Found 5,872 Learning Lab Collections
By Beverly Faye Hugo, 2009
Sea, Land, Rivers
There’s ice and snow, the ocean and darkness – darkness in the winter and twenty-four hours of daylight in the summer. Barrow was originally called Utqiaġvik (meaning, “the place where ukpik, the snowy owl, nests”). That’s where my people, the Iñupiat, have survived and lived, and I am doing as they have done. On the Arctic coast you can see vast distances in all directions, out over the ocean and across the land. The country is very flat, with thousands of ponds and lakes, stretching all the way to the Brooks Range in the south. It is often windy, and there are no natural windbreaks, no trees, only shrubs. Beautiful flowers grow during the brief summer season. The ocean is our garden, where we hunt the sea mammals that sustain us. Throughout the year some seasonal activity is going on. We are whaling in the spring and fall, when the bowheads migrate past Barrow, going out for seals and walrus, fishing, or hunting on the land for caribou, geese, and ducks.
Whaling crews are made up of family members and relatives, and everyone takes part. The spring is an exciting time when the whole community is focused on the whales, hoping to catch one. The number we are permitted to take each year is set by the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission and the International Whaling Commission. Whaling is not for the faint of heart. It can be dangerous and takes an incredible amount of effort – getting ready, waiting for the whales, striking and pulling and towing them. But the men go out and do it because they want to feed the community. Everyone has to work hard throughout the whaling season. People who aren’t able to go out on the ice help in other ways, such as buying supplies and gas or preparing food. You have to make clothing for them; they need warm parkas, boots, and snow pants.
We believe that a whale gives itself to a captain and crew who are worthy people, who have integrity – that is the gift of the whale. Caring for whales, even after you’ve caught them, is important. After a whale is caught and divided up, everyone can glean meat from the bones. Each gets his share, even those who don’t belong to a crew. No one is left out.
We are really noticing the effects of global warming. The shorefast ice is much thinner in spring than it used to be, and in a strong wind it will sometimes break away. If you are out on the ice, you have to be extremely conscious of changes in the wind and current so that you will not be carried off on a broken floe. We are concerned as well about the effects of offshore drilling and seismic testing by the oil companies. They try to work with the community to avoid problems, but those activities could frighten the whales and be detrimental to hunting.
Community and Family
Iñupiaq residents of Barrow, Wales, Point Hope, Wainwright, and other coastal communities, are the Taġiuqmiut, “people of the salt.” People who live in the interior are the Nunamiut, “people of the land.” The Nunamiut used to be nomadic, moving from camp to camp with their dog teams, hunting and fishing to take care of their families. They packed light and lived in skin tents, tracking the caribou and mountain sheep. My husband, Patrick Hugo, was one of them. For the first six years of his life his family traveled like that, but when the government built a school at Anaktuvuk Pass in 1959 they settled there.
My parents, Charlie and Mary Edwardson, were my foremost educators. They taught me my life skills and language. When I came to awareness as a young child, all the people who took care of me spoke Iñupiaq, so that was my first language. Our father would trap and hunt. We never went hungry and had the best furs for our parkas. Our mother was a fine seamstress, and we learned to sew by helping her. My mother and grandmother taught us to how to care for a family and to do things in a spirit of cooperation and harmony.
I was a child during the Bureau of Indian Affairs era, when we were punished for speaking Iñupiaq in school. My first day in class was the saddest one of my young life. I had to learn English, and that was important, but my own language is something that I value dearly and have always guarded. It is a gift from my parents and ancestors, and I want to pass it on to my children and grandchildren and anyone who wants to learn.
Ceremony and Celebration
Nalukataq (blanket toss) is a time of celebration when spring whaling has been successful. It is a kind of all-day picnic. People visit with friends and family at the windbreaks that the crews set up by tipping the whale boats onto their sides. At noon they serve niġliq (goose) soup, dinner rolls, and tea. At around 3:00 P.M. we have mikigaq,made of fermented whale meat, tongue, and skin. At 5:00 they serve frozen maktak (whale skin and blubber) and quaq (raw frozen fish). It’s wonderful to enjoy these foods, to talk, and catch up with everyone at the end of the busy whaling season.
