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Rubina Pantoja

Preschool (0 to 4 years old), Primary (5 to 8 years old), Elementary (9 to 12 years old), Middle School (13 to 15 years old), High School (16 to 18 years old)
Teacher/Educator, Curriculum Coordinator, Parent, Student/Learner, Topic Enthusiast
Social Studies
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Rubina Pantoja's collections


My ethnic studies musings

<p>This collection was started as a way to share resources related to Mexican American Studies.  It has now morphed into a larger collection for anyone interested in ethnic studies.  It is still very much a work in progress.</p>
Rubina Pantoja

Asian American Modernism

<p>This collection is meant to build on two earlier collections, "<a href="" target="_blank">Asian American Art: Emerging from the Shadows</a>"  and "<a href="" target="_blank">Asian American Artists and World War II</a>" and to introduce the viewer to artists of Asian ancestry in America using Chang, Johnson &amp; Karlstrom's text, <em>Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970</em> (2008), the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco's exhibition catalog "Asian/American/Modern Art: Shifting Currents, 1900-1970" (2008),the vast resources of the Smithsonian Learning Lab, Project Zero's Global Thinking Routines and other resources.  This collection is part two of four that I have organized, chronologically, on Asian American Art.  The other three collections are "<a href="" target="_blank">Asian American Art: Emerging from the Shadows</a>",  "<a href="" target="_blank">Asian American Artists and World War II</a>" and "Asian American Contemporary Art".  It is my hope that these collections will serve as entry points to understanding the many contributions of Asian American artists in the U.S. from 1850 until the present time.</p> <p>Visual art is a language that is socially and culturally constructed.  Socially constructed learning values diverse perspectives, engages with local and global experts, and employs inquiry, discovery and exploration to move students toward global citizenship.  Because the visual arts leverage the power of dialogue and debate to sharpen critical thinking, starting with the arts is a logical place to help students develop cultural intelligence.</p> <p>Other purposes of these collections are to explore tangible and intangible cultural heritage; as well as jumpstart brave conversations about race, identity and immigration in the U.S. with teachers, tutors of English Language Learners and others who are interested in becoming cultural leaders in our public schools.</p> <p>As Gordon H. Chang and Mark Dean Johnson state in the introduction of the exhibition catalog, "Asian/American/Modern Art: Shifting Currents, 1900-1970" (2008):</p> <p>"Forty years ago there were no Asian Americans.  There were Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Filipinos, and others of Asian ancestry in the United States, but no 'Asian Americans,' as that term was coined only in 1968.  This population was commonly seen as foreign, alien, not of America.  Their lives and experiences were not generally accepted as part of the fabric of the country, even though Asians had begun settling here steadily in the mid-nineteenth century.</p> <p>Then, in the late 1960s, as part of the upsurge in the self-assertion of marginalized communities,  'Asian America' emerged to challenge the stigma of perpetual foreignness.  'Asian American' was a claim of belonging, of rootedness, of pride and identity, and of history and community; it was also a recognition of distinctive cultural achievement"  (Chang, Johnson, 2008).</p> <p>#APA2018<br /></p>
Rubina Pantoja

