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Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Initiative: English/Language Arts Standards
 

The 1920s: A Decade of Change

This playlist on the 1920s is designed for self-guided learning with intermittent check-ins for middle school age students. The learning tasks are divided over five days, designed for 30-35 minutes per day, and build on each other. However, students are able to work on this playlist at their own pace. They will engage with primary and secondary sources as well as online exhibitions, videos, and written texts. Students can complete the tasks online by connecting through Google classroom for each formative and summative assessment.

By the end of the week, students will create an original art piece to express their understanding of the social, cultural and economic changes of the 1920s. 

  • Formative assessments are represented by a chevron (Learning Check Ins and Daily Check Ins).
  • Google Doc versions of all formative and summative assessments are in the tiles immediately after the digital versions. 
National Museum of American History
64
 

Future Self Portrait Project

@NPGteach

Both a reflective and goal-setting project, the unit culminates in the creation of a future self-portrait. 

In line with college and career readiness, students reflect on goals and dreams for the future. They combine those with a vision--a portrait--of what they will be in 10 years. They will also create an understanding of specific steps that must be taken in order to turn the vision into reality. 

During the 2018-19 school year, stakeholders involved in Andover Public Schools (USD 385) gathered for a series of discussions about what they expect our students to know and who we want them to become by the time they leave our schools with diplomas. This developed into our Portrait of a Graduate, our district’s vision for our students. If your school doesn't have this kind of "portrait", you might add an additional step where students create their own Portrait of a Graduate. 

I use this project at the end of the year after we have practiced journal writing, reflection on academic endeavors, college and career readiness activities, etc. It allows them to dream of the future in a fun and creative way while gaining a broader understanding of how other express themselves, too. 

On the final thumbnail,  I have included the instructions I used for this unit during distance learning in the Spring of 2020. 

Deborah Eades
12
 

Legacies of World War I

This playlist on the lessons and legacies of World War I is designed for self-guided learning with intermittent check-ins for middle school age students. The learning tasks are divided over five days, designed for 30-35 minutes per day, and build on each other. However, students are able to work on this playlist at their own pace. They will engage with primary and secondary sources as well as online exhibitions, videos, and written texts. Students can complete the tasks online by connecting through Google classroom for each formative and summative assessment.

By the end of the week, students will create a brief constructed response that expresses and uses evidence to support their argument about how World War I shaped the ensuing century in the United States. 

  • Formative assessments are represented by a chevron (Learning Check Ins and Daily Check Ins).
  • Google Doc versions of all formative and summative assessments are in the tiles immediately after the digital versions. 
National Museum of American History
83
 

American Reconstruction Era

This collection highlights artifacts and secondary sources to help students explore the history of the American Reconstruction Era. Specific topics referenced in this collection include the end of the Civil War, legislative changes and leading historic figures.

Time Period: January 1865 - March 1877

National Museum of American History
36
 

Youth and Elections

This playlist on the impact of youth on elections in the United States is designed for self-guided learning with intermittent check-ins for middle school age students. The learning tasks are divided over five days, designed for 30-35 minutes per day, and build on each other. However, students are able to work on this playlist at their own pace. They will engage with primary and secondary sources as well as online exhibitions, videos, and written texts. Students can complete the tasks online by connecting through Google classroom for each formative and summative assessment.

By the end of the week, students will create a nonpartisan poster that is inspired by stories of young people shaking up elections in American history.

  • Formative assessments are represented by a chevron (Learning Check Ins and Daily Check Ins).
  • Google Doc versions of all formative and summative assessments are in the tiles immediately after the digital versions. 
National Museum of American History
80
 

Votes For Women

This playlist on the movement for Woman Suffrage is designed for self-guided learning with intermittent check-ins for middle school age students. The learning tasks are divided over five days, designed for 30-35 minutes per day, and build on each other. However, students are able to work on this playlist at their own pace. They will engage with primary and secondary sources as well as online exhibitions, videos, and written texts. Students can complete the tasks online by connecting through Google classroom for each formative and summative assessment.

By the end of the week, students will prepare and write an argument about how young people today can learn from the tactics of the suffragists and what strategies work now to address current public issues.