Kivgik, the Messenger Feast, was held in the qargi (ceremonial house). The umialgich (whaling captains) in one community sent messengers to the leaders of another, inviting them and their families to come for days of feasting, dances, and gift giving. They exchanged great quantities of valuable things – piles of furs, sealskins filled with oil, weapons, boats, and sleds. That took place until the early years of the twentieth century, when Presbyterian missionaries suppressed our traditional ceremonies, and many of the communal qargich in the villages were closed down.
In 1988, Mayor George Ahmaogak Sr. thought it was important to revitalize some of the traditions from before the Christian era, and Kivgik was started again. Today it is held in the high school gymnasium. People come to Barrow from many different communities to take part in the dancing and maġgalak, the exchange of gifts. You give presents to people who may have helped you or to those whom you want to honor. Kivgiq brings us together as one people, just as it did in the time of our ancestors.
Walrus ivory is a precious sculptural material that for millennia has been carved into a nearly endless variety of forms essential to Arctic life, from harpoon heads to needle cases, handles, ornaments, buckles and many more. Naturalistic and stylized figures of animals and humans were made as charms, amulets and ancestral representations. Carvers today bring this conceptual heritage to new types of work.
During a week-long residency organized by the Arctic Studies Center at the Anchorage Museum in 2015, Alaska Native carvers Jerome Saclamana (Iñupiaq), Clifford Apatiki (St. Lawrence Island Yupik) and Levi Tetpon (Iñupiaq) studied historic walrus ivory pieces from the Smithsonian’s Living Our Cultures exhibition and Anchorage Museum collection, and demonstrated how to process, design and shape walrus ivory into artwork. Art students, museum conservators, school groups, local artists and museum visitors participated throughout the week. Also, a two-day community workshop in Nome was taught by Jerome Saclamana and hosted by the Nome-Beltz High School. The video set presented here introduces the artists and document the materials, tools and techniques they use to make walrus-ivory artwork. An educational guide with six lessons is included below pair with the videos, along with links to a selection of Iñupiaq and St. Lawrence Island Yupik objects from the Smithsonian collections that were carved from walrus ivory.
Tags: Iñupiaq, Inupiaq, Eskimo, ivory, walrus, carving, carver, carve, Native art, museum, education, St. Lawrence Island Yupik
The Smithsonian Arctic Studies Center hosted a language and culture seminar at the Anchorage Museum in 2011, bringing together eight fluent Iñupiaq speakers for four days to discuss cultural heritage objects from their region in the Smithsonian exhibition Living Our Cultures, Sharing Our Heritage: The First Peoples of Alaska at the Anchorage Museum. This video set presents a range of information about life in northwest Alaska for the Iñupiaq people: hunting tools used for living from the land and sea to ceremonial items used at celebrations and gatherings to everyday clothing to cultural traditions and values. The videos are in Iñupiaq with subtitles in English and Iñupiaq, for following along in both languages. An educational guide with six lessons is included below, along with links to objects discussed from the Smithsonian collections.
Tags: Alaska, Native art, museum, education, language, Indigenous, Iñupiaq, Inupiaq
The Alaska Office of the Smithsonian’s Arctic Studies Center hosted an Iñupiaq language and culture seminar in January 2011, bringing together eight fluent speakers: Sylvester Ayek, Bernadette Alvanna-Stimpfle, Alvira Downey, Herbert Foster Sr., Willie Goodwin Jr., Jana Harcharek, Faye Ongtowasruk and Rachel Riley. They met for four days to discuss Iñupiaq cultural heritage objects in the Smithsonian exhibition Living Our Cultures, Sharing Our Heritage: The First Peoples of Alaska at the Anchorage Museum.
During the seminar, the Iñupiaq language was documented, including three different dialects, and language and culture teaching materials were written for use in schools and homes throughout Alaska and beyond. Six objects from the Smithsonian collections – with links below – are featured in the guide and lessons presented here. These resources pair with six video lessons that offer teachers, students, parents and lifelong learners access to Iñupiaq language and lifeways.
Tags: Alaska, Native art, museum, education, language, Indigenous, Iñupiaq, Inupiaq
The cultures of newly freed African Americans have had one of the greatest impacts on the music industry to date. The cultures they carried from their ancestors and their plantation families aided the impact they had on jazz.These cultures not only opened up opportunities for blacks but it allow for whites to seek interest in the same musical style.
