (b. 1959) achieved national recognition as a Yale University undergraduate student when her design for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial won a national competition. 

In this activity, students will analyze a unique artwork-filled room designed by Maya Lin, first using only a still visual with little context, then a hyperlapse video of the artwork's installation,  then the artist herself discussing  her process, materials used, and vision. Students will make predictions based on visuals, gradually learn about the context of the artwork, and reflect on how their perception of the artwork changed with the addition of new information. 

This activity can be used as an entry point into studying Maya Lin's artwork and other artworks inspired by experiences with the natural environment. This activity opens with a Project Zero See-Think-Wonder routine and asks learners to look closely, prior to revealing additional contextual information. To learn more about other Asian Pacific American Artists, visit this collection: https://learninglab.si.edu/collections/asian-pacific-american-artists/bW68eE1p6kHVzsC7#r

This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Asian Pacific American Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center.

Keywords: Chesapeake Bay, Maya Lin, Asian American, marbles, Renwick Gallery, waterways

#APA2018

Ashley Naranjo
13
 

Zoot Suit U.S History B

To be used in Mr. Chaffino U.S History B class.

#sj2019lp

Erik Chaffino
9
 

We the People

Essential Questions:

What would cause a people to revolt against their government?

Why does a society need a system of government?

Why is it important for Americans to understand their system of government?

Why is it important for Americans to understand the history of their country?

Understanding Moves: Making Connections, Describe What's There, Uncovering Complexity, Reason with Evidence, Build Explanations

Thinking Moves: See Think Wonder, Parts Purposes Complexities


Gary Galuska
18
 

Animal Adaptations

Generative Topic: Animal Adaptations

Essential Questions:  

How do organisms live, grow, respond to their environment and reproduce?  

How and why do organisms interact with their environment and what are the effects of these interactions?  

How can there be so many similarities among organisms yet so many different kinds of plants, animals, and microorganisms?  

What are the roles of organisms in a food chain?   

How do the structures and functions of living things allow them to meet their needs?

What are characteristics that allow populations of animals to survive in an environment?

How does the variation among individuals affect their survival?

Understanding Moves: Describe What's There, Uncovering Complexity, Reason with Evidence

Thinking Moves: See Think Wonder, Parts Purposes Complexities

Lesson Focus:  

Students will investigate that animals have both internal and external structures that serve various functions in growth, survival, behavior, and reproduction and will engage in engineering and design.  Students build a model and use their understanding of how animals are adapted to survive in a particular environment.

Prior Learnings/Connection:

Students have prior knowledge about ecosystems, animal classifications, basic adaptations such as means of obtaining diet, protection, and movement.

Understandings:

Organisms interact in feeding relationships in ecosystems.

Organisms may compete for resources in an ecosystem.

For any particular environment, some kinds of organisms survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.

Populations live in a variety of habitats, and change in those habitats affects the organisms living there.

Other characteristics result from individuals’ interactions with the environment. Many characteristics involve both inheritance and environment.

Many characteristics of organisms are inherited from their parents.

When the environment changes in ways that affect a place’s physical characteristics, temperature, or availability of resources, some organisms survive and reproduce, others move to new locations, yet others move into the transformed environment, and some die.

Populations live in a variety of habitats, and change in those habitats affects the organisms living there.

Aquisition of Knowledge and Skill

Knowledge:

Producers (plants, algae, phytoplankton) make their own food, which is also used by animals (consumers).

Decomposers eat dead plant and animal materials and recycle the nutrients in the system.

Adaptations are structures and behaviors of an organism that help it survive and reproduce. 

Organisms are related in feeding relationships called food chains. Animals eat plants, and other animals eat those animals.

Skills:

Make observations to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence for an explanation of a phenomenon or test a design solution.

Use evidence (e.g. measurements, observations, patterns) to construct an explanation.

Identify the cause and effect relationships that are routinely identified and used to explain change.

Observe and identify structures and behaviors that help an animal survive in its environment.

Present results of their investigations in an organized manner.

Make a claim and supporting it with evidence.

Synthesize information from more than one source.

Assessment Evidence:

Performance Task: 

This collaborative project gives students the opportunity to take part in the systematic practice of engineering and design to achieve solutions to problems. During a life science unit, fourth grade students learn that for any particular environment, some kinds of organisms survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.  Students then apply these core scientific ideas to demonstrate understanding as they design, test, and refine an animal that is well suited to survive in its environment. By integrating content with practice, students are better able to make sense of science.

Presentation:

Students will create a  presentation in which they showcase their Animal design and explain how it is well adapted to survive in its environment.

Learning Activities:

During See Think Wonder students engage in observation of  animals as the foundation for greater insight into structure and function.  Students first look closely at an animal to fully observe and notice before interpreting.  Then students can begin to make interpretations based on their observations.  Students use Smithsonian Collection resources, such as videos, 3D models with pins/annotations, articles to further explore blue crab structures and behaviors and how they help the animal survive in its environment.   Students then use Parts Purposes Complexities routine to develop understanding of the concept of adaptation - a structure or behavior that improves an organism's chance of survival.  Students study the blue crab environment and as they consider how people changing the crabs' environment have affected the blue crab population.  To assess understanding, students complete the Animal Adaptations design challenge.