  • Formative assessments are represented by a chevron (Learning Check Ins and Daily Check Ins).
  • Google Doc versions of all formative and summative assessments are in the tiles immediately after the digital versions. 
Rita Blair
86
 

Votes For Women

This playlist on the movement for Woman Suffrage is designed for self-guided learning with intermittent check-ins for middle school age students. The learning tasks are divided over five days, designed for 30-35 minutes per day, and build on each other. However, students are able to work on this playlist at their own pace. They will engage with primary and secondary sources as well as online exhibitions, videos, and written texts. Students can complete the tasks online by connecting through Google classroom for each formative and summative assessment.

By the end of the week, students will prepare and write an argument about how young people today can learn from the tactics of the suffragists and what strategies work now to address current public issues.

  • Formative assessments are represented by a chevron (Learning Check Ins and Daily Check Ins).
  • Google Doc versions of all formative and summative assessments are in the tiles immediately after the digital versions. 
National Museum of American History
86
 

Westward Expansion Part 2

This playlist on Westward Expansion of the United States is designed for self-guided learning with intermittent check-ins for middle school age students. The learning tasks are divided over five days, designed for 30-35 minutes per day, and build on each other. However, students are able to work on this playlist at their own pace. They will engage with primary and secondary sources as well as visual art, videos, and written texts. Students can complete the tasks online by connecting through Google classroom for each formative and summative assessment.

By the end of the week, students will create an original piece that an expresses an evidence-based argument that expresses their opinion how well the impacts of westward expansion align with its goals.

  • Formative assessments are represented by a chevron (Learning Tasks and Daily Check Ins).
  • Additional processing questions are included with select resources, marked by a question mark in the upper left hand corner of the resource tile.
  • Google Doc versions of all formative and summative assessments are in the tiles immediately after the digital versions. 
Cameron Mcconnell
24
 

Invention and Innovation at the turn of the 20th Century

This playlist on invention and innovation at the turn of the 20th century is designed for self-guided learning with intermittent check-ins for middle school age students. The learning tasks are divided over five days, designed for 30-35 minutes per day, and build on each other. However, students are able to work on this playlist at their own pace. They will engage with primary and secondary sources as well as online exhibitions, videos, and written texts. Students can complete the tasks online by connecting through Google classroom for each formative and summative assessment.

By the end of the week, students will develop a sketch and sales pitch for their own invention or innovation using the historical examples they have studied as models sources of inspiration.

  • Formative assessments are represented by a chevron (Learning Check Ins and Daily Check Ins).
  • Google Doc versions of all formative and summative assessments are in the tiles immediately after the digital versions. 
National Museum of American History
73
 

Westward Expansion Part I

This playlist on Westward Expansion of the United States is designed for self-guided learning with intermittent check-ins for middle school age students. The five learning tasks are divided over the course of 2 weeks, and build on each other. Students will engage with primary and secondary sources as well as visual art, videos, and written texts. Students can complete the tasks online by connecting through Google classroom for each formative and summative assessment.

By the end of the week, students will create an original piece that an expresses an evidence-based argument that expresses their opinion how well the impacts of westward expansion align with its goals.

  • Formative assessments are represented by a chevron (Learning Tasks and Daily Check Ins).
  • Additional processing questions are included with select resources, marked by a question mark in the upper left hand corner of the resource tile.
Cameron Mcconnell
36
 

Reconstruction of the American South

This playlist on Reconstruction of the American South is designed for self-guided learning with intermittent check-ins for middle school age students. The learning tasks are divided over five days, designed for 30-35 minutes per day, and build on each other. However, students are able to work on this playlist at their own pace. They will engage with primary and secondary sources as well as online exhibitions, videos, and written texts. Students can complete the tasks online by connecting through Google classroom for each formative and summative assessment.

By the end of the week, students will create an original political cartoon to depict their understanding of and reaction to the events and outcomes of Reconstruction in the American South.  