The new opportunities were brought over to the United States when slavery first became popular in the mid 18th century. These opportunities were brought to the table when African American music roots were exposed on plantations and even after the end of the slave trade. Their musical cultures consisted of a lot of different features that the United States hadn't particularly heard before the beginning of Jazz in the late 19th century.
Jazz after its initial debut was seen as out of the ordinary. However, with time it gained a huge following of African Americans and even whites, The importance of its huge success was the cultural diversity within its listeners and performers, Whites and Blacks were often not allowed to view things the same or even be in the same room therefore allowing for performance of jazz to be difficult. Hence why Black and Tan bars became a thing after the prohibition arose as well as stricter segregation laws. Blacks and Whites came together to create underground bars for live performances and to have the availability of alcohol.
The importance of African Americans and whites coming together during this allowed for the cultures of their music to flourish and to be exposed to society. When allowing for this exposure it lead for whites to listen, understand and see how much people enjoyed the sounds of the African American music scene.
What does it take to prepare our youth for a world on the move with quality?
This collection is the first in a series of four created to support the Re-Imagining Migration DC Seminar Series, held between December 2019 to March 2020. The seminar series is led by Verónica Boix Mansilla, Senior Principal Investigator for Harvard Graduate School of Education's Project Zero, and Research Director for Re-Imagining Migration, with in-gallery experiences provided by educators from the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the National Museum of American History, the National Portrait Gallery, the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, and the National Gallery of Art.
This set of collections is designed to be dynamic. We sill continue to add material, including participant-created content, throughout the seminar series so that the collections themselves can be used as a type of textbook, reflecting the content, development, and outputs of the full seminar series. Please check back to the hashtag #ReImaginingMigration to see what we anticipate will be a growing body of materials to support educators as they strive to serve and teach about human migration in relevant and deep ways.
World War II and the increased usage of air power led to the rise of radar for the purpose of early warning capabilities. This was crucial due to the bombing runs conducted by Germans across Europe, specifically in Britain, as well as the pivotal role of air power in the Pacific theater. The first picture is of a captured Japanese radar set, including two indicators, two receivers, one transmitter, among other essential components. This radar was used by the Japanese Navy. The second picture shows an American Identification Unit Contactor. It was used by the Americans in Britain to identify themselves as friendly, prior to the invention of dedicated IFF (Identification Friend or Foe) transponders. There were only 500 units produced. The US Navy developed the Oscilloscope Radar, shown in picture three. It was a simplified display system which allowed a fighter pilot to utilize the radar himself, without the use of a radar operator. It was simple to use and had a range of five miles. The next two pictures show the British Airborne Intercept Radar receiver and transmitter. These were the common radar devices utilized by the British throughout World War II.
The Scaglione Antique and Vintage Office Museum
This collection features American made hole punches manufactured between the years 1874 and 1932. It is one of the the most complete collections of antique and vintage paper perforators in the world. It is interesting to note that some of the machines in this collection have not been seen in over 100 years. With the exception of wood block cuttings use in the advertisement process, these machines may be the last of their kind.
Hole punches have been around since the early 1870’s therefore, we have a great selection of antique and vintage machines for review and examination. The development of punches really took off in the early 1900’s and improvements followed. Many machines produced today are based on designs dating to 1912.
Today, we refer to this office machine as a hole punch. During the period dating from 1874 to the 1930's these machines were known as paper punch, hole punchers, perforators, or paper perforators. There was no real standard for a machine that punched hole.
In 1882 James Shannon filed for a patent for his paper file. While the patent is for a complete paper file, his patent described the paper punch that was part of his invention. After reviewing the patent one is left wondering if he was at a loss as to what to call his hole punch. As a result his invention is overlooked by many and the credit for the invention of the hole punch has been credited to someone else. (enclosed as a pdf at the bottom of this page - The first paper hole punch)
Even now, some examples are proving to be more desirable to collectors and are harder to find. The Globe No. 4 produced by Globe-Wernicke is one such machine that has a following of not only the punch collector, but by collectors of the machine age. This machine appears to draw the most interest from individuals wanting an old paper hole punch for the desk or collection. Another example is the early examples of the Tengwell which had a nicely scrolled plate and was mounted on a beautiful oak base.