Traqueros, part 2: Chain Migration and Boxcar Communities

<p>A profound result of the vast employment of <em>traqueros</em> in the transportation industry was the railroads' corporate strategy to establish means for "chain migration." Chain migration refers to the process of immigrants from a particular region or town following the path of prior immigrants (from their same region or town) to the same destination. </p> <p>As the agricultural, petroleum, and cattle ranching industries of the Southwest expanded to a vast scale in the early 20th century, the demand for <em>traquero</em> labor grew as well. To meet this demand, companies like the Santa Fe Railroad incentivized <em>traqueros</em> to bring along their families, including wives and children, to live on sites by the rail yards rent-free. </p> <p>A key tactic in this strategy was the practice of housing <em>traqueros</em> in converted boxcars. These converted boxcars would be grouped together into settlements, which tended to be of two types: one was a species of "mobile villages" that moved along the train tracks, whereas the other type was comprised by taking boxcar quarters off the rails and grouping them together on the outskirts of rail yards in areas usually saved for section gangs. Historian Al Camarillo, in his book <em>Chicanos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Pueblos to American Barrios in Santa Barbara and Southern California, 1848-1930</em> (1979) has termed the process of establishing boxcar settlements as "barrioization," because these family-centered communities demonstrated the sustainability of Mexican American communities, as well as familiarized Mexican immigrants with different parts of the U.S. that would become significant Mexican immigrant destinations.</p> <p>Mexican boxcar communities existed all over the country and in major cities including Chicago, Pittsburgh, Los Angeles, and San Diego. </p> <p>On April 18th, 2016, Dr. Antonio Delgado, a former Smithsonian Institution Visiting Scholar (1998), presented his research on Mexican boxcar communities in Chicago at the McHenry County Historical Society Museum. Illinois Humanities sponsored the event, publishing the <em>Daily Herald</em>'s notice of the program on the Illinois Humanities' <a href="">news blog</a>. The online story includes a trailer for local station WTVP's documentary, <em>Boxcar People</em>, for which the now adult children of <em>traqueros</em> were interviewed. </p> <p>#EthnicStudies #MexicanAmericans #Traqueros #Railroads #BoxcarCommunities #ChainMigration #Latinos #Chicanos</p>
Rubina Pantoja

Domingo Ulloa's

<p>This teaching collection helps students to look closely and think critically by examining <em></em>Domigo Ulloa's painting, <em>Braceros, </em>and historical documentation related to the bracero program, a series of short-term labor contracts from 1942-1964 in which an estimated two million Mexican men came to the US to work on farms and roads. The collection prompts students to consider the program from a variety of perspectives, including individual, collective, social, economic, and political.  </p> <p>Included here are the painting, a bilingual video with Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM) curator E. Carmen Ramos, four suggested Thinking Routines - "See, Think, Wonder," "Step In, Step Out, Step Back," "The 3 Y's," and "Think, Feel, Care" - from Harvard's Project Zero Artful Thinking and Global Thinking materials, supporting digital content from the National Museum of American History, and a blogpost from SAAM of two DC student's written responses to the prompt, "What Domingo Ulloa's <em>Braceros </em>Means to Me." </p> <p>For use in Social Studies, Spanish, English, and American History classes</p> <p>#LatinoHAC #EthnicStudies</p> <p>This collection supports Unit 1: Intersectionality of Economics, Politics, and Policy, of the Austin ISD Ethnic Studies Part B course.</p> <p><em>This Smithsonian Learning Lab collection received Federal support from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center. </em></p> <p><br /></p>
Rubina Pantoja

National History Day: American Immigrant Experiences

<p>This collection brings together <a href="">EDSITEment</a> and Smithsonian resources to support the initial research into a project for National History Day.  While originally created for the 2019 theme, "Triumph and Tragedy in History," resources found in this collection are useful for researching other National History Day themes.  </p> <p>These resources - including objects, documents, websites, and articles - reveal challenges and opportunities experienced by American immigrants in the 19th to mid-20th centuries.  Resources highlight hardships that compelled people to leave their homelands, difficulties immigrants faced upon arrival, and ways they overcame obstacles to build new lives and communities in America.  The second tile of this collection contains questions to help with the analysis of photograph, document, artwork, portrait, and object resources. </p> <p>The history of immigration in America is an immense topic, and this collection addresses only aspects of it.  Use this collection to brainstorm project topics, find connected resources, and as a launching point for further research.</p> <p>This collection was created in collaboration with <a href="">EDSITEment</a>, a website for K-12 educators from the National Endowment for the Humanities.</p> <p>Share your National History Day collections and let us know what you think! Write to us on Twitter: <a href="">@EDSITEment</a> &amp; <a href="">@SmithsonianLab</a>, #NHD2019. If you publish a collection on your National History Day topic, be sure to enter #NHD2019 in the description!</p> <p><em>Tags: 1800s, 1900s angel island, ellis island, immigration test, community, prejudice, irish, jewish, syrian, lebanese, arab, italian, mexican, german, greek, bohemian, czech, slovenian, know nothing, triangle shirtwaist factory fire, swedish, chinese exclusion act, japanese american incarceration, internment, bracero program, stories project, #NHD</em></p>
Rubina Pantoja

Chicano movement

<p>The theme of my collection is Chicano farm workers fighting for their rights. </p>
Rubina Pantoja