WOOLEN BLANKET SUPPOSEDLY WOVEN OF MOUNTAIN GOAT WOOL AND DOG HAIR. THE DESIGN IS COMPOSED OF BANDS OF ZIGZAG DESIGNS AND STRIPES IN YELLOW, WHITE, BLUE, GREEN, RED, WITH AN INSERTED AREA OF BROAD RED, YELLOW AND WHITE STRIPES WITH VERTICAL LINES ON EITHER SIDE. THE BLANKET IS FRINGED ON THREE SIDES. SMITHSONIAN ANNUAL REPORT, 1928, PG. 639, PL. 9-C. REMOVED FROM PERMANENT EXHIBIT IN THE NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN HALL, NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. EXHIBITED MAGNIFICENT VOYAGERS, NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, 1985-86.
Jane Walsh identifies this textile as Peale # 312, which is described (as is Peale # 313) in the U.S. Exploring Expedition Peale catalogue as a blanket made of wool of the Rocky mountain sheep, by the natives of Puget sound, NW Coast of America. Illus. Pl. 1, p. 41 and Fig. 28, p. 46 of Salish Weaving by Paula Gustafson, Univ. of Washington Press, 1980. Described on p. 125, cat. entry 82, of Gustafson as "Fibres: Mountain goat hair and vegetable fibers. Colour: Natural white, black, dark brown, red, yellow and blue. Weave: Twine." Also described on p. 47 of Gustafson: "... displays horizontal panels, but is composed of fifteen major and eighteen minor partitions. One of the major components takes up about a third of the weaving and is itself composed of three sections with horizontal bars across the centre section and the two end portions, displaying a vertical zigzag and bar motif. ... (It) is fringed only on three sides. There is no border pattern." Gustafson also notes that blanket exhibits fading colors due to exposure to light, probably while on exhibit. Illus. Fig. 10.13, p. 240 in Brotherton, Barbara. 2008. S'abadeb = The gifts : Pacific Coast Salish arts and artists. Seattle: Seattle Art Museum in association with University of Washington Press. Figure caption: "In her study of Salish weaving, Paula Gustafson categorizes robes by their designs as being classic, colonial or hybrid. This robe fell within the classic category because of its emphasis on geometric patterns arranged in vertical bands. These robes were created between 1778 and 1850, when the indigenous traditions were not influenced by imported motifs and materials (Gustafson 1980: 37.) ... (T)his example consists of fifteen major and eighteen minor design units composed in vertical and horizontal sections. It is tightly twined without a border pattern and is fringed on three sides."
Reference: Solazzo, C., S. Heald, M.W. Ballard, D.A. Ashford, P.T. DePriest, R.J. Koestler, and M. Collins. 2011. Proteomics and Coast Salish blankets: A tale of shaggy dogs? Antiquity 85: 1418-1432. http://antiquity.ac.uk/ant/085/ant0851418.htm . Identified there as a Classic (1778 - 1850) blanket - weft/fringe Mountain goat hair; warp Salish wool or woolly dog hair.
FROM CARD: "CAPE. MADE OF DOG AND GOAT HAIR. REFER: SMITH. I. A.R. 1928, PG. 639, PL. 9-C. ILLUS.: THE SPIRIT SINGS. CATALOGUE, GLENBOW-ALBERTA INST., 1987, #N104, P.155. ILLUS.: FIG. 21, P.18 IN A GUIDE TO WEFT TWINING BY DAVID W. FRASER. PHILADELPHIA: UNIVERSITY OF PENN. PRESS, 1989."
X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) testing was conducted on this textile in 2017. Arsenic was detected. The testing suggests this textile was treated with pesticides that contained arsenic. The testing indicates there are high levels of arsenic (over 10,000 ppm). Mercury was also detected. The testing suggests this textile was treated with pesticides that contained mercury. The testing indicates there are medium (300-1,000 ppm) to high levels of mercury. See Anthropology Conservation Lab records for the full report. This object should be handled with gloves. See the Department of Anthropology "Statement on Potential Hazards (Inherent and Acquired) Associated with Collection Objects" for more detailed handling guidelines.
Illus. Fig. 31, p. 89, and Fig. 39, p. 99 (detail), in Tepper, Leslie Heymann, Janice George, and Willard Joseph. 2017. Salish Blankets: robes of protection and transformation, symbols of wealth.