Variants hold their own interest to many collectors. You will find the same machine, such as the Improved Hummer, was produced by different companies. Research has shown that many companies or their assets changed hands more than once during the century and that the machines were never improved upon or only minor changes were introduced, usually just parts on the machine or the manufacturers name.
When examining the early machines, it is easy to see these machines are historic. They were developed and manufactured during the mechanical revolution, Simple in design yet dependable. These 19th century designs are what you would expect of the era and this is where the concept of paper punches began.
Many paper hole punches have been lost to time, because of modernization, workmanship or better material. Examples such as the Sam’l Tatum’s Samson, Eclipse, and the No. 27 are just a few of those machines that were lost or discontinued. These machines were the work of Walter Mendenhall, long time employee of the Tatum Company. Compared to the punches today, these machines are complex and curious. Their mechanisms were unique in design and never copied by any other manufacturer.
In this collection, designed for a Spanish-speaking classroom, students will explore how art reflects culture when analyzing “Night of the Dead,” a lithograph by Alan Crane in the National Museum of American History. The collection includes a teacher's guide in English and suggested authentic resources both in Spanish and English to be adapted by teachers of multiple disciplines.
Students will investigate how the Day of the Dead is celebrated by Latin Americans and compare it to their own celebrations. Next, students will create an interactive presentation using Flipgrid and write a monologue to reflect their learning from the point of view of one of the persons in the artwork.
This collection is one of three that explore “People, Place, and Time: How Art Reflects Culture.” Products, practices and perspectives displayed in Latinx art, show how our place and history (past) influence who we are (present) and who we want to be (future) in geographical, social, economic, and/or historical contexts. In the three collections, Latin American works of art illustrate how culture shapes the way we see the world, others, and ourselves, and they also raise awareness about Latinx diversity.
The three collections were created by Marcela Velikovsky (Bullis School) and Vicky Masson (Christ Episcopal School) as part of the 2018 Smithsonian Virtual Teacher Curricula Creation Opportunity with the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access (SCLDA), and thanks to the Smithsonian Latino Center's Latino Initiative Pool funds. The three collections highlight Latino history, art, and culture, and use Harvard Project Zero Thinking Routines and Global Thinking Routines strategies.
The Smithsonian Learning Lab collections provide an opportunity to invigorate the World Language (Foreign Language) curriculum as it allows to effectively integrate online museum resources (authentic resources) towards a 21st century curriculum. They facilitate student-centered activities within a variety of themes such as, family and communities, personal and public identities, social values and customs, holidays and celebrations, immigration, ethnic groups, Hispanic Heritage, image and stereotypes, inequality and discrimination, global issues, religious practices, etc. They also provide the opportunity to analyze art, read portraiture, and investigate art media.
These collections also consider ACTFL standards (Communication, Connections, Comparisons, Communities and Culture), Asia Society Global Competence skills, the Sustainable Development Goals (Global Goals), Teaching Tolerance Social Justice standards, the Framework for Developing Global and Cultural Competencies to Advance Equity, Excellence and Economic competitiveness, and Participate Global Competencies.
#National Portrait Gallery #Spanish #Global awareness #Empathy #Global connections #Global-mindedness #Curiosity #Cross-cultural skills #Day of the Dead #Worldview #LatinoHAC
How did the music scene of the 1920s build the stereotypes revolving around the flappers and gangsters?
My research helps put together a few different events that happened during the 1920s. It focuses on how jazz affected the gangsters and flappers with how people saw them. It also shows how the newly found jazz music helped the groups of gangsters and flappers form their new personas and embrace their new lives,
DRAFT Language is the very first tool that we use to understand the ideas that we are trying to share. But what about the monuments, art, and songs that we have created to share our ideas with one another? This exploration will focus on how American culture founded on the mixing of ethnicities and experiences used the skills and talents of its members to reveal its faults and celebrate its wonder and imagination. This collection will explore the sights and sounds of those who were here before all others, the 1st Nation Peoples, and travel from that past to the lives of their descendants and the all who followed by coming to the shores of this country. This exploration will give students a way to examine the history of those around them, but also their place within this most extravagant quilt of this country.
- The purpose of this activity is to give students a better understanding of the American Indian identity of the United States as foundational to understanding this land. From that foundation they will journey through the musical/dance expressions of the people who came to inhabit the US and through them the historical/contemporary realities and perspectives that make up our society.