  • Formative assessments are represented by a chevron (Learning Check Ins and Daily Check Ins).
  • Google Doc versions of all formative and summative assessments are in the tiles immediately after the digital versions. 
National Museum of American History
69
 

The Civil War: Examining complicated choices during times of challenge

This playlist on Civil War is designed for self-guided learning with intermittent check-ins for middle school age students. The learning tasks are divided over five days, designed for 30-35 minutes per day, and build on each other. However, students are able to work on this playlist at their own pace. They will engage with primary and secondary sources as well as online exhibitions, videos, and written texts. Students can complete the tasks online by connecting through Google classroom for each formative and summative assessment.

By the end of the week, students will write an original journal entry examining how people make impossible choices during times of hardship, based on examples of individual decisions made by people before and during the American Civil War. 

  • Formative assessments are represented by a chevron (Learning Check Ins and Daily Check Ins).
  • Google Doc versions of all formative and summative assessments are in the tiles immediately after the digital versions. 
National Museum of American History
60
 

Westward Expansion

This playlist on Westward Expansion of the United States is designed for self-guided learning with intermittent check-ins for middle school age students. The learning tasks are divided over five days, designed for 30-35 minutes per day, and build on each other. However, students are able to work on this playlist at their own pace. They will engage with primary and secondary sources as well as visual art, videos, and written texts. Students can complete the tasks online by connecting through Google classroom for each formative and summative assessment.

By the end of the week, students will create an original piece that an expresses an evidence-based argument that expresses their opinion how well the impacts of westward expansion align with its goals.

  • Formative assessments are represented by a chevron (Learning Tasks and Daily Check Ins).
  • Additional processing questions are included with select resources, marked by a question mark in the upper left hand corner of the resource tile.
  • Google Doc versions of all formative and summative assessments are in the tiles immediately after the digital versions. 
National Museum of American History
66
 

An Introduction to Japanese Painting

This collection was designed by the Education Department of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery as a basic introduction to Japanese painting for educators. It is a collection of artworks from the museum's permanent collection that draw from a wide variety of formats, styles, media, and subjects that represent many of the major trends in Japanese painting. Each image includes key information about the artwork, as well as ideas for class discussion, lesson components, and/or links to resources such as videos and articles which provide additional information about the artwork. Feel free to copy the collection and adapt it to your own use. 

Keywords: Buddha, Hokusai, Mount Fuji, watercolor, bodhisattva, Fugen, Sōtatsu, cherry blossoms, seasons, Genji, crane, emakibyobukakemono, ukiyo-e, map, teacher, student, autumn, Japan, Japanese art, landscape, Edo period, Buddhism, Heian period, water, ocean, wave, boat, flower, insect, Muromachi period, river, surimono



Freer and Sackler Galleries
12
 

Photography and News

Guiding Questions:

  • How much of a story can a photo tell? What are the limits?
  • Why do journalists take photos?
  • How is news photography different than other types of photography? What is photojournalism?

Time- 1-2 class periods with optional extension activities

This collection provides an opportunity for students to consider a first impression of news photos through careful image analysis. The initial viewing of the image is followed by reading historical newspaper articles or other primary sources about the event in question to compare their thinking with some context to their initial impressions. Images can be powerful and can greatly influence our impression of events, but without context, we can form inaccurate impressions based on our own biases. Students need to be careful and critical viewers of media as well as media creators. Images include events covered in history/social studies courses such as the Civil Rights Movement, Little Rock Nine, World War II, Japanese internment,  9/11, the Detroit Riots, the Scopes trial, women’s suffrage, Dolores Huerta and United Farm Workers, and the Vietnam War.

Day 1:

Warm Up/ Engagement:

Have students journal or a mind-map about the following questions:

  • How much of a story can a photo tell? What are the limits?
  • Why do journalists take photos?
  • What is photojournalism?
  • How is news photography different than other types of photography?

Have them do a Think-Pair-Share

Debrief as a whole group

As a whole group, discuss the photo of the female students who integrated Central High School in Little Rock. Do not show the caption to students. The global competency thinking routine, “Unveiling Stories,” is good to use for news or other current event photos because it allows students the opportunity to explore multiple layers of meaning.