Gary Galuska
15
 

Auspicious Symbols in Qing Dynasty Textiles

How can clothing and textiles reveal what was valued in Qing dynasty (1644-1912 CE) China?  How did Chinese cultural associations with the natural world influence fashion and decor of Qing dynasty nobility?  Closely examine Qing dynasty clothing and home furnishings and decor from Freer|Sackler collections to discover auspicious symbols.  Learn about each symbol's significance in Chinese culture. Then, test your eyes and see if you can locate the symbols in other textile examples by answering guided questions. A glossary and exhibition resources are provided for teacher reference.  This Learning Lab Collection was designed as a resource for the Empresses of China's Forbidden City, 1644-1912 exhibition on view at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery March 30 - June 23, 2019.  

Tags:  art; silk; brocade; embroidery; tapestry; velvet; twill; patterns; China; good fortune; clothing; costume; dress; regalia; symbolism; imperial; court; furnishings; nature; plants; animals; flowers; birds 

Freer|Sackler Education
12
 

Vietnam and The Things They Carried

Images of Vietnam 

Assignment: Choose an image and write a story using vivid imagery and character voice.

Anne Ruka
14
 

Darkness in the Greats

History has a habit of repeating itself in which every great empire has its peak. But with the greatest also comes its downfall. The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans all had prosperous civilizations at one point in time. But along with the prosperity and influence  of their empire, came unrest, sorrow, and war. This collection aims to portray the negative aspects that come with any great civilization. I believe often times we tend to hyperfocus on all the culture, art and philosophy from an era that highlights the peak. However, by also giving attention to the darker, less comfortable topics or simply more minute details, I believe we are able to paint a more realistic and whole picture of a culture.

Nearyrodh Promket
6
 

Ancient Greece

  The focus of this collection is to accurately depict Ancient Greece culture and inform the reader on, the cultural significance of the artwork , architecture, gods, and individuals who lived in Ancient Greece. I have always had a fascination with Ancient Greece and the influence it left on the world. I think they are one of the most beautiful cultures to ever exist and the people from this time left a lasting impact on the world around us.  

  The first two pieces of my collection include two busts; one of Zeus and one of Aphrodite.  They are both vital parts of Greek mythology and were highly respected by the Ancient Greeks at the time. Zeus was the the king of all the gods and was believed to live on top of mount olympus.  Aphrodite was the Greek goddess of beauty. An interesting fact about Aphrodite is that in some Greek myths she was known as the mother of Eros (Cupid).

The next two pieces of my collection include sculptures of Alexander the Great and Achilles. Alexander the great was born in Pella where is father was king and controlled Macedonian Army. Due to the success of his father Alexander inherited one of the most powerful Armies of the time which allowed him to expand his empire even further. Achilles is the protagonist of the Iliad a story created by Homer. The significance of Achilles is he was grabbed by the heels and dipped in a river which turns him immortal. However, since his heels did not touch the water and later on he was hit by an arrow in that spot which led to his downfall.

The the last two pieces of my collection contain Ancient Greek architecture. One of the pieces I specifically wanted to focus on the columns since they were such a pivotal part of Ancient Greek architecture. They created three types of columns corinthian, doric and Ionic. The second piece of architecture I include was the Parthenon. This piece of architecture was on the Athenian Acropolis, and was dedicated to Athena, who the people of Athens thought was their patron


Work cited:


1. “Parthenon Facts.” Math, www.softschools.com/facts/ancient_civilizations/parthenon_facts/2231/.

2. “Aphrodite • Facts and Information on Greek Goddess Aphrodite.” Greek Gods & Goddesses, greekgodsandgoddesses.net/goddesses/aphrodite/.

3. Cartwright, Mark. “Column.” Ancient History Encyclopedia, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 11 Feb. 2019, www.ancient.eu/column/.

4. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Smithsonian Institution. “Smithsonian Learning Lab Resource: Psyche.” Smithsonian Learning Lab, Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, 2 Nov. 2015. learninglab.si.edu/q/r/118194. Accessed 12 Feb. 2019. 

#AHMC2019

chris miller
6
 

Bracero Program: Step In, Step Out, Step Back

In this activity, students will examine a painting of individuals participating in the Bracero Program, the largest guest-worker program in US history. Started in 1942 as a temporary war measure to address labor demands in agriculture and railroads, the program allowed Mexican nationals to take temporary agricultural work in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, and 24 other states. By the time the program ended in 1964, over 4.6 million contracts were awarded.

Using a Project Zero Global Thinking Routine - "Step In - Step Out - Step Back" - students will examine the perspectives of those depicted in the painting, consider what it means to take the perspectives of others, and explore avenues and methods to learn more about Braceros.  Resources for learning more, including a collection of photographs documenting the Bracero Program, are located at the end of the collection. 

Keywords: mexican, immigration, work, migration, migrant workers, agriculture, reform, politics, government, photojournalism, activity, inquiry strategy, global competency, global competence, latino, chicano, 1940s, 40s, 1950s, 50s, 1960s, 60s

Tess Porter
6
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