Please follow the lesson plan laid out at the beginning of the collection to see the best way to use it. #goglobal
- December 12, 2019
- Shows are ~45 minutes long and stream at 11am and 2pm ET
- The program is free, but registration is requested. Sign Up
The earliest elephant relatives originated in Africa about 60 million years ago and dispersed to every continent on earth, except Antarctica and Australia. There are about 165 known elephant species from the fossil record, and scientists estimate that there would have been many more that we haven't found yet, over the whole history of this special group, called a clade. In Earth’s more recent history, between 50,000 and 40,000 years ago, there were 16 species of elephants and their relatives living at the same time around the world, including at least 7 in the United States. Today, there are only three species of elephants that remain: the African savannah elephant (Loxodonta africana), the African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Populations of all three species are declining, with Asian elephants at a much higher risk of extinction.
Today’s elephants are part of the order Proboscidea which consists of modern elephants and their extinct relatives such as mastodons, mammoths, and gomphotheres. All of the animals in this group have a proboscis, or trunk, that they use to eat and drink. While today there are only two surviving elephant genera, the African and Asian elephant, their evolutionary history is much more diverse.
Paleontologists use fossil elephant teeth to understand the animal’s diet and feeding behavior. There are two main types of teeth: high crowned and low-crowned teeth.
- High-Crowned Teeth: Animals that consume tougher, more abrasive foods are likely to wear down their teeth over time, and thus have evolved to have higher-crowned teeth as a result. These animals typically have an herbivorous grazing diet; they graze grasses.
- Low-Crowned Teeth: Animals that eat softer food have less wear, and therefore have low-crowned teeth. These animals typically have an herbivorous browsing diet; they browse branches, eating soft leaves.
The resources in this collection are pulled directly from the National Gallery of Art’s online course Teaching Critical Thinking through Art. Based on the popular Art Around the Corner professional development program for teachers in Washington, D.C., this five-unit online course provides everything you need to begin creating a culture of critical thinking and collaboration for any classroom, subject, or level. You do not need an art background or museum access to successfully integrate the course materials into your teaching. Your willingness to experiment with new teaching practices is all that is required.
Find demonstrations, lesson plans, and videos here on the edX platform! Now in English, Español, Français, and 简体中文
Students analyze data about what has happened to astronauts’ bodies during their time in microgravity and their return to Earth. These changes are categorized into four sets: Staying Strong, Getting Oriented, Sleeping, and Fluid Shift.
Dolores Huerta: Revolution in the Fields/Revolución en los Campos shares the compelling story of legendary activist and leader Dolores Huerta (b. 1930) and the farm workers movement of the 1960s and 70s. It is a quintessentially American tale of struggle and sacrifice, of courage and victory.
As a complement to the exhibition, these educational resources explore Huerta's public life as an activist and co-founder of the United Farm Workers (UFW) and what led her to become a Latina civil rights icon. In her life as a communicator, organizer, lobbyist, contract negotiator, teacher and mother, Huerta's unparalleled leadership skills helped dramatically improve the lives of farm workers.
Users will broaden their understanding of the farm workers movement through a careful look at Dolores Huerta's significant - but often under-acknowledged - contributions. The exhibition and educational resources also explore how workers of different ethnic and racial backgrounds came together to empower the movement and how the arts played an essential role. In addition, users will come to understand Huerta's far-reaching impact and important legacy.
The resources in this collection include a bilingual community engagement resource to promote dialogue on issues that relate to social justice, activism, leadership, etc. A few activities that can be used in the classroom or when you visit the exhibition at your local museum. In addition, you can learn more by listening to Dolores Huerta by downloading the free downloadable App "Dolores Huerta" on Google and Apple. Please remember that the App takes a few minutes to download.
#NHD #NHD2020 #BecauseOfHerStory
This collection was created to complement a National Art Education Association (NAEA) webinar, "Constructing Curriculum with the Smithsonian" (December 11, 2019) featuring resources from the National Museum of African American History and Culture, the National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian Learning Lab.
The webinar features inquiry-based strategies in examining the American experience depicted through portraiture and unpacking the context of historical narratives communicated through art with students.
This collection was created in collaboration with Briana Zavadil White (National Portrait Gallery) and Candra Flanagan (National Museum of African American History and Culture).