Once students have discussed the image, show them the caption. Then give additional background on the Little Rock Nine. To review/background on the Little Rock Nine, consider exploring resources from Facing History and Ourselves. There is a New York Times article listed below as well.

Next, go back and look at photo with the caption and see how the initial understanding has shifted with the Connect-Extend-Challenge routine. This is a thinking routine that is great for connecting new ideas to prior knowledge.

Day 2

Have students read the article from the Click! Exhibit, “Photography Changes How We Read the World.”

After reading, lead students through the What Makes You Say That? Routine which encourages interpretation with justification and evidence.

Small Group Jigsaw activity

In pairs or small groups, assign one image in the collection to each group. Make sure they know they will present their findings to the whole class. Have them go through the “Unveiling Stories” routine with their new image. Give students 10 mins to record their thoughts and ideas on chart paper or sticky notes. Next, give each group the related primary source news article (listed below through ProQuest) or your choice of a primary source. Have students read the article together. Then, have them go back to the image and do the Connect-Extend-Challenge routine while visualizing their thinking on the same chart paper or with additional sticky notes.

Have each group share out and summarize their findings from their initial reaction to how their thinking changed after reading an additional primary source.

As a final debrief, make sure that students reflect on their learning from their image analysis.

A great reflection routine is “I used to think… Now I think…”. Have students complete this routine with the topic of photojournalism/news photography.

Extensions

Readings:

Audio:

Exhibit:

Project:

  • Report on an event with images and in writing  

Companion Article Sources on ProQuest Historical Newspapers:

For 9/11 Photos-

A CREEPING HORROR

KLEINFIELD N R

New York Times (1923-Current file); Sep 12, 2001;

ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2011) pg. A1

For D-Day Photo:

Allies Seize Beachheads on French Coast, Invasion Forces Drive Toward Interior

By the War Editor of The Christian Science Monitor

The Christian Science Monitor (1908-Current file); Jun 6, 1944; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Christian Science Monitor (1908 - 2001) pg. 1

For Detroit Riot Photo:

Detroit Is Swept by Rioting and Fires; Romney Calls In Guard; 700 Arrested

New York Times (1923-Current file); Jul 24, 1967;

ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2011) pg. 1

For Vietnam Withdrawal Photo:

A Farewell to Vietnam: 2 Flown Out Tell Story

New York Times (1923-Current file); Apr 28, 1975;

ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2011) pg. 1

For Dolores Huerta Photo:

Farm Labor Law Chances Improve

By Susan Jacoby Washington Post Staff Writer

The Washington Post, Times Herald (1959-1973); May 2, 1969; ProQuest Historical Newspapers The Washington Post (1877 - 1998) pg. A24

For Little Rock Photo:

STUDENTS ACCEPT NEGROES CALMLY

By BENJAMIN FINE Special to The New York Times.

New York Times (1923-Current file); Sep 26, 1957;

ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2011)

For WWII/D-Day Photos:

PARADE OF PLANES CARRIES INVADERS

New York Times (1923-Current file); Jun 6, 1944;

ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2011) pg. 1

For Scopes Trial Photo:

DEFENSE CASE IS OUTLINED

Special to The New York Times.

New York Times (1923-Current file); Jul 16, 1925;

ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2011) pg. 1

For Women’s Suffrage March Photo: WOMEN PARADE FOR SUFFRAGE AT CAPITAL

The Christian Science Monitor (1908-Current file); Mar 3, 1913; ProQuest Historical Newspapers Christian Science Monitor (1908 - 2001) pg. 1

#visiblethinking


Allie Wilding
20
 

China's Terracotta Army: Information and Teaching Resources

This collection contains information and teaching resources on the Terracotta Army, a group of approximately 7,000 life-size terracotta figures created for the tomb complex of China's First Emperor, Qin Shihuang (259 – 210 BCE). Resources in this collection cover a wide range of topics, including: the discovery of the Terracotta Army, Emperor Qin Shihuang, the unification of China, Qin dynasty (221 – 206 BCE) spiritual beliefs, how the terracotta warriors were made, the different types of terracotta warriors, and the types of bronze weaponry found in the Terracotta Army pits. This collection also contains three interactives: a timeline of ancient Chinese history, a map of the tomb complex, and maps of battle formations in the Terracotta Army pits.

