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African American Historians of the 19th and Early 20th Centuries

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Cultures +3 Age Levels High School (16 to 18 years old), Adults

An innate function of being human is to preserve and share our experiences and stories.  African American men and women have researched and recorded their history despite enslavement, racism, segregation, sexism, and opposition. Their research helped expand the known narratives of American and international history through the African American perspective and interpretation of historical sources. This Learning Lab explores selected African American historians of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Their research and works were critical to the foundation of African American studies and their activism helped open doors for future African Americans to enter and contribute to the field of history.  The Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and Culture, situated in the heart of the nation’s capital, serves as the physical manifestation of the efforts of African American historians featured in this lab.

Keywords: NMAAHC, NMAAHC Education, African American, historians, history, primary sources, stories

HOW TO USE THIS LAB:

Use the book excerpts, documents, images, objects, and media related to a highlighted historian in the Learning Lab to answer the questions provided in the Discussion Question page  and/or or use them comparatively with information in your history textbook about the highlighted historical period.


FEATURED HISTORIANS 

  1. Revolutionary War (Squares 3 - 10)
    William Cooper Nell (1816 – 1874) was born to a prominent African American abolitionist family in Boston, Massachusetts. As a young man, he was mentored by William Lloyd Garrison, wrote for Garrison’s abolitionist newspaper the Liberator, and was influential in the fight against segregation in Boston’s public transportation and accommodations during the 1840s and 1850s. In 1855, Nell authored The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution, making it one of the first historical works to focus on African Americans.
  2. Civil War (Squares 11 - 18)
    George Washington Williams (1849 – 1891)
    was born in Bedford Springs, Pennsylvania. At the age of 14, he joined the Union Army during the Civil War. After the war, he finished his education in Massachusetts, became a minister, and founded a newspaper, The Commoner. By 1880, Williams moved to Ohio and became the first African American elected to the Ohio General Assembly. As a historian, Williams is most famous for writing the first comprehensive history of African Americans in the United States, a two-volume work called the History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880; as Negroes, as Slaves, as Soldiers, and as Citizens (1882). In 1887, he published A History of the Negro Troops in the War of the Rebellion.
  3. Reconstruction (Squares 19 - 25)
    William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (1868 – 1963)
    was born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. His studies, which focused on African American history, anthropology, and sociology, took him to study in Tennessee, Germany, and finally back to Massachusetts where he became the first African American to graduate with a PhD from Harvard. In the quest for civil rights, Du Bois helped established the Niagara Movement, and its successor, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). As a historian, he wrote widely on the African American experience, but one of his best-known works was Black Reconstruction in America (1935). While Black Reconstruction was refuted during the early twentieth century, the work is now considered one of the foundational texts of how Reconstruction is interpreted by today’s mainstream historians.
  4. Women and Gender History (Squares 26 - 31)
    Anna Julia Cooper (1858 – 1964)
    was born to her enslaved mother and her white slaveholder father in Raleigh, North Carolina. She pursued education from an early age, as well as fought for women’s rights and gender equality. As a scholar at Oberlin College, she protested sexist treatment of women by taking courses and gaining degrees in subjects typically designated for men. She became an influential educator in Washington D.C. who saw her students attend some of the most prestigious colleges in the country. In 1925, Cooper completed her graduate studies at Sorbonne, University of Paris. She became the fourth African American woman to earn a PhD in History. In 1892, she wrote, A Voice from the South by a Black Woman of the South, focusing on the history and experiences of African American women in the South, and the need for their education to uplift the African American community as a whole.
  5. The First World War (Squares 32 - 37)
    Carter Godwin Woodson (1875 - 1950)
    was born in New Canton, Virginia. He is known as the “Father of Black History” because of his numerous contributions to the field.  Woodson was the son of poor, but land-owning former slaves. As he worked to support his family’s farm he did not enter high school until age twenty. Woodson earned his first degree from Berea College in Kentucky. He then worked, studied, and taught internationally before receiving his Bachelors and his Masters from the University of Chicago, and later his PhD from Harvard University. In 1915, he founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History (now the Association for the Study of African-American Life and History), and in 1916 published the Journal of Negro History (now the Journal of African American History). In 1926, he established Negro History Week, which would later become Black History Month. In 1922, Woodson wrote The Negro in Our History, which covered African American history from African origins to the First World War. Woodson believed that history should not be a mere study of facts but the analyzation and interpretation of historical evidence for a deeper meaning.
  6. African American History: Slavery and Freedom (Squares 38 - 46)
    John Hope Franklin (1915 – 2009)
    was born in Rentiesville, Oklahoma. In June 1921, the Franklin family endured and survived the deadly Tulsa Race Riots. Franklin earned his Bachelors from Fisk University, and would complete his Masters and PhD at Harvard. In 1949, he became the first African American historian to present at the Southern Historical Association. He was also the only African American to serve as the president of the American Historical Association and the Organization of American Historians. Franklin wrote widely on the African American experience, with his most notable work being the 1947 publication of From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans. Today, the work is in its tenth edition and is a staple of American history courses.



William Cooper Nell

NMAAHC Education

William Cooper Nell

William Cooper Nell

The Battle at Bunker's Hill

Smithsonian American Art Museum

General Lafayette

Smithsonian American Art Museum

George Washington Williams

NMAAHC Education

George Washington Williams

George Washington Williams

Author's Preface (pg. ix - xiv)

George Washington Williams

Chapter 8: The Outlook (pg. 170 - 180)

George Washington Williams

Broadside for "Men of Color" Recruitment

National Museum of African American History and Culture

The Riots at New York

National Portrait Gallery

Tintype of a Civil War soldier

National Museum of African American History and Culture

WEB DuBois

NMAAHC Education

Radical Members of the South Carolina Legislature

National Museum of African American History and Culture

To the Reader

W.E.B. Du Bois

The Fifteenth Amendment. Celebrated May 19th 1870

National Museum of African American History and Culture

Anna Julia Cooper

NMAAHC Education

Anna Julia Cooper

Library of Congress

Carter G. Woodson

NMAAHC Education

Photographic postcard of Lawrence McVey in uniform

National Museum of African American History and Culture

World War I enlisted soldier's tunic and cigarette holder

National Museum of African American History and Culture

John H. Franklin

NMAAHC Education

Life Vol. 65, No. 21

National Museum of African American History and Culture

Paul Cuffee

National Portrait Gallery

Bishop Richard Allen

National Portrait Gallery

Bible belonging to Nat Turner

National Museum of African American History and Culture

Silk lace and linen shawl given to Harriet Tubman by Queen Victoria

National Museum of African American History and Culture

Frederick Douglass

National Portrait Gallery

AA Historian Resources

NMAAHC Education

Light and Truth

Robert Benjamin Lewis

Joseph T. Wilson

Joseph T. Wilson

Benjamin Griffith Brawley

The Crisis, Vol 16 No 1, May 1918 (page 21)

Dr. Merze Tate

Merze Tate

Dorothy Porter

National Portrait Gallery

Pinback button promoting the arrival of the National African American Museum

National Museum of African American History and Culture

Black Studies: Threat or Challenge?

National Museum of African American History and Culture

Black Studies: Paradox with a Promise

National Museum of African American History and Culture

President Bush Signs Legislation Creating the NMAAHC

Smithsonian Archives - History Div

Illuminate NMAAHC: Commemorate and Celebrate Freedom Projection Mapping

National Museum of African American History and Culture

AA Historian Directory

NMAAHC Education