Some of my favorite pigs, hogs, and boars from across the Smithsonian collection.
Letter From Camp, a video by Frank Chi featuring Muslim American youths and survivors of Japanese American Internment
Grades 3-5 are going Global! Through inquiry based and maker centered design, students create games in teams. They move through the design cycle to brainstorm, sketch, prototype, build and iterate their games. The celebration of learning is the day of play when students play each other's games.
This collection is a collection of art to inspire the stories and user experience component of their designs. As a 21st century skill, they learn user experience in the design lab. So, they have to have characters and a story to give their game depth. As a result, the user experience is enhanced.
Let's create and play!
The first piece of art is Woman Lifting a Basket, Waving a Handkerchief. I chose this piece because it represents selected response. Selected response can be a positive way to assess students. In fact, I use a lot of selected response questions in my classes. They use simple language, simple syntax, clear directions, and include clearly written questions. Just like the woman in the piece, selected response can be tricky. They can look similar, follow a pattern, but if they are too similar, or are not clearly defined, they can be tricky and can confuse students. Sometimes they do not give an accurate representation of a student's ability.
The second piece of art is America's Changing Colors by Leah Purcell. This piece represents the module on culturally responsive teaching. This piece shows, literally, the changing colors of America. Where we used to teach a mostly white represented, white centric curriculum, now we are learning to focus more on students of color. The four components of culturally responsive teaching include developing a knowledge base about cultural diversity, demonstrating care and building learning communities, communicating with ethnically diverse students, and responding to ethnic diversity. I believe that all four components are clearly implied in this piece.
The next piece that I have chosen for my collection is Requiem for Charleston by Lava Thomas. This piece embodies choice, as the choices the artist makes in this piece define it. She chose to use tambourines to signify gospel music, as the people that were killed in the Charleston church shooting were in an AME church and played gospel music. There are so many other profound choices that the artist made, including the fact that the names of the victims are inscribed in lambskin, signifying the innocence of these victims. I associated this piece of art with the module on assessment driven decision making. Assessments and the data that comes from them helps us as teachers to decide on our next steps. We decide whether to reassess, remediate, accelerate, or extend learning based on the data we get from assessments. There is a parallel between Lava Thomas's piece and the module only in that the decisions impact so many aspects. Unfortunately, Ms. Thomas's portrayal of such a tragedy can also represent the importance of decision making in art and for us, in teaching.
I chose the module Informal Assessments to go with the next, unbelievable, piece of art. The Throne of the Third Heaven of the Nations' Millennium General Assembly can be connected to informal assessment because the artist, James Hampton, is an untrained artist. He had absolutely no formal artistic training. Yet, he could create something this intricate and amazing. This is similar to informal assessment because although it is not a formal, written, assessment, it can be just as valuable as any other assessment. Informal assessments, such as questioning, conversations, homework, or any ungraded assignments, can give just as much information on where a student is and what assistance they need as data collected from a formal assessment. Just as Hampton created a masterpiece with no formal training, informal assessments can bring to light vital information.
The fifth piece of art is a piece that was created for the bicentennial. It is titled Preamble I related it to the module on teaching the whole student. This is because the license plates separately aren't anything special. But together, they form the preamble to the Constitution. Not only that, but they represent almost every state in the United States. This reminded me of the biopsychosocial framework. Biological, psychological, sociocultural, and life cycle forces all work together to form a person and who they are. If we do not teach to each part of the student, or if all of their needs are not met, then their education and their development will be affected. Just as this is the case, this piece of artwork would not be complete without all of the pieces that complete it.
The final piece that I have chosen is Woman Eating, a sculpture by Duane Hanson. I paired this with the module titled Validity, Reliability, and Bias. Hanson's sculptures are known for being incredibly realistic, so much so that people mistake his sculptures for actual people. This immediately reminded me of validity and reliability. The three types of validity are criterion related, construct related, and content related. There are also three types of reliability-stability, alternate form, and internal consistency. I know that this piece of art may be a stretch when it comes to this module, but when you actually see this piece of art, it is so realistic that you do a double take. It also addresses some bias, as the woman has two desserts, is slovenly, and is alone. This certainly also relates to bias. If in assessment, just as in art, we do not take into account reliability, validity, and bias, we cannot fully understand the student, the data, nor the artwork.