Objects found in Emperor Qin Shihuang’s elaborate tomb complex, which covers a total area of 17.6 square miles, make up the majority of surviving objects from this significant period in Chinese history.They are some of the best archaeological evidence researchers have for understanding the spiritual beliefs, military practices, and values of the ruler responsible for unifying China for the first time in its history. 

Authors of this collection are the Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum Site Museum, the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, and the Smithsonian’s Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Tags: archaeology; archaeologist; ancient history; artifact; afterlife; funerary practices; burial; death; religion; military; soldier; sculpture; chinese; world history; asia; asian; xi'an; empire; terra cotta; qin shi huang; shihuangdi; shi huang di; earthenware; ceramics

Doris Rivera
33
 

"The Suffragist" Classroom Videos

This collection contains supplemental artifacts and resources that connect to "The Suffragist" classroom videos and educators' guide.  

National Museum of American History
28
 

Righting a Wrong: Japanese Americans in World War II

This collection includes objects and resources related to Japanese incarceration during World War II. Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 through which tens of thousands of Americans of Japanese ancestry were moved into relocation centers. Additional resources can be found by visiting the National Museum of American History's online exhibitions at AmericanHistory.si.edu and History Explorer at HistoryExplorer.si.edu

National Museum of American History
41
 

Righting a Wrong: Japanese Americans in World War II

This collection includes objects and resources related to Japanese incarceration during World War II. Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 through which tens of thousands of Americans of Japanese ancestry were moved into relocation centers. Additional resources can be found by visiting the National Museum of American History's online exhibitions at AmericanHistory.si.edu and History Explorer at HistoryExplorer.si.edu

National Museum of American History
47
 

China's Terracotta Army: Exploring Artistic Practices

In this activity, students will analyze figures from the Terracotta Army, made for China's First Emperor, Qin Shihuang (259 – 210 BCE), in order to explore the artistic practices of a newly unified China during the Qin dynasty (221 – 206 BCE). Students will explore the elements of art and principles of design used in the terracotta warrior figures before designing their own papercraft terracotta warrior.

The Terracotta Army, a group of approximately 7,000 life-size terracotta warriors and horses, was created for Emperor Qin Shihuang to form a small part of his elaborate tomb complex. These figures are significant not only because of their artistic realism, detail, and diversity, but also because of their rarity – the majority of surviving objects from this time period have been found in Emperor Qin Shihuang's tomb complex.

Authors of this collection are the Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum Site Museum, the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, and the Smithsonian’s Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Tags: archaeology; archaeologist; ancient history; artifact; afterlife; funerary practices; burial; death; spiritual beliefs; military; soldier; sculpture; chinese; world; asia; asian; xi'an; empire; see wonder connect; project zero; visible thinking routine; strategy; maker; art making; papercraft; terra cotta; shihuangdi; shi huangdi; shi huang di; earthenware; ceramics

#visiblethinking

Emperor Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army
20
 

China’s Terracotta Army: The Terracotta Warriors

In this activity, students explore the Terracotta Army, a group of approximately 7,000 terracotta figures of warriors and horses made for China’s First Emperor, Qin Shihuang (259 – 210 BCE). After learning about Qin dynasty (221 – 206 BCE) afterlife beliefs analyzing the types of figures, layout of pits, and other object included, students will create their own arguments about what the Terracotta Army reveals about Emperor Qin Shihuang. This collection is Part 2 in a series of collections created for a social studies classroom; for more information, click “Read More.”

Objects found in Emperor Qin Shihuang’s elaborate tomb complex, which covers a total area of 17.6 square miles, make up the majority of surviving objects from this significant period in Chinese history. They are some of the best archaeological evidence researchers have for understanding the spiritual beliefs, military practices, and values of the ruler responsible for unifying China for the first time in its history. 

Authors of this collection are the Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum Site Museum, the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, and the Smithsonian’s Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Tags: archaeology; archaeologist; ancient history; artifact; afterlife; funerary practices; burial; death; spiritual beliefs; military; soldier; sculpture; chinese; world; asia; asian; xi'an; empire; cross-cultural comparison; think puzzle explore; strategy; project zero; visible thinking routine; terra cotta; qin shi huang; shihuangdi; shi huang di; earthenware; ceramics

Emperor Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army
18
 

China's Terracotta Army: Information and Teaching Resources

This collection contains information and teaching resources on the Terracotta Army, a group of approximately 7,000 life-size terracotta figures created for the tomb complex of China's First Emperor, Qin Shihuang (259 – 210 BCE). Resources in this collection cover a wide range of topics, including: the discovery of the Terracotta Army, Emperor Qin Shihuang, the unification of China, Qin dynasty (221 – 206 BCE) spiritual beliefs, how the terracotta warriors were made, the different types of terracotta warriors, and the types of bronze weaponry found in the Terracotta Army pits. This collection also contains three interactives: a timeline of ancient Chinese history, a map of the tomb complex, and maps of battle formations in the Terracotta Army pits.

Objects found in Emperor Qin Shihuang’s elaborate tomb complex, which covers a total area of 17.6 square miles, make up the majority of surviving objects from this significant period in Chinese history.They are some of the best archaeological evidence researchers have for understanding the spiritual beliefs, military practices, and values of the ruler responsible for unifying China for the first time in its history. 

Authors of this collection are the Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum Site Museum, the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, and the Smithsonian’s Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Tags: archaeology; archaeologist; ancient history; artifact; afterlife; funerary practices; burial; death; religion; military; soldier; sculpture; chinese; world history; asia; asian; xi'an; empire; terra cotta; qin shi huang; shihuangdi; shi huang di; earthenware; ceramics

Emperor Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army
33
 

President and Mrs. Obama Portrait Unveiling

On February 12, 2018, the official portraits of President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama were unveiled at the Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery. President Obama's portrait was created by artist Kehinde Wiley, who is known for his vibrant, large-scale paintings of African Americans posing as famous figures from the history of Western art. This portrait does not include an underlying art historical reference, but some of the flowers in the background carry special meaning for Obama. Mrs. Obama's portrait was created by artist Amy Sherald, who considers the former first lady to be someone “women can relate to—no matter what shape, size, race, or color. . . . We see our best selves in her.” 

This collection includes the two portraits, in high resolution, so that learners can zoom in and out to carefully observe details. It also includes videos and articles about the portraits and their official unveilings. Additional supports include other works by the two artists and strategies for reading portraits. Portraits of the two sitters and other presidential portraits can be used for compare and contrast activities. 

Ashley Naranjo
36
 

China’s Terracotta Army: Exploring the Tomb Complex and Values of China’s First Emperor

In this activity, students will take on the role of archaeologists and make inferences about what objects included in the elaborate tomb complex of China’s First Emperor, Qin Shihuang (259 – 210 BCE) can reveal about his values, afterlife beliefs, and how he saw himself and his world. Students will analyze objects including not only members of the Terracotta Army, a group of approximately 7,000 terracotta soldiers and horses, but also terracotta acrobats, bronze waterfowl, and more. This collection is Part 3 in a series of collections created for a social studies classroom; for more information, click “Read More.”

Objects found in Emperor Qin Shihuang’s elaborate tomb complex, which covers a total area of 17.6 square miles, make up the majority of surviving objects from this significant period in Chinese history. They are some of the best archaeological evidence researchers have for understanding the spiritual beliefs, military practices, and values of the ruler responsible for unifying China for the first time in its history. 

Authors of this collection are the Emperor Qin Shihuang’s Mausoleum Site Museum, the Smithsonian Center for Learning and Digital Access, and the Smithsonian’s Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

Tags: archaeology; archaeologist; ancient history; artifact; afterlife; funerary practices; burial; death; spiritual beliefs; military; soldier; sculpture; chinese; world; asia; asian; xi'an; empire; cross-cultural comparison; terra cotta; qin shi huang; shihuangdi; shi huang di; earthenware; ceramics

Emperor Